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Critical Thinking Skills First, need to differentiate between beliefs and knowledge Process: 1)Gather complete information 2)Question the methods, conclusions,

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Presentation on theme: "Critical Thinking Skills First, need to differentiate between beliefs and knowledge Process: 1)Gather complete information 2)Question the methods, conclusions,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Critical Thinking Skills First, need to differentiate between beliefs and knowledge Process: 1)Gather complete information 2)Question the methods, conclusions, sources of study 3)Tolerate some level of uncertainty 4)Look at the Big Picture

2 Fail to Reject Reject Scientific Method

3 "A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise....To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution to intelligent tinkering." (Aldo Leopold, champion of conservation & father of wildlife biology)

4 “In short, a land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his [her] fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.” Aldo Leopold

5 Making way for “modern” wildlife species History of Wildlife Management

6 Humans colonize N.A. – Quaternary Period, Pleistocene Epoch – ice ages 13,000 ybp - evidence for 50,000 ybp

7 History of Wildlife Management Large mammal extinctions (exploitation?) = 66% of megafauna extinct

8 History of Wildlife Management American Indians wildlife fire

9 History of Wildlife Management 500 ybp, Europeans arrive…. Spanish bring horses, livestock

10 History of Wildlife Management 500 ybp, Europeans arrive…. Other Europeans exploit fisheries, fur, meat, feathers…. (1870-1915)

11 History of Wildlife Management Fur trade & near extinction of beaver (Castor canadensis)

12 History of Wildlife Management Market hunting Near extinction of bison : 60M to ~150

13 History of Wildlife Management Market hunting Bison Successful extinction of passenger pigeon - immense abundance (400 km long, 1800)

14 History of Wildlife Management Passenger pigeon -immense abundance (400 km long, 1800) -1878 – 3 months, 1.5 M pigeons from MI to market

15 History of Wildlife Management Passenger pigeon -last sighting 1899 -14-yr old boy shot last wild pigeon in Ohio (1900) -last captive pigeon died: Male (1912) Female (1914)

16 History of Wildlife Management Habitat loss & Exploitation

17 History of Wildlife Management Habitat loss & Exploitation Or is it gone?

18 History of Wildlife Management Or is it gone? os/index_html ds

19 History of Wildlife Management U.S. policy Manifest Destiny Land Rush Agricultural Development

20 History of Wildlife Management Fear of losing species at such fast rates (especially game species)…..birth of modern wildlife conservation movement…

21 Modern Wildlife Management Aldo Leopold –wrote Sand County Almanac –wrote Game Management –1 st university wildlife program (UW-Madison) –Land Ethic

22 April 22, 1970

23 Recent Epoch (~0.01 Mybp - present) –historic time –green & industrial revolutions –rapid loss of biodiversity *Largest extinction event?

24 Our Insatiable Appetite for Energy

25 Guild Concept guild = group of species that exploit the same class of resources in similar way community guild = no taxonomic restrictions; guild members chosen based on investigator-defined resources assemblage guild = guild members based on taxonomic relations

26 Habitat An area supporting a particular type of vegetation (habitat type) An area with the combination of resources and environmental conditions that allows a species (or population) to occupy, survive and reproduce –habitat quality as relative term

27 Habitat Quality Good habitat means there are higher densities of a species compared to Poor habitat…….Right!? Not necessarily….Van Horne (1983) pointed out that animal density may not be the most accurate measure of habitat quality. Quality relates more to vital rates (survival and reproduction), vitality of offspring, temporal nature



30 Habitat Habitat from an evolutionary perspective Species distribution relative to habitat dist’n Climatic events Pleistocene Epoch & dist’n of modern species Evolutionary underpinnings Adaptation & Evolution for habitat


32 Behavior is Important!

33 Concept of Habitat Selection Wildlife perceiving correct configuration of habitat needed for survival – differences based on age/experience/chance? – hierarchy to decision process Niche concept (time/place/functional role) & habitat selection

34 Hutchison’s n-dimensional hypervolume

35 Concept of Habitat Selection Hutchison = n-dimensional hypervolume as explanation of the niche Fundamental vs. Realized Niche Species 1 Species 2

36 Testing the Hutchinsonian Niche Concept of Habitat Selection James – work with birds in Arkansas…quantified habitat relationships How do birds select habitat? niche gestalt : each species has characteristic perceptual world…responds to that world as organized whole … search image concept How do we (as wildlife biologists) “see” through the eyes of wildlife species?

37 Scale Dependence of Habitat Selection 1 st Order 2 nd Order 3 rd Order 4 th Order Macrohabitat vs. Microhabitat

38 Habitat Selection Proximate Factors vs. Ultimate Factors *Immediate *Evolutionary context context *Predation *Fitness relations *Competition *Abiotic factors

39 Human Resource UseHuman Values & Attitudes (Socio-political)

40 *Heterogeneity supports greater diversity right!? *Naturally patchy distribution of resources

41 habitat interspersion – Leopold’s Law of Interspersion

42 Managing for Biodiversity Paradigm of Wildlife Biology & Conservation Biology

43 Human-induced “heterogeneity”


45 Land-use Trends: Private vs. Public

46 Human Land Use Practices 1)Agriculture 2)Suburban Development Let’s pick on Indiana: 97% of land in state = privately- owned In central Indiana, 70+% of land in row crop <10% in forest Urban sprawl intensifying

47 Intensive Agriculture & Clean Farming

48 Timber Extraction & Fragmentation

49 Formation of Terrestrial “Islands”

50 Oceanic Island = Terrestrial Island ?????

51 Important Wildlife Legislation 1900 Lacey Act – no interstate commerce 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act 1934 Fish & Wildlife Coordination Act – federal assistance 1934 Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act – duck stamp revenue for habitat purchase 1937 Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act – Pittman-Robertson Act (P-R funds) 1956 Fish & Wildlife Act – set up US Fish & Wildlife Service

52 Important Wildlife Legislation 1964 Wilderness Act 1969 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1973 Endangered Species Act – federal action for recovery & mgt 1974 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna & Flora (CITES) – import/export regulation 1976 Federal Land Policy & Mgt Act – BLM & land use plans 1976 National Forest Mgt Act (NFMA) – USFS & forest mgt plans

53 Important Wildlife Legislation 1980 Fish & Wildlife Conservation Act – P-R funds to nongame research & mgt 1980 National Forest Mgt Act (NFMA) – USFS & forest mgt plans 1985 Food Security Act – Farm Bill Provisions - Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) CREP (enhancement) - Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) - Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP) 2001 Conservation & Reinvestment Act (CARA)

54 Importance of Management Finite natural resources (land, water, wildlife, fuel, etc…) Future generations inherit our world

55 Managing for Biodiversity

56 Biodiversity Genetic diversity and: evolution reproduction adaptation disease

57 Biodiversity Species Diversity and: Evolution Community stability Predator-prey relations (keystone predators) Umbrella species

58 Biodiversity Ecosystem Diversity and: Evolution Flow of Energy & Nutrients Disturbance & change

59 Types of Management 1) Manage Populations Protect species Remove individuals by exploitation Re-establish species Add to population from captive source Control predators and/or diseases Artificial feeding

60 Types of Management 2) Manage People Law enforcement Public relations Control access and/or use Education

61 Types of Management 3) Manage Habitat Maintain habitat Improve habitat

62 “Land” to Manage 2.3 billion acres in U.S. 741 million acres in public ownership - 336 MA = BLM - 189 MA = USFS - 86 MA = USFWS - 68 MA = NPS - 13 MA = U.S. Army

63 “Land” to Manage in Michigan 36.4 million acres in Michigan 6.9+ million acres in public ownership - 2.8 MA = USFS - 93,000 A = USFWS - 140,000 A = NPS - 3.8 MA = State Forests

64 Ways to Manage 1) Featured Species Mgt –single species –particular purpose –e.g., white-tailed deer –could also include “umbrella species” and “flagship species”

65 Ways to Manage 2) Species Richness Mgt –maintain diversity and certain # of each species (follow MVP concept) 3) Indicator Species Mgt –use a species (or group of species) to monitor environmental conditions –not necessarily managing for these spp. –bioindicators, biosentinels, “canary in coal mine”

66 Ways to Manage 4) Guild Mgt or Life-Form Mgt –grouping of species based on use of same type of resources (e.g., foraging guilds)

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