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The Role of Zoos in Wildlife Conservation. That’s 1 out of every 10 people on the planet. An estimated 600 million people will visit a zoo within the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of Zoos in Wildlife Conservation. That’s 1 out of every 10 people on the planet. An estimated 600 million people will visit a zoo within the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of Zoos in Wildlife Conservation

2 That’s 1 out of every 10 people on the planet. An estimated 600 million people will visit a zoo within the next year.

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4 What’s the attraction? Entertainment Education Biophilia- “love of life or living systems” Reminders that we’re not the only ones who live on this planet.

5 To understand the role of Zoos, we have to understand about our history with animals.To understand the role of Zoos, we have to understand about our history with animals. For the majority of our time as humans, that relationship has been about two things:For the majority of our time as humans, that relationship has been about two things:

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8 Domestication Dogs (from wolves) ,000 years ago Sheep-11-13,000 years ago Goats-12,000 years ago Cows -10,000 years ago Chickens - 4,500 years ago Elephants - 4,500 years ago

9 First known zoo-type collections Eygpt, ~2,500 BC Some pharaohs maintained huge numbers of animals (Ramses II had giraffes, lions, ostrich)Eygpt, ~2,500 BC Some pharaohs maintained huge numbers of animals (Ramses II had giraffes, lions, ostrich)

10 Syria, 1,500 BC King Thutmose III kept monkeys, leopards, birds, giraffeSyria, 1,500 BC King Thutmose III kept monkeys, leopards, birds, giraffe Babylonia, 600 BC King Nebuchadnezzar collected lionsBabylonia, 600 BC King Nebuchadnezzar collected lions King Solomon collected animals from Africa and Asia (as well as women- 700 wives and 300 concubines)King Solomon collected animals from Africa and Asia (as well as women- 700 wives and 300 concubines) China- ~400 BC- “Garden of Intelligence” 1500 acre menagerieChina- ~400 BC- “Garden of Intelligence” 1500 acre menagerie

11 Aristotle 4 th century BC, extensive Greek menageries allow Aristotle to conduct the first systematic zoological survey-4 th century BC, extensive Greek menageries allow Aristotle to conduct the first systematic zoological survey- “The History of Animals” described 300 vertebrate species“The History of Animals” described 300 vertebrate species

12 …and then there was Rome RomeRome –With the expansion of the Holy Roman Empire, conquerors radiated out of the Mediterranean into Africa, the Middles East, Asia, Europe –Brought in animals by the thousands –Unfortunately, they were also good at record keeping –Single day’s slaughter might include >100 bears, >400 leopards, >500 lions (to put 500 lions in perspective, that would wipe out the entire population of lions living in Asia)

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18 Tower of London

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23 “Martha” September 1, 1914

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25 Role of the Modern Zoo Recreation Conservation Research Education 1970’s 1980’s 1990’s

26 Through the 1970’s, zoos probably had a negative effect on wildlife populations Many of the animals were still taken from the wild. Few efforts were in place to put animals back.

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28 Ex-Situ Contributions ResearchResearch –Captive breeding –Veterinary care Opportunity to work directly with animals that are otherwise inaccessibleOpportunity to work directly with animals that are otherwise inaccessible Contributes to research methods for animals in the wildContributes to research methods for animals in the wild –Husbandry & Caretaking DietDiet –Behavioral Research Behavioral enrichmentBehavioral enrichment

29 Species Survival Plan (SSP) Established in 1981 to provide guidance for captive breeding of endangered species to maintain genetically diverse and healthy populations of animals in zoos. Think of it as a fancy computer dating service for animals. Zoo’s “ Bread & Butter”

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31 Sumatran Rhino

32 Ex-Situ Conservation Captive breedingCaptive breeding –Artificial insemination –Embryo transfers –Frozen embryo transfers –Interspecies embryo transfers –Cloning Seed bankSeed bank “Emergency room methods”“Emergency room methods” –$$$

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34 Artificial Insemination (AI)

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36 Frozen Zoos CryoBioBank

37 Zoos as conservation centers 1970’s- increasing ecological awareness1970’s- increasing ecological awareness Zoos once again find that many of the animals they have in their collections are disappearing in (or have disappeared from) the wild.Zoos once again find that many of the animals they have in their collections are disappearing in (or have disappeared from) the wild. And a new conservation status category is created: “Extinct in the Wild”And a new conservation status category is created: “Extinct in the Wild”

38 IUCN Red Data List Extinct in the Wild

39 Guam Rail Micronesian Kingfisher

40 Pere David’s Deer

41 Bali Mynah

42 Mohr’s gazelle

43 Arabian oryx

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45 Waldrapp Ibis thought to have been extinct in the wildthought to have been extinct in the wild other population found based on conversations with Bedouin tradersother population found based on conversations with Bedouin traders

46 only exist in captivity

47 Captive breeding not limited to zoos Specialized breeding facilities that are closed to the publicSpecialized breeding facilities that are closed to the public Many specialized avian and felid breeding facilitiesMany specialized avian and felid breeding facilities

48 Clouded leopards

49 Mauritius kestrel

50 Lonesome George- last surviving Pinta Island Tortoise

51 Reintroduction efforts Long stated goal of zoo breeding programsLong stated goal of zoo breeding programs Not implemented quite as much - why?Not implemented quite as much - why?

52 California Condor

53 Peregrine Falcon

54 Black-footed Ferret

55 Red Wolf

56 Golden Lion Tamarin

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58 Vast improvements in exhibit design and animal care accompanied by increased reproductive success

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61 A Window on the Wild… Partnership between the Cincinnati Zoo (later other zoos) and the World Wildlife FundPartnership between the Cincinnati Zoo (later other zoos) and the World Wildlife Fund

62 in-situ (Lat.) “in the natural state, in the wild” Zoos supporting conservation efforts or partnerships in the wildZoos supporting conservation efforts or partnerships in the wild Usually focused on species found on zoo’s groundsUsually focused on species found on zoo’s grounds Provide vital support and, in turn, receive updates from the field, lectures, recognition as partner in helping with species’ conservationProvide vital support and, in turn, receive updates from the field, lectures, recognition as partner in helping with species’ conservation

63 In-Situ Conservation -Cincinnati Zoo Conservation Fund-

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65 Many zoos now supporting conservation in the wild Bronx Zoo- Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronx Zoo- Wildlife Conservation Society Disney’s Animal KingdomDisney’s Animal Kingdom Woodland Park Zoo (here in Seattle!)Woodland Park Zoo (here in Seattle!) London Zoological SocietyLondon Zoological Society Columbus ZooColumbus Zoo

66 AZA Association of Zoos and AquariumsAssociation of Zoos and Aquariums Accreditation organizationAccreditation organization Oversees and manages SSPOversees and manages SSP

67 ZACC Zoos & Aquariums Committing to Conservation Group that was formed to accelerate zoos’ focus on both ex-situ and in-situ conservation efforts Meetings mix of zoo folk looking to get involved in the field, and wildlife biologists seeking partnerships and funding Great win-win relationship

68 Zoo Careers Keeper/Animal Caretaker Aquarists Commissary/dietician Veterinarian/Vet Techs Horticulturalist/Gardener Behavioral enrichment specialist Reproductive technician Accounting Marketing/Publicity/Media Relations Food Service Gift Shops/Vendors Grant writers Business Operations Writers Seasonal Animal trainers Development Security Maintenance Plumbers Electricians Artists Exhibit designers Photographer/videographer Educators Distance Learning Technicians Special Events First Aid IT Litter Administration/Directors

69 Suggested Readings The Crowded Ark by Jon LuomaThe Crowded Ark by Jon Luoma Zoos in the 21 st Century: Catalysts for Conservation? (Cambridge University Press)Zoos in the 21 st Century: Catalysts for Conservation? (Cambridge University Press) Hope for the Animals and Their World by Jane Goodall and Thane MaynardHope for the Animals and Their World by Jane Goodall and Thane Maynard


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