2 The Four Basic Wildlife Needs Food Seeds, nuts, fruit, nectar, insects Water Natural sources, birdbaths, backyard ponds Cover Protection against predators and wind/weather, nesting, resting and sleeping Space Territory size, seasonally dependent, competition for food, requirements vary by species
3 Wildlife You Can Attract Birds Butterflies and Moths Bees and other insects Small mammals (squirrels, chipmunks, bats, rabbits, etc.) Amphibians and Reptiles Larger mammals (deer, fox)
5 Go Native! Best adapted to local climate Food and habitat “match” wildlife needs More water-efficient More resistant to disease and insects Native is not necessarily non-invasive Native landscaping costs less over time Buy plants only from reputable sources – don’t take plants from their natural setting
6 Use a variety of groups and species within groups Large and small trees Deciduous and evergreen plants Shrubs Flowers and ferns Vines Grasses For butterflies – both nectar and caterpillar host plants
7 Plants for Birds from General Plant Guide to Attracting Birds in the Northeast http://www.helpfulgardener.com/de sign/2003/bird.html
18 Feeding the Birds Birds are NOT dependent on you for food, and will not delay migrating if feeders are up. Put out a variety of foods (black oil sunflower, thistle seed, fruit, suet) and feeder types (not all birds can use perches). Place feeders near cover. Hawks have to eat, too. Hummingbird feeders should be cleaned weekly.
19 Squirrel-proofing Your Feeders Only 100% method is to keep the squirrels from reaching the seed Some squirrels are tough enough to eat safflower and “hot pepper” flavored seed Use baffles to prevent squirrels from climbing up poles or down chains Squirrels can jump up from the ground 5- 6 feet, or 10-12 feet from surrounding trees, so place feeders away from launching spots (but try to provide some nearby cover for the birds). “Spring loaded” feeders or wire cages will keep squirrels out, but also may prevent larger birds from using the feeder Grackles can also be a problem; spring loaded feeders and wire cages work well for them.
20 Attracting Butterflies Provide food for both caterpillars and adults Provide water Provide places for butterflies to rest and bask in the sun Colorful plants - yellow and pink in bold groups Scented plants
21 Eastern Black Swallowtail Host Carrot and citrus families. Nectar Milkweeds Joe Pye Weed Marigolds/Zinnia
22 Tiger Swallowtail (Virginia State Insect) Host Tulip Tree Birch Trees Nectar Milkweeds Purple Coneflower Joe Pye Weed Marigolds/Zinnia
29 Native Plants for Bees Aster Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia Goldenrod Solidago Joe-pye weed Eupatorium New York Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis Penstemon Purple coneflower Echinacea Rhododendron Sage Salvia Stonecrop Sedum Sunflower Helianthus Willow Salix
30 Other Garden Plants for Bees Basil Ocimum Cotoneaster English lavender Lavandula Giant hyssop Agastache Globe thistle Echinops Hyssop Hyssopus Marjoram Origanum Rosemary Rosmarinus Tall Verbena Verbena bonairiensis Zinnia
31 Deer-proofing Your Garden Only 100% effective method is a physical barrier, such as a fence Use deer-resistant plants Repel deer with smell and taste Frighten deer with motion-activated lights or sprinklers (not that effective) Get a dog and a shotgun
32 Deer-resistant plants Nothing is 100% deer-proof. If they’re hungry enough, they’ll eat it. Plants with thorns or sharp leaves (hollies, mahonia, yucca) Plants that taste or smell bad, or are poisonous (hellebores, daffodils, herbs) Plants with fuzzy leaves (lamb’s ear) Ornamental grasses and ferns
33 Sources for more information The New York / Mid-Atlantic Gardener’s Book of Lists National Wildlife Foundation http://www.nwf.org/http://www.nwf.org/ National Audobon Society http://www.audubon.org/ http://www.audubon.org/ Virginia Native Plant Society http://www.vnps.org/ http://www.vnps.org/ Fairfax Master Gardeners http://fairfaxmastergardeners.org/ http://fairfaxmastergardeners.org/ Garden Web – Wildlife Gardening http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/wildlife/ http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/wildlife/
38 Nectar Plants for Butterflies (Perennials) Verbenas V. bonariensis - clusters of small purple flowers on tall, rigid stems. Garden Phlox (Paniculata) Tall, bloom in midsummer. Pink seems to attract butterflies especially well. Sedum (Spectabile) "Brilliant," a pink sedum, is extremely popular with butterflies. Also "Autumn Joy," which blooms later. Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa) Bright orange blooms. Interesting seedpods. Member of milkweed family. Besides being a nectar plant, is used by Monarchs as host plant if common milkweed is not available. Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Blooms throughout summer. Do not deadhead too soon as butterflies and bees continue to visit after petals have faded. Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium) Some can be 6' tall, others not so high. Huge pink blooms made up of many small flowers. Goldenrods Nectar plants in fall, especially for Monarchs migrating south.
39 Host Plants for Caterpillars False Nettle Boehmeria cylindrica. Goldfinches love the seeds Milkweeds Asclepias. Known as invasive but can be controlled - fragrant Clovers Trifolium pratense, repens. Use red and white clovers. Thistles Cirsium. Goldfinches use down for nests Parsley Petroselinum crispum. An attractive plant for a border or pot Dill Anethum graveolens. An attractive plant for a border or pot Bronze Fennel Foeniculum vulgare. Perennial; not bulb-forming. Spricebush Lauraceae Lindera benzoin. Small deciduous tree up to 16 feet with dark red berries in fall Paw-paw asima tribola. Small deciduous tree growing to about 30 feet Tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera. Grows to 110+ feet with shown flowers.
40 Top Plants for Hummingbirds RED TROPICAL SAGE, TEXAS SAGE, SCARLET SAGE (SALVIA COCCINEA) annual RED BEE BALM, OSWEGO TEA (MONARDA DIDYMA) perennial SCARLET SAGE, RED HOT SALLY (SALVIA SPLENDENS) annual ANISE SAGE (SALVIA GUARANITICA) annual STANDING CYPRESS, SPANISH LARKSPUR (IPOMOPSIS RUBRA) biennial/perennial RED CARDINAL FLOWER (LOBELIA CARDINALIS) perennial SUNSET HYSSOP, LICORICE MINT (AGASTACHE RUPESTRIS, AGASTACHE CANNA) perennial INDIAN SHOT (CANNA INDICA) annual (lift bulbs after first frost & replant in spring) HONEYSUCKLE FUCHSIA, “GARTENMEISTER BONSTEDT” FUCHSIA (FUCHSIA TRIPHYLLA) annual CORAL HONEYSUCKLE, TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE (LONICERA SEMPERVIRENS) perennial vine TRUMPET CREEPER (CAMPSIS RADICANS) perennial vine