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McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Criminal Investigation Criminal Investigation Swanson Chamelin Territo eighth edition SEVENTEEN Agricultural, Wildlife and Environmental Crimes
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss the prevalence of timber theft Explain agrichemical theft Discuss cattle and horse rustling Outline several methods of horse and cattle identification Summarize measures to prevent rural and agricultural crimes Distinguish between situational and professional poachers Understand investigative techniques used in wildlife crimes List and describe the characteristics of hazardous waste Discuss methods of investigating environmental crimes 17-1
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. DIMENSIONS OF AGRICULTURAL, WILDLIFE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES Ranchers, farmers, and others living in rural places are often the victims of thefts Nationally, rustlers steal about 20,000 cattle worth $12.1 million Our national parklands are also victimized by plant poachers It must be observed that person who live in rural areas and on farms, groves, vineyards, and ranches not only are crime victims but are themselves occasional offenders 17-2
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. TIMBER THEFT The U.S. Forest Service concedes that it doesn't know how much timer is stolen from national forests The value may be as much as $100 million worth annually and the theft may amount to about 1 in every 10 trees cut down Investigations into the illegal cutting of timber involve a full range of investigative techniques 17-3
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. BONE RUSTLERS Unauthorized fossil hunters, who loot public and private lands Unauthorized fossil hunters, who loot public and private land 17-4
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. AGRICHEMICAL Any of various chemical products used on farms; includes pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides 17-5
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THEFT OF AGRICHEMICALS The theft of agrichemicals is a multimillion- dollar-per-year problem nationally The exact type of agrichemical taken varies by geographic region, depending on what the predominant crop is Distributors in particular have been vulnerable to the hijacking of trucks carrying agrichemicals, with resulting losses of $200,000 or more per incident The investigator must become familiar with the legal supply channels and the principal agrichemicals that are used in his or her region Some farmers will engage in the theft of agrichemicals or will readily purchase such commodities at “bargain prices” 17-6
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIVESTOCK AND TACK THEFT Cattle Rustling –The majority of thefts are committed by one or two people who take the animal for their own use Horse Rustling –More than 50,000 horses are stolen each year as compared to about 20,000 cattle –About 60 percent of the stolen horses end up in slaughter plants, where they are processed and sold as meat for human consumption in Europe and Japan Tack Theft –Tack is equipment that is used with horses; the most common items are saddles, bridles, and horse blankets 17-7
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIVESTOCK IDENTIFICATION In any livestock theft case one key to a successful prosecution is the positive identification of a specific animal as belonging to a particular owner Hot ‑ Iron Branding –Hot-iron branding is a method of identification that has been used in this country for nearly 400 years Ear Tags and Injectable Identification –Bar-code ear tags for cattle were an advancement for herd management 17-8(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIVESTOCK IDENTIFICATION (cont'd) Freeze Branding –Special freeze-branding irons are chilled using dry ice or liquid nitrogen and then applied to the hide Earmarks –Earmarks are often used in conjunction with branding DNA Profiles –DNA profiles of expensive horses and bulls are common as a theft deterrent 17-8(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CATTLE IDENTIFICATION FORM Uniformed police officers often take the initial report of a livestock theft These officers often have little knowledge of livestock Forms such as the one shown are helpful to the officer in documenting livestock identifiers 17-9 (Source: Courtesy Los Angeles County, California, Sheriff’s Department)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. HORSE IDENTIFICATION FORM This form serves the same purpose as the cattle identification form Uniformed officers must receive training in the use of this form in order to use it effectively Information captured on the form can greatly assist the identification process which is critical in a prosecution of livestock theft 17-10 (Source: Courtesy Kern County, California, Sheriff’s Department)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. BRANDS On livestock, registered combinations of numbers, letters, marks and shapes that establish unique identifications 17-11
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. METHODS OF READING BRANDS Brands are registered with different agencies in various states –Some are registered with state agencies –Others are registered with local courthouses 17-12
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. EXAMPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION MEASURES TO PROTECT AGAINST RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CRIMES Farm equipment theft –Participate in equipment identification programs –Do not learn equipment in remote fields Timber theft –Post the property –Check to see if any timber has been cut 17-12(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. EXAMPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION MEASURES TO PROTECT AGAINST RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CRIMES (cont'd) Agrichemical theft –Rural dealers should employ security personnel during months with large inventories –Be suspicious of persons offering unusually good buys on agrichemicals Livestock or tack theft –All livestock should be marked for identification –Avoid leaving animals in remote pastures 17-13(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. POACHING The illegal taking or possessing of game, fish, and other wildlife 17-14
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ELK KILLED FOR THRILLS Situational poachers are motivated by opportunity and circumstance Situational poachers killed the elk pictured as no attempt was made to retrieve the antlers or any meat Professional poachers take more game than situational poachers and make more profit 17-15 (Courtesy Wyoming Game and Fish Department)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN WILDLIFE CRIMES Information is an essential commodity in combating poachers Uniformed wildlife officers patrol in boats and cars Wildlife officers also employ intensive hunting patrols 17-16(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN WILDLIFE CRIMES (cont'd) Vehicle check stops are strategically set up Fishing patrols check to see that no protected or endangered fish are being taken In a common wildlife violation, nonresidents of a state claim residency, to pay less for licenses Sometimes investigators must pose undercover to collect information 17-16(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME: THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK There are roughly 18 major federal environmental laws that form the basis for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) programs From this maze of laws three patterns of enforcement emerge –Acts over which only the federal government has jurisdiction –Acts for which there is concurrent federal and state jurisdiction –Acts for which there is unique state and/or local jurisdiction 17-17
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. HAZARDOUS WASTES Solid, liquid, sludge, and manufacturing by- product wastes that are ignitable, corrosive, reactive, and/or toxic; may pose serious threat to human health and the environment if improperly managed 17-18
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTES The illegal dumping of hazardous wastes is a civil and criminal violation Police personnel should have a general awareness of the characteristics of hazardous waste materials When hazardous materials are encountered police should summon firefighters or hazardous materials disposal personnel 17-19 (Source: Courtesy Environmental Protection Agency)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. TSD CRIMES Any illegal acts involving the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes 17-20
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. METHODS OF INVESTIGATING ILLEGAL DUMPING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES Patrolling officers should be alert for signs that indicate the possibility or presence of illegal dumping of hazardous waste –Officers should approach suspected hazardous-waste spills and toxic-waste sites with the wind at their backs and from the highest ground reasonably available Leads on illegal hazardous-waste sites may be offered by disgruntled or former employees occasionally by a current employee 17-21(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. METHODS OF INVESTIGATING ILLEGAL DUMPING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES (cont'd) Surveillance is an excellent tool for gathering information, as it can establish illegal practices and the person involved with them For most environmental crimes, it is necessary to form a team to conduct the investigation 17-21(b)
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