3.1 Measuring Biodiversity (Page 89-94) Key Concepts: (Page 94) Biodiversity is the number and variety of organisms found within a specific region. Scientists have identified about 2 million species on Earth.
Scientists measure biodiversity using several methods. There are places on Earth where there is an exceptionally large numbers of species in a relatively small area. Most biodiversity hotspots are in tropical areas. Biodome II - Watch This!
3.1 Measuring Biodiversity : 1. What is biodiversity? Biodiversity is the number and variety of organisms found within a specific region.
2. How many species are there on Earth? There are approximately 5 to 100 million species on Earth. 3. How can an ecosystem sustain biodiversity? An ecosystem can sustain biodiversity only if individual species and their habitats are protected or preserved.
How Do Scientists Measure Diversity: 4. List the different ways on how scientists measure diversity. Canopy fogging, quadrat sampling, transect sampling, netting
5. Summarize Table 3.1: Canopy Fogging- Effective when counting the biodiversity of insects. Insecticide is sprayed into the top of a tree & when insects fall they are collected on a screen Quadrat Sampling- A quadrat is a known square area that is marked using a pre-made square. Different species and their numbers within the quadrat are counted.
Transect sampling- Transect sampling is done using a transect line (rope or tape) that has been marked. The line is unrolled within the habitat and the number of species along the line are recorded. Netting- Fine mesh nets are used to capture birds, bats & fish. Once captured, organisms are identified; blood samples maybe taken for genetic analysis & organisms are eventually released.
Canada’s Biodiversity: 6. List any species that are native to Canada. Red mulberry tree, Peary caribou
Hotspots of Biodiversity: 7. What is a biodiversity hotspot? A biodiversity hotspot is a place where there is exceptionally large number of species that live in a relatively small area.
8. What are the two biodiversity hotspot in Canada? Carolinian Canada and the Leitrim Wetland
9. How many species of plants and birds live in these areas? Carolinian Canada plants, 40% of Canada’s breeding bird species Leitrim Wetland species of plants and 90 species of birds
10. How does protecting an ecosystem, such as a wetland, help to preserve biodiversity? Protecting an ecosystem helps preserve biodiversity as it prevents houses and industries from being built. This helps to maintain an ecosystem where a variety of species can exist.
Biodiversity In The Tropics 11. Where are the biodiversity hotspots in the tropics? South America (Colombia), Africa (Malawi) & Asia
12. Lake Malawi (in East Africa) is home to about 1000 species of fish, many of which can be found only at the lake. 13. Lake Erie, about the same area as Lake Malawi, is home to about 150 species of fish.
14. Explain why developed countries, such as Canada, have initiatives to help protect ecosystems in other areas of the world. Canada has initiatives to protect ecosystems in developing nations because protecting all ecosystems is important for Earth’s biodiversity.
A sampling of fungi collected during summer 2008 in Northern Saskatchewan’s mixed woods, near LaRonge, is an example of the species diversity of fungi. In this photo, there are also leaf lichens and mosses.
The diverse forest canopy on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, yielded this display of different fruit.