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3 COURSE CONTENT Renewable natural resources, availability, distribution and potential. The important forest trees and wildlife (with emphasis on Nigerian species). Classification, Morphology, distribution and ecology of important forest trees, forest and game reserves in Nigeria. Silviculture; afforestation characteristics of major timber and their uses. Felling and log transportation. Importance of forest in the national economy. Organisation of forest resources, non- timber resources. Forest protection and conservation, regulation of harvest and sustained yield.

4 COURSE REQUIREMENT This is a compulsory course for all students in College of Animal Science and Livestock Management, College of Plant Science and Crop Production, College of Agricultural Management and Rural Development and College of Environmental Resources Management. In view of this, students are expected to participate in all the course activities and have minimum of 75% attendance to be able to write the final examination.

5 FOREST AND WILDLIFE AS RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES What is a resource?- A resource is any form of energy and /or matter necessary to satisfy the physiological needs of humanity or to sustain all various activities leading to production. Resources may be classified into two broad groups: Products and Amenities

6 Products- include tangible, consumable or directly utilizable materials such as minerals, timber, wild game, water and soil. Amenities- involve the transformation of natural features into consumable forms such as when a waterfall or solar radiation is used to generate electricity or when a sand beach is turned into a recreation centre.

7 What are Natural Resources? Natural resources can broadly be defined as those things in the natural environment that can be used by man. Natural resources which lend themselves to exploitation by man are mainly beneficial. Generally, natural resources indicate the potential wealth of a country. This potential wealth, when properly harnessed by the people of a country, can become a key factor in economic reconstructions and national development. Effective utilization of natural resources is of great aid in industrial development.

8 Characteristics of Natural Resources They are Natural endowment- i.e. they are not man-made. They are gifts of God for free use by man. As naturally occurring objects, they could be viewed as land – not the soil only, but the sum total of both the edaphic, climatic factors and the vegetation. Natural resources can be viewed as the combination of the productive values of the land which include matters both on and below the surface of the land and which have values for man. Location specific – Most natural resources are in-situ. They are where they exist and not mobile. To explore them, man must go to where resources are located. e.g. oil and mineral explorations. This is a very important characteristic in view of transportation cost. Most of the timbers in Ikeji-Ipetu Forest Reserve in Osun State are not exploited due to accessibility problems. The terrain is undulating, hence a sophisticated method of extraction will be needed in such situation.

9 Characteristics of Natural Resources Uneven Distribution- Natural resources are natural endowment and their distribution is uneven both within and between countries.. Some countries have monopoly of some.e. g. Bauxite in Jamaica (80% of the production) while the rest is in South Africa. However, this is not true of forests. Most countries are capable of growing forest – it is not as uneven as other resources. Versatility – This means that natural resources can be stored for long period of time without deterioration. This is particularly true of resources derived from geological processes.e.g. Coal, oil (petroleum). Versatility of timber will not only leave the timber resources intact, but could lead to increase in timber value – as the timber increases in both height and diameter (volume). The bigger the timber the more the value. However, if timber is left unharvested after an advanced age of maturity, deterioration may set in due to pathological hazards – heart rot, etc. Finiteness – This refers to the quantity available at a given time. The quantity of natural resources available is absolutely fixed. This is what the engineers and technologists refer to as “Proven-supply”. i.e. the quantity of the resource known to exist.e.g. resources obtained through geological processes. Their development requires a time scale and quantity cannot be increased on the short run.

10 Characteristics of Natural Resources Destructability – Most natural resources are destroyed in the process of use. Resource destruction could ensue / arise from the process of consumption – coal and firewood for cooking, fuel for vehicles etc. Most of the problems of desertification and aridization were said to have resulted from the activities of man on the natural vegetation – shifting cultivation, burning of forest for games and grazing and browsing of the natural vegetation leading to desertification of the original vegetation. Common Property – Ownership of natural resources is not clearly defined since they are gifts of nature, no man can claim ownership – marble Industry in Oyo State and the attendant rows – deep sea fishery, forestry are also common properties. Hence, people go into the bush to fetch firewoods, pick snails etc. Most forest reserves belong to the State and communities, hence cases of illegal fellers. Importance of time factor – For most renewable resources, there is always a waiting period for the production to be increased. For timber, there is a minimum period for maturity. The growth rate of most biological organisms are beyond man’s influence. Natural Resources as part of the Environment – They form integral part of the environment. i.e. the living and non-living surrounding. The users quite often are not aware of the effects of their actions in forests on the adjoining forest areas.e.g. clearing of the premier plantation for the building of the cultural Centre in Ibadan and the 1980 flood in the city.

11 FOREST AND FORESTRY DEFINED “F-O-R-E-S-T”. This six-letter word means different things to different people. To some it is an impediment to development and must be destroyed. Some believe it to be the abode of the dead, evil spirits and anything diabolic. Others take its presence as an index of primitivity, underdevelopment and backwardness. Still others link forests with poisonous snakes, lethal scorpions and deadly spiders. To others, the mere mention of forest or the sight it conjures resentment and hate while also invoking fear, awe and mystery. Only very few ordinary persons-in-the street know of the positive aspects, the indispensability and the intrinsic linkages of the forest to human existence world-wide. From the above classification of natural resources, it could be seen that forest is grouped under exhaustible, but renewable natural resources. This means that forest resources are biologically renewable, they can grow and regrow after harvesting on the same site. Therefore, forest is a renewable natural resource which provides timber and other products for home and industry; food and cover for wild and domestic animals, protection of soil and water values and facilities for recreation.

12 FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT The earth’s total land area is about million square km, or about 29% of the surface of the globe. Forest makes up one of the major landscape features of the world. These natural forests form one of the great natural resources of the world which through the ages have contributed much to man’s comfort and enjoyment as well as to his economic progress. Before large-scale human disturbances of the world began many thousands of years ago, forests and woodlands covered nearly 6 billion hectares. Since then, about 16% of that area has been converted to cropland, pasture, settlements or unproductive wastelands.

13 FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT As earlier mentioned, forest belongs to renewable natural resources. All the same, it should be noted that renewability is a socio-economic concept. What is renewable may be non-renewable if there is no proper management. Hence, there is the need to manage the forest scientifically; because it is a scarce resource. To work effectively, forest resources management must be biologically as well as economically sound. Management of forest resources refers to the application of business methods and technical forestry principles and techniques to the management of forest properties. This is concerned with efficient planning so that a forest is made to provide the greatest benefits that are possible to obtain. Like the management of any enterprise it clearly includes the organization and conducts of all operations that are needed to fulfill the purposes for which it was established. Management must ensure that the forest is maintained so that overcutting and undercutting do not occur. Management also ensures that correct records of operations are kept.

14 MAJOR FOREST PRODUCTS Timber is used for house building, furniture manufacturing, bridge construction, manufacturing of simple tools, general construction, boat building. e.g. wood of Ceiba pentandra. Poles – used as electric and telegraphic poles. The long vertical branches of Terminalia velutina can be used as construction poles. Plywood – Plywood is preferred for general furniture because of its durability. Pulpwood – Wood is converted to cellulose for paper making or writing materials. Fuel and firewood – An estimated 3 billion people in the developing countries depend mainly on wood for fuel. Firewood accounts for 95% of the of the total wood consumed in Nigeria. Firewood is converted to charcoal for easy transportation and general convenience. Firewood and charcoal account for more than 90% of wood consumption in Africa (Kio, 1882). Indeed, half the world’s population depends on wood to cook food and to keep warm when the weather is cold.

15 NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP) FRUITS – Fruits of high nutritive values are obtainable from the forest trees.e.g. Chrysophyllum albidum, Terminalia catappa, Irvingia gabonensis, Psidium guajava, Artocarpus attilis, Spondias mombin, Moringa oleifera(seeds of this species is very good for water purification), Mangifera indica,Treculia Africana, Anacardium occidentale,Parkia biglobosa – (produces local maggi), Adansonia digitata, Cola nitida. FIBRES – Fibres are converted to ropes, handbags, sponge and twines. They are also used for making nets and fishing lines, mats, baskets and hats. GUM ARABIC – This could be obtained from Acacia nilotica and it is used for tanning, dying etc. It is an important base for the manufacture of office gum, foods and beverages, many confectioneries and pharmaceuticals.

16 NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP) RESINS AND OILS – Resins are extracted from pines and are useful in turpentine manufacturing. Oils are also extracted from some species of Eucalypts e.g. Eucalyptus citriodora. DRUGS – many forest tree species have medicinal values.e. g. Neem (Azadirachta indica), known as “Dogonyaro” has been variously referred to as “ The wonder tree”, “A tree for solving global problems”. It is used for curing malaria fever, high fever and jaundice. Indians have found it useful in the manufacture of medicated soaps, cosmetics and spermicides (substances that kill sperms for birth control). Fagara species (Orin ata) – for treating sickle cell anaemia and veneral diseases. Acacia spp could be used as anti-snake bite. Adansonia digitata – used as palliative (pain killer), Rauvolfia vomitoria (asofeyeje) – used as anti-convulsant, Lophira alata – for treating jaundice. Parkia bicolor – pulverished bark used in dressing wounds. Prunus Africana- used for treating prostrate cancer. Irvingia gabonensis – The fresh bark of this species is considered to be powerful antibiotic for scabby skin, a cure for diarrhea when mixed with palm oil, and a toothache remedy. Alstoonia boonei- suppresses fever. Annona senegalensis – root used as remedy for chest colds, fruits for curing diarrhea, dysentery and vomiting. GRASSES – are used for grazing. Domesticated animals may be grazed in forests provided that the numbers are kept to a level which does not inhibit regeneration and that areas planted with young trees are fenced. Some grasses could be pulped for paper production. UNEP has confirmed that one of Nigeria’s commonest grasses, the spear grass (Imperata cylindrica) is a viable non-wood fibre source for pulp and paper production.

17 NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP) LATEX – This is rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. HONEY – This is a valuable non-wood forest product (NWFP) which yields a lot of foreign exchange for many countries of the world. e.g. The value of exports of honey produced from bees in the forests of Tanzania is several times greater than the value of the wood in these forests (SPORE 59, October 1995). Israelis make over $10 million annually from honey alone (Guardian March 28, 1999). PALM WINE AND PALM OIL- These are valuable forest products too.

18 NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP) WILDLIFE- Forest provides home for animals. Bush meat is a valuable source of protein. Wildlife is a valuable renewable resource in the Nigerian economy and accounts for 20% of the total meat protein consumed in Nigeria (Ajayi, 1979). In some West African areas today, the local people still depend on forest game for up to 75% of their animal protein. Some of the animals are medicinal as are trees. YAM STICKS, CHEWING STICKS LEAVES AND BAMBOOS –These are all important NWFPs. Chewing sticks.e.g.Pako Ijebu (Massularia acuminata), and Neem (Azadirachta indica) prevent tooth decay. They contain anti-decay substances known as anticariogenics. Leaves such as wrapping leaves. Leaves of Indigofera indica can be processed into dye and used to colour fabrics. In many parts of Africa. e.g. Mali leaves of baobab (Adansonia digitata) are used in daily sauce that accompanies cereal or tuber porridge. The leaves are pounded in a mortar with other condiments and stewed in a pot. Bamboo forest is not only a habitat for many wild animals, the bamboo provides the materials for building houses, for weaving baskets, and that bamboo when used outside the forest can serve as fences and boundaries.

19 FOREST PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES In forest production activities; an area could either be afforested or reforested (regeneration). AFFORESTATION – This is the establishment of new forest on lands that historically have not contained forests. All afforestation of grassland falls into this categories and planting to stabilize sand dunes all fall in this categories. REFORESTATION – This is the establishment of a new forest / plantation on land which had carried forest within the last 50 years, but where the previous forest is replaced by an essentially different one. A common example is where rainforest is logged, cleared and then replanted within a single tree species (monoculture). FOREST REGENERATION – Forest regeneration is the process by which a forest is renewed. The method considered suitable in various part of the tropic for ensuring the regeneration of mainly desirable species can be grouped into three, viz:

20 FOREST PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES Natural regeneration – This is obtained from seedlings originating either from natural seeding or from sprouts and other vegetative means. Artificial regeneration – This is obtained by total replacement of the old stand by planting young trees or by direct sowing. Enrichment planting – This is accomplished by planting trees in partially open forest where the seedlings present are of unsatisfactory species or if desirable species are either insufficient in number or ill- distributed over the regeneration area.

21 What is a forest plantation? A forest plantation is a forest crop or stand raised artificially either by sowing of seeds or planting of young trees (seedlings). Forest plantations are usually referred to as man- made forests or artificial forests. These forests are mainly established with exotic species. i.e. introduced species; and they are felled at the end of their laid down rotation.

22 Exotic species Exotic species – These are tree species that are growing in an area in which they do not naturally occur. i. e. they are trees or plants that are not native (not indigenous) to the area in which they are growing. Examples of exotic trees in Nigeria are Tectona grandis L. f. (Teak), Gmelina arborea Roxb. Eucalyptus spp, Pinus spp (Pines) such as Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa.

23 ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN ARTIFICIAL FOREST PRODUCTION The main activities involved in artificial forest production are: Seed procurement Raising of young trees (seedlings) in the nursery Planting site preparation. This includes site clearing and ground or land preparation. Site clearing- is the removal of the existing vegetation in the site – This could be done manually, or by the use of chemicals or mechanical method. Fire could also be used. Ground / land preparation – is land tilling, ploughing etc.

24 ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN ARTIFICIAL FOREST PRODUCTION Collection of pegs Lining out or pegging Preparation of planting holes Planting of seedlings Tending of the planted trees Harvesting at the end of the laid down rotation.

25 WILDLIFE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Definition of Terms Conservation is the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations, while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of future generations. Conservation as rendered involves preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment. Wildlife or Wild animal species refers to all living things, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates outside the direct control of man (that is, all non-cultivated plants and non-domesticated animals). It embraces all animals in their natural habitat. They are undomesticated animals which may be small organisms only visible to humans if seen through a microscope or as big as the elephant or whale. Wildlife includes but it is not limited to insects, spiders and birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians, and mammals if not domesticated (NCF, 1994). Biodiversity or Biological diversity refers to the total variability of living organisms on the planet (UNEP, 1995). It is defined in terms of genes, species and ecosystem which are the outcome of over 3,000 million years of evolution. As biological concept, biodiversity is an essential or a necessary tool for human survival.

26 Definition of Terms (CONTD) Wildlife management has been defined as the combination and application of business methods and ecological knowledge to manipulate undomesticated fauna and flora (wild animal and plant) resources in a way that ensures their products and services will be sustained. The application of ecological principles and knowledge to the management of wildlife entails certain basic approaches viz: Preservation of wild species and allowing nature to follow a balance, devoid of any human intervention. Direct or indirect manipulations of wild fauna population such as through cropping, culling, habitat alteration and other habitat management tool so as not to exceed carrying capacity. Maintenance of useful and desirable species. Sustained-yield management through limiting consumptive utilization to annual production capacity.

27 Definition of Terms (CONTD) Consumptive utilization is the extraction of resources for the production of consumer goods and services. Apart from providing food other types of consumptive uses of wildlife include products such as skins and hides, materials for hand crafts, or ceremonial uses, oils and medicines, live animal trades, sport, hunting, stock resources for domestication or improvement of domesticated breeds, farming activities and mineral resources exploitation. All activities directed towards production of goods and services which often lead to the degradation of the environment. Non-consumptive utilization is defined as the provision of natural amenities and services for recreational use such as game viewing, nature trail, swimming, boating and other water related recreational activities in lake and waterfall. It includes spiritual and religious values, values due to the willingness of local and international user-public (tourist) to pay to see living and non-living resources in the natural setting. Sustainable use is the rate of harvest within the capacity of species and their habitats to maintain themselves. Sustainable use can be non-consumptive or consumptive in nature. Commercial use is defined as the management of native wildlife for profit. The terms utilization and commercial use are interchangeable.

28 Status Categories of Species Extinct (Ex); species has not been seen in the wild or in captivity during the past 50 years. Extinct In the Wild (BW): As above, but the species is still held in zoological gardens on other live collection. Ecological Extinction is defined as the reduction of a species to such low abundance that though it is still present in the community, it no longer interacts significantly with other species.

29 Status Categories of Species Extirpation : species is not extinct, but no longer occurring in a wild state or no longer exhibiting patterns of use. Critically Endangered (CR): The species is very threatened and at risk of becoming extinct. Endangered (EN): Any native species in immense danger of extirpation or extinction. Species is unlikely to survive if the factor thus is posing threat persists. Vulnerable (VU): Likely to become endangered in the future if factor that is posing threat persists.

30 Status Categories of Species Near Threatened (NT): Species is approaching the threshold of vulnerability. Data Deficient (DD): Strongly suspected or thought to belong to one of the above categories but data is insufficient to substantiate. Rare (R): Species has small global population that is not threatened but is at risk.

31 Status Categories of Species Low Risk-Conservation Dependent (LR/CD): Species is in no immediate danger, but survival will depend on implementation of effective conservation measures in its range. Low Risk-Not threatened (LR/NT): Species is in no immediate danger, but needs to be consistently monitored. (Adapted from IUCN threatened species categories 1996)

32 CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA CATEGORY 1 STRICT NATURE RESERVES / WILDERNESS AREAS Protected areas managed mainly for science or wilderness protection. These two types of protected area are treated as sub-categories: Category 1a Strict Nature Reserves Areas of land and / or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and / or species, available primarily for scientific research and / or environmental monitoring.

33 CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) Category 1b Wilderness areas These are protected areas managed mainly for wilderness protection. They should include a large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and / or sea, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation and should be protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

34 CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) CATEGORY II NATIONAL PARKS Protected areas managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. These are natural areas of land and / or sea, designated to: a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations; b) exclude exploitation or occupation likely to degrade the area; and c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, education, recreational and visitor uses, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible.

35 CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) CATEGORY III NATURAL MONUMENTS Protected areas managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features. These are areas containing one, or more, specific natural or natural / cultural features which are of outstanding or unique value because of their inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities,or cultural significance. CATEGORY IV HABITAT / SPECIES MANAGEMENT AREAS Areas of land and / or sea where active management interventions are undertaken so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and / or to meet the requirements of specific species.

36 CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) CATEGORY V PROTECTED LANDSCAPES / SEASCAPES Protected areas managed mainly for landscape / seascape conservation and recreation. They consist of areas of land, sometimes with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced a landscape of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and / or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. CATEGORY VI MANAGED RESOURCE PROTECTED AREAS Protected areas managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. They are areas containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same time a sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs.

37 FUNCTIONS AND BENEFITS OF A PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM A system of protected areas is the core of any programme that seeks to maintain the diversity of ecosystems, species and wild genetic resources; and to protect the world’s great natural areas for their intrinsic, inspirational and recreational values. A protected area system provides safeguards for: Natural and modified ecosystems that are essential to maintain life-support services, conserve wild species and areas of particularly high species diversity, protect intrinsic and inspirational values, and support scientific research; Culturally important landscapes (including places that demonstrate harmonious relationships between people and nature), biotic movements and other heritage sites in built-up areas. Sustainable use of wild resources in modified ecosystem’s Traditional, sustainable uses of ecosystems in sacred palces or traditional sites of harvesting by ingenious peoples. Recreational and educational uses of natural, modified and cultivated ecosystems.

38 VALUES OF PROTECTED LANDSCAPES – Conserving nature and biological diversity – Buffering more strictly protected areas – Conserving human history in structures and land-use practices – Maintaining traditional ways of life. – Offering recreation and inspiration – Providing education and understanding – Demonstrating durable systems of use in human with nature

39 PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA The problems facing wildlife and wildlife management in Nigeria are as a result of inter related factors. These factors are social, cultural or ecological in nature. A few of these are as follows: -The greatest and probably the most serious problem of wildlife management in Nigeria is the high rate of illegal hunting in degenerated resources coupled with the misuse of fire in open range land by hunters and farmers.

40 PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA -As a result of land hunger in most of the moist rain forest areas and the rangelands. Illegal settlements inside game reserve, and the parks had robbed the nation of her wildlife resources -In both the rain forest and the savannah zones of Nigeria, the pressure due to logging operations, charcoal and fuel wood production had led to the destruction of our natural vegetation. -Nomadic herdsman had over the years constituted menace the herds graze within and outside the parks causing havoc.

41 PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA -Inadequacy of trained and skilled manpower to execute wildlife programmes at both Federal and state levels. -Inadequate funding of wildlife conservation projects coupled with poor co-coordination is another big constraints. The absence of a fully pledged and well- funded Federal Department of Wildlife to handle wildlife programme -Lack of effective legislation to regulate exploitation and sales of wildlife and wildlife products in Nigeria. -The level of poverty of the masses of the people which had over the years slumped into low income, had aggravated the rate of their dependence on forest and forest products including the wildlife resources

42 SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA The numerous constraints facing wildlife management in Nigeria call for a national strategy that address the various courses involved. It is very essential that some fundamental institutional reforms are established to sharpen the focus of effort in wildlife management and conservation in the developing countries. Some suggested solutions Include: -Education: perhaps the first step towards effective wildlife management and conservation is a carefully organized public education programme that is targeted on both decisions makers and the public.

43 SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA -Effective legislation: Legislation as a conservation tools is a means. But experience has shown that its by no means and end. It is therefore suggested that effective legislation that will involve state and Federal staff in cooperation with the local masses in and around reserves/parks should be carefully formulated. -Funding: It is suggested that adequate funding should be available to train personnels, purchase wildlife equipments, such as patrol vehicles, communication gadgets etc. monitoring of our conservation areas should be adequately and timely funded while parks should be elevated from their current rate of neglect to enviable tourist, delight like their counterparts in East Africa. -Research: there is still need for more research efforts towards the provision of necessary data for the formulation of up-to-date management plan for our parks, reserves and sanctuaries.

44 SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA -Currently, most of our zoos and museums are in a state of neglect, the development of the zoos should receive government attention. -In an attempt to carry everyday along in crusade of wildlife management, local participation by wilderness and non- governmental organization should be evolved and well funded

45 BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE -Bush meat which is the flesh of wild animals has being contributing immensely to the eradication of protein deficiency in West Africa and in Nigeria. -Environmental education: Zoological garden game reserves and national parts provide opportunity for people to learn about animals that live around them. -Wildlife is our national heritage, we meet it on earth and are abound to live it for the future generation (conservation of genetic resources)

46 BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE -Environmental protection: By conserving wildlife the environment is equally conserve, the plant soil and water around them are conserve, this helps to check environment problems like erosion or flood. -Promotion of tourism: Wildlife is the main source of attraction of tourists to East and South Africa country Like Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe and South Africa have large number of various species of game animals which attracts large number of tourist to these country. Nigeria has 7 national park and over 40games reserves. -Use of wildlife in traditional medicine, skins of some wildlife animals and snails are used to prepare Talisman, feaces, bones, hairs, teeth, blood and bones of some wild animals are use to cure different ailment.

47 BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE -Medicinal research: primate and other species of animals from African are use for medical research both locally and overseas -Wildlife byproduct: This include skins, tusks, feathers, horns, bone of wild animals are used to make shoes, bags, belts, hats etc which are highly priced -Revenue generation: Government derives revenue from wildlife through hunting and entrance fees to game reserves, national park and zoological gardens’. -Employment opportunity: Wildlife create jobs for people thus reducing the problem of unemployment in the country. Job include – Wildlife officer – Wildlife guards – Game guard

48 SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES African Elephant Loxodonta africana (savanna) Loxodonta cyclotis (forest) Gestation period 22 months Number of young/Birth: one Average life span 60 years, weight km African Buffalo Sycerus caffer (savannah) Sycerus nanus (forest) Gestation period 11 months 1 young per birth. Weight kg

49 SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibious Gestation period 230days One young/birth Average Weight 3,050kg Pigmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis Gestation period 200 days One young/birth Average/weight 272kg Black Rhinceros Diceros bicornis Gestation period 450 days One young/birth Average weight 1180kg

50 SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES Spotted Hyena Crocuta crocuta Gestation period 3½ month Number of young/birth 1 – 2 Average weight 45 – 55kg Stripped Hyena Hyena hyena Number of young/birth 2-4 Average weight 36 – 54kg Lion Panthera leo Gestation period 3 months Number of young/birth 2 – 6 young’s Average weight 136 – 204kg

51 SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES Leopard Panthera pardus Gestation period 3 months Number of young/birth 2 – 3 Average weight 68 – 77kg Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus Gestation period 95 days Number of young/birth 2 – 4 Average weight 45 – 64kg Bush pig

52 SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES Potamochoerus porcus Life span 12 – 15 years Gestation period 150days Litters 2 – 8 Wart hog Phacocherus aethiopicus Life span 15 years Gestation period 171 – 195 Litter size 2 – 4 Forest Hog Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Life span 15 years Gestation period 120 Litter size 2 – 6

53 SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES Gorilla Gorilla gorilla Life span 33 years Gestation 251 days Liters size 1 Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes Life span 40 years Gestation period 216days Litter size 1 Anubis Baboon Papio anubis Life span 20 years Gestation period 200days Litter size 1- 2 Green Monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops Life span years Gestation period 200 days Litter size 1- 2


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