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Virus Hunting at the Human- Wildlife Interface in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda A Capstone Presentation By: Shannon G. McCook August 8, 2011 MPH Candidate.

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Presentation on theme: "Virus Hunting at the Human- Wildlife Interface in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda A Capstone Presentation By: Shannon G. McCook August 8, 2011 MPH Candidate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virus Hunting at the Human- Wildlife Interface in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda A Capstone Presentation By: Shannon G. McCook August 8, 2011 MPH Candidate JHBSPH 1

2 Outline Definitions Emergence of Viral Diseases The Human-Wildlife interface PREDICT Rwanda – Key players – Methods – Results – Future directions 2

3 Definitions Zoonotic disease Any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals (domestic or wild) to humans 61% of 1,415 known human pathogens Emerging disease Infectious disease whose incidence has increased over the past 20 years & threatens to increase in the future At least 12% of human pathogens 3

4 Zoonoses and The Human-Wildlife Interface 4

5 5

6 PREDICT – Global Hot Spots 6

7 7 PREDICT – Africa

8 PREDICT - Rwanda 8

9 Key Players Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project Veterinary care for ~750 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda & DRC 1986 at the request of Dian Fossey PREDICT work in Rwanda & Uganda MPH Capstone project October – December

10 Surveillance Methods My role: Rodent sampling in the field 2 sites in NW Rwanda: Kinigi Sector & Buhanga EcoPark Live trapping Anesthesia – Blood collection – Fecal collection Rodents released or humanely euthanized 10

11 Results >200 rodents trapped (>10 species) including 1 Gambian Pouched Rat Priority pathogens for identification: – Rodents: Hantaviruses, Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus, and Rio Bravo virus (a Flavivirus) – Bats: Lyssaviruses, Henipaviruses, Astroviruses, Coronaviruses, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus. 11

12 Results - Healthmap.org 12

13 Arenaviruses Co-evolved with Rodents N. America, S. America, Africa, SE Asia Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) – Fever, headache, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Cases in Autumn 13

14 Ebolaviruses Bat reservoir Many animals are seropositive in the Congo Basin High case-fatality rate (>50%) Outbreak in Uganda in May

15 Future Directions 5-year USAID grant ( ) Rodents, Bats & Non-Human Primates Goals – Timely identification of and response to zoonotic pathogens – Build in-country capacity for surveillance & laboratory-based pathogen identification – Identify in-country veterinary experts for rodents, bats & NHPs 15

16 Conclusions Viruses of zoonotic origin are over-represented among the emerging pathogens of man. PREDICT is filling the gap in disease surveillance system for detection of emerging pandemic threats. Emerging Infectious Disease surveillance requires a One Health Approach. 16

17 Acknowledgements David L. Boren National Security Education Program Fellowship MGVP for hosting me as a student volunteer for my MPH practicum – Dr. Julius Nziza - PREDICT Rwanda Coordinator and Dr. Olivier & Enoch - PREDICT team members – Drs. Jan Ramer and Mike Cranfield Dr. Kenrad Nelson for his advice during my Capstone paper preparation. 17

18 Thank you! 18 Any Questions?

19 References 19 Content Ammann K. Emerging Pandemic Threats: Program Overview. United States Agency for International Development. June Pages 1-2. Brand CJ. Surveillance Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Migratory Birds in the United States: Surveillance Year U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS. Accessed 6/29/2011. Available at: Childs JE. Pre-spillover Prevention of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: What are the Targets and What are the Tools? Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Childs JE, JA Richt, and JS Mackenzie. Introduction: Conceptualizing and Partitioning the Emergence Process of Zoonotic Viruses from Wildlife to Humans. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315:1-31. Daniels PW, K Halpin, A Hyatt and D Middleton. Infection and Disease in Reservoir and Spillover Hosts: Determinants of Pathogen Emergence. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Daszak P, JH Epstein, AM Kilpatrick, AA Aguirre, WB Karesh and AA Cunningham. Collaborative Research Approaches to the Role of Wildlife in Zoonotic Disease Emergence. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Cleaveland S, DT Haydon, and L Taylor. Overviews of Pathogen Emergence: Which Pathogens Emerge, When and Why? Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Gonzalez JP, S Emonet, X Lamballerie, and R Charrel. Arenaviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Gonzalez JP, X Pourrut and E Leroy. Ebolaviruses and Other Filoviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Holmes EC and AJ Drummond. The Evolutionary Genetics of Viral Emergence. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Homeland Security Newswire. Tool developed to monitor pandemic threats. Published 2/11/2011. Accessed 6/28/2011. Available at: Lloyd-Smith JO, D George, KM Pepin, et al. Epidemic Dynamics at the Human-Animal Interface. Science. 2009;326: Real LA and R Biek. Infectious Disease Modeling and the Dynamics of Transmission. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Merianos A. Surveillance and Response to Disease Emergence. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Wang, L-F, and BT Eaton. Bats, Civets and the Emergence of SARS. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Webby RJ, RG Webster, and JA Richt. Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: World Health Organization. Global Early Warning System for Major Animal Diseases, including Zoonoses (GLEWS). Copyright Accessed 6/28/2011. Available at: World Health Organization. What are the International Health Regulations? Published 4/10/2008. Accessed 6/28/2011. Available at: Pictures Slide 3: Slide 4 & 5: Cleaveland S, DT Haydon, and L Taylor. Overviews of Pathogen Emergence: Which Pathogens Emerge, When and Why? Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315: Slide 6: Slide 7: Slide 8: Slide 9: Slide 12: Slide 13: Slide 14: Gonzalez JP, X Pourrut and E Leroy. Ebolaviruses and Other Filoviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2007;315:


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