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2 nd EXPERT GROUP MEETING OF SAWEN Country Presentation – India 29 January, 2011 Paro, Bhutan.

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Presentation on theme: "2 nd EXPERT GROUP MEETING OF SAWEN Country Presentation – India 29 January, 2011 Paro, Bhutan."— Presentation transcript:

1 2 nd EXPERT GROUP MEETING OF SAWEN Country Presentation – India 29 January, 2011 Paro, Bhutan

2 Protected Areas PA: 4.8% of country’s geographical area PA: 4.8% of country’s geographical area NP: 99 NP: 99 WLS: 515 WLS: 515 Con. Res.: 43 Con. Res.: 43 Comm. Res.: 4 Comm. Res.: 4 TOTAL : 661 TOTAL : 661 TR : 39 TR : 39 ER : 26 ER : 26

3 Protected Area Coverage  2.4% of the total area of the world  8% species of the world  Around 5% of the country’s area has been brought under the Protected Area (PA) network  Consist of 99 National Parks and 515 Wildlife Sanctuaries  Conservation Reserve 43, Community Reserve 4  Total PAs = 661  TR = 39  ER = 26  Based on the conventional isolationist approach

4 Central India Western Ghats Shivalik Terai Eastern Ghats North -East Tiger Occupied Landscape Complexes Sunderbans Tiger Occupancy in about 95,000 km 2, Potential Habitat of about 300,000 km 2. Tiger number range between 1165 to 1657

5 Protection/Enforcement framework in India Federal governance: Centre and State have specific roles Federal governance: Centre and State have specific roles Habitat-land, water etc State subject, wildlife government property Habitat-land, water etc State subject, wildlife government property

6 Protection/Enforcement framework in India: contd. Day to day management of PA s and execution of Acts – by State Governments Day to day management of PA s and execution of Acts – by State Governments Wildlife(Protection) Act, 1972-umbrella legal frame work for uniform level of protection/ enforcement across the country Wildlife(Protection) Act, 1972-umbrella legal frame work for uniform level of protection/ enforcement across the country

7 Contd. A multi-disciplinary WCCB constituted on A multi-disciplinary WCCB constituted on Intelligence-organized crime-disseminate- creation and maintenance of centralized wildlife crime databank Intelligence-organized crime-disseminate- creation and maintenance of centralized wildlife crime databank co-ordination with various enforcement agencies co-ordination with various enforcement agencies infrastructure & capacity building infrastructure & capacity building scientific and professional investigation scientific and professional investigation

8 National and Regional Issues Mega-Biodiversity Mega-Biodiversity Large number of species under threat from poaching & illegal trade i.e. Tiger and other big cats, Rhinoceros, Star Tortoises, Pangolin Large number of species under threat from poaching & illegal trade i.e. Tiger and other big cats, Rhinoceros, Star Tortoises, Pangolin

9 National and Regional Issues: contd. Outside market driven poaching Outside market driven poaching Plants like Red Sanders, Cycas, Saussurea, Orchids are under great threat Plants like Red Sanders, Cycas, Saussurea, Orchids are under great threat Shells and Corals Shells and Corals

10 Tiger Mortality-data YearNaturalPoachingTotal (14 outside TR) 50

11 Contd. Despite pressure on natural resources including wildlife, we have: Despite pressure on natural resources including wildlife, we have: World’s more than 50% wild tiger population World’s more than 50% wild tiger population Only country having Asiatic Lion Only country having Asiatic Lion Largest population of one horned Rhino and Asiatic elephants Largest population of one horned Rhino and Asiatic elephants

12 Indian Star Tortoise (Geochelone elegans)

13 Pangolin

14 Trade in Wildlife Hunting of all wildlife prohibited Hunting of all wildlife prohibited All trade in scheduled animals/animal articles prohibited All trade in scheduled animals/animal articles prohibited Endangered plants protected, Collection from wild prohibited, cultivation, possession etc regulated Endangered plants protected, Collection from wild prohibited, cultivation, possession etc regulated

15 Key Agencies Involved in the Enforcement Central Agencies Central Agencies State Level Agencies State Level Agencies NGOs: WWF, TRAFFIC, WPSI, WTI etc. NGOs: WWF, TRAFFIC, WPSI, WTI etc.

16 Trade in Wildlife Foreign Trade Policy governing trade in flora & fauna Foreign Trade Policy governing trade in flora & fauna Provisions of CITES incorporated into FTP and violations are dealt under Customs Act, Provisions of CITES incorporated into FTP and violations are dealt under Customs Act, Exim trade in wildlife prohibited except Special purposes (Research, Zoos etc) under license Exim trade in wildlife prohibited except Special purposes (Research, Zoos etc) under license

17 Successes Creation of WCCB; A multi- disciplinary agency Creation of WCCB; A multi- disciplinary agency Launching of “tigernet” ; a web enabled reporting system for tiger & other wildlife mortality (in association with TRAFFIC India) Launching of “tigernet” ; a web enabled reporting system for tiger & other wildlife mortality (in association with TRAFFIC India) Creation of STPF in 13 Tiger Reserves Creation of STPF in 13 Tiger Reserves Launching of “M-STrIPES” in selected Tiger Resereves Launching of “M-STrIPES” in selected Tiger Resereves

18 Successes: contd. Guidelines for preparation of reserve specific Security Plan issued Guidelines for preparation of reserve specific Security Plan issued Busting of inter-state organized gangs Busting of inter-state organized gangs Capacity building of field agencies (Exit points/ State Forest, Police, Judiciary) on Wildlife Laws, investigation & forensic Capacity building of field agencies (Exit points/ State Forest, Police, Judiciary) on Wildlife Laws, investigation & forensic Collation, analysis and dissemination of the patterns based on available crime - criminal history Collation, analysis and dissemination of the patterns based on available crime - criminal history

19 “e-Eye” to Combat Poaching Using “e-Eye”: Information Technology based surveillance on 24x7 basis, as a pilot project, in one of tiger reserve. Thermo sensitive, infrared intelligent cameras, wi-fi internet and satellite technology This data has the real-time feed from all the remote locations. Each of the locations can be controlled from the central server station and also by the authorized user. Can survey and zoom in on any living object (>20 kg) within a radius of 10 km in real time. Software based identification of images and appropriate alarm systems.

20 System Design Remote IR Eye Wi-Fi Core Area Remote IR Eye Long Range Remote Eye Remote Sub-Station Central Control Room Internet Cloud Web-Browser Controls Remote Eyes Delhi Kolkata Bilaspur Data Analysis and Pattern Identification

21 Recent Milestone Achievement Arrest of Narayan by CWLW Rajasthan & Sariska team Arrest of Narayan by CWLW Rajasthan & Sariska team Brother of Sansar Chand Brother of Sansar Chand Wanted in several states Wanted in several states At Guwahati airport seizure of tiger/leopard bones. At Guwahati airport seizure of tiger/leopard bones. At Dhaka airport seizure of Green Munias, Jungle Maina & Star Tortoise. At Dhaka airport seizure of Green Munias, Jungle Maina & Star Tortoise.

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23 Intelligence gathering Poaching of tigers is still the biggest threat Poaching of tigers is still the biggest threat Delay in reaction time results failure Delay in reaction time results failure Intelligence gathering is the backbone of anti-poaching activities. Intelligence gathering is the backbone of anti-poaching activities.

24 Challenges Coordination among various enforcement agencies and trans- border issues Coordination among various enforcement agencies and trans- border issues Low conviction rates Low conviction rates Gaps in the skills regarding documentation-evidence, Forensics, case preparation and supervision, multi-disciplinary approach Gaps in the skills regarding documentation-evidence, Forensics, case preparation and supervision, multi-disciplinary approach

25 Challenges Lack of awareness Lack of awareness Poverty and dependency on natural resources Poverty and dependency on natural resources Porous borders Porous borders Protection of trans-boundary corridors Protection of trans-boundary corridors

26 Vision for SAWEN An organization capable of An organization capable of coordination coordination intelligence gathering & sharing intelligence gathering & sharing assisting enforcement assisting enforcement wildlife crime prevention wildlife crime prevention facilitate protection of wildlife without borders facilitate protection of wildlife without borders meet new challenges for the Member Countries meet new challenges for the Member Countries

27 Vision: contd. Facilitate protection of migration routes & threat mitigation Facilitate protection of migration routes & threat mitigation Analysis & Removal of differentials Analysis & Removal of differentials Facilitate preparation of Species specific regional management action plans Facilitate preparation of Species specific regional management action plans

28 Vision: contd. India welcomes the initiative and looks forward to work with other South Asian countries and relevant NGO partners already working in the region to curb illegal wildlife trade that threatens our shared natural heritage. India welcomes the initiative and looks forward to work with other South Asian countries and relevant NGO partners already working in the region to curb illegal wildlife trade that threatens our shared natural heritage. India looks forward to share its experiences & success stories. India looks forward to share its experiences & success stories.

29 Vision: contd. Wildlife enforcement is primarily a sovereign subject, therefore, we acknowledge primacy of national laws and policies and each country must respect the same for others. Wildlife enforcement is primarily a sovereign subject, therefore, we acknowledge primacy of national laws and policies and each country must respect the same for others.

30 Vision: contd. Main focus - species like tigers, rhinos, leopards, elephants, Main focus - species like tigers, rhinos, leopards, elephants, Other lesser known species in illegal trade such as medicinal plants, marine species etc. are also important. Other lesser known species in illegal trade such as medicinal plants, marine species etc. are also important.

31 Vision: contd. A joint training workshop with member countries A joint training workshop with member countries India endorses the proposed structure & work programme of SAWEN, as agreed in the 1 st EGM India endorses the proposed structure & work programme of SAWEN, as agreed in the 1 st EGM Agree to the TOR of SG(SAWEN) Agree to the TOR of SG(SAWEN) Agree to membership fee, if any, for joining/supporting. Agree to membership fee, if any, for joining/supporting.

32 Vision: contd. The Secretariat could help to prepare an active list of relevant experts and agencies “working in the region” The Secretariat could help to prepare an active list of relevant experts and agencies “working in the region” May use WWF, TRAFFIC, Wildlife Watch Group and Wildlife Conservation, Nepal WTI, WPSI, NTNC etc. organizations with a long term presence and commitment to the region May use WWF, TRAFFIC, Wildlife Watch Group and Wildlife Conservation, Nepal WTI, WPSI, NTNC etc. organizations with a long term presence and commitment to the region

33 Initiatives at International level India has bilateral protocol with Nepal & China on tiger conservation. Bilateral protocol under consideration with Bhutan, Bangladesh & Myanmar. India is signatory to CITES and supports ban on tiger farming & use/trade of its body parts

34 Suggested role for the GTI Tiger : a sensitive and sovereign issue Tiger Conservation Plans/strategies are best evolved in tiger range countries to address specific issues GTI may make available a platform for experience sharing, facilitating control of trafficking in tiger body parts on a regional scale No scope for GTI to involve in national projects More clarity required on the role of GTI vis-à-vis the national tiger agenda of range countries Inter-ministerial forum like GTF provides scope for partnership/collaboration with the GTI THANK YOU


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