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History of Wildlife Management Lemmons. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT…. What is it?

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Presentation on theme: "History of Wildlife Management Lemmons. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT…. What is it?"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Wildlife Management Lemmons

2 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT…. What is it?

3 Wildlife Management... In wildlife management there are various controls used to maintain the quality and quantity of animals. In wildlife management there are various controls used to maintain the quality and quantity of animals. The change or improvement needed determines the control used. The change or improvement needed determines the control used.

4 Wildlife Controls Game Management begins with the control of hunting. Others then follow.

5 Wildlife Controls The first step is restrictions on hunting The first step is restrictions on hunting Predator control Predator control Reservation of Game lands (parks,forests, and refuges) Reservation of Game lands (parks,forests, and refuges) Artificial Replenishment Artificial Replenishment Environmental controls (control of food water and disease) Environmental controls (control of food water and disease)

6 Terms Wildlife - Wild, undomesticated vertebrate or invertebrate species living in their natural habitat Wildlife - Wild, undomesticated vertebrate or invertebrate species living in their natural habitat Management - identifying, solving and preventing problems. Management - identifying, solving and preventing problems. Wildlife Management - the process of preserving, increasing, or decreasing wildlife populations. Wildlife Management - the process of preserving, increasing, or decreasing wildlife populations.

7 Terms Aesthetic Values - values that relate to natural beauty or artistic appreciation. Aesthetic Values - values that relate to natural beauty or artistic appreciation. Biotic Community - A group of plants and animals that live in the same environment. Biotic Community - A group of plants and animals that live in the same environment. Domestic - tame Domestic - tame Feral - a domestic animal that has reverted to wild. Example - cat, dog, hog Feral - a domestic animal that has reverted to wild. Example - cat, dog, hog

8 Terms Ecology - The relationship of living things within their environment. Ecology - The relationship of living things within their environment. Ecological Balance - The stable relationship of living things within their environment. Ecological Balance - The stable relationship of living things within their environment. Harvesting - to gather or hunt. Harvesting - to gather or hunt. Habitat - natural home of an animal or plant Habitat - natural home of an animal or plant Pelt - A hide, especially with fur. Pelt - A hide, especially with fur.

9 Preservation Practices Restocking Restocking Predator Control Predator Control Habitat Development Habitat Development Game Refuge Game Refuge Restrictive Laws Restrictive Laws Preservation = increase Harvest = decrease

10 Biotic Community FARM POND small plants small plants small animals small animals tadpoles/insects tadpoles/insects small fish small fish all forms of wildlife are dependent on the other- symbiosis all forms of wildlife are dependent on the other- symbiosis

11 ECONOMIC BENEFITS Landowners lease hunting lands. Landowners lease hunting lands. Fish Farms Fish Farms Trapping for Pelts Trapping for Pelts Meat production Meat production Residual monetary benefits for communities Residual monetary benefits for communities

12 Aesthetic Benefits U.S. has over 700 million acres of national forest, parks, wildlife refuges and public domain! U.S. has over 700 million acres of national forest, parks, wildlife refuges and public domain! 3 types of refuges 3 types of refuges Big Game, Small Game, Waterfowl Big Game, Small Game, Waterfowl

13 History What do you think started the move toward wildlife management? What do you think started the move toward wildlife management? Until about 1905 the main concern of the public was to preserve hunting, rather than improve the wildlife population. Until about 1905 the main concern of the public was to preserve hunting, rather than improve the wildlife population. People believed that restrictions on hunting would make the species last longer. People believed that restrictions on hunting would make the species last longer. People didn’t realize that management could aid in the production and maintenance of the animal supply. People didn’t realize that management could aid in the production and maintenance of the animal supply.

14 B.C. and Historic Game management dates back to the beginning of human history. Game management dates back to the beginning of human history. Tribes that restricted hunting were more likely to survive and prosper over those who had no restrictions. Tribes that restricted hunting were more likely to survive and prosper over those who had no restrictions.

15 Late 13th Century The first clear record on a system of game management concerning conservation was found in the Mongol Empire. The first clear record on a system of game management concerning conservation was found in the Mongol Empire. Marco Polo described the game laws of Kublai Khan. Marco Polo described the game laws of Kublai Khan. People were prohibited from killing hares, deer, large birds, and other animals between the months of March and October. To enable the animal populations to increase and multiply. People were prohibited from killing hares, deer, large birds, and other animals between the months of March and October. To enable the animal populations to increase and multiply.

16 Late 13th century contd.. In Europe, from management was established mostly to benefit the upper classes. In Europe, from management was established mostly to benefit the upper classes. In 1536, Henry VIII established protection of all waterfowl during May-August. Wildlife reserves also occurred during this year. In 1536, Henry VIII established protection of all waterfowl during May-August. Wildlife reserves also occurred during this year. During the 1600’s James I extended landowners protection of trespass to all hunting, for game protection. (poaching) During the 1600’s James I extended landowners protection of trespass to all hunting, for game protection. (poaching)

17 Aldo Leopold In the 1930’s he saw that wildlife was disappearing. He began asking questions about how to manage animals. Wrote “Game Management” which became the first step toward wildlife management. In the 1930’s he saw that wildlife was disappearing. He began asking questions about how to manage animals. Wrote “Game Management” which became the first step toward wildlife management.

18 Era’s of Wildlife Management (5) Historians group these eras according to their attitudes, conditions, and management strategies. Historians group these eras according to their attitudes, conditions, and management strategies. The Era Of Abundance ( ) The Era Of Abundance ( ) The Era Of Exploitation ( ) The Era Of Exploitation ( ) The Era Of Protection ( ) The Era Of Protection ( ) The Era Of Game Management ( ) The Era Of Game Management ( ) The Era of Environmental Management (1966- present) The Era of Environmental Management (1966- present)

19 Group Activity Each group will prepare a presentation for the class on their assigned Era. This presentation must hit key points, vocab, and have SOME KIND OF VISUAL (anything). Each group will prepare a presentation for the class on their assigned Era. This presentation must hit key points, vocab, and have SOME KIND OF VISUAL (anything).

20 Era Of Abundance ( ) Early American settlers had no reason to worry, for they had an enormous quantity of wildlife around them.Their only purpose for management was predator control. Early American settlers had no reason to worry, for they had an enormous quantity of wildlife around them.Their only purpose for management was predator control. The earliest record of wildlife mgt.. occurred in the Mass. Bay Colony in 1630, paying one penny for wolf killed, aiding in predator control. The earliest record of wildlife mgt.. occurred in the Mass. Bay Colony in 1630, paying one penny for wolf killed, aiding in predator control. Extinction is when a species no longer exists. Extinction is when a species no longer exists. In 1646 a hunting season was established on deer first bird season. In 1646 a hunting season was established on deer first bird season.

21 Era of Abundance In 1779 the Act of the Preservation of Deer passed in Vermont. This act protected bucks, does, and fawns January -June. In 1779 the Act of the Preservation of Deer passed in Vermont. This act protected bucks, does, and fawns January -June. In 1848 Rhode Island passes laws against hunting migratory game birds in spring. In 1848 Rhode Island passes laws against hunting migratory game birds in spring.

22 Era Of Exploitation ( ) Destruction of buffalo occurred during this era. Destruction of buffalo occurred during this era. In 1850, millions of buffalo roamed the land. By the close of the century the buffalo was nearly extinct. In 1850, millions of buffalo roamed the land. By the close of the century the buffalo was nearly extinct. At one time there were so many buffalo that Buffalo Bill Cody would shoot 200 head per day, in one month he shot At one time there were so many buffalo that Buffalo Bill Cody would shoot 200 head per day, in one month he shot Between million Buffalo were shot. Between million Buffalo were shot.

23 Era of Exploitation The purpose of conservation in this era was to control the harvest of game species. The purpose of conservation in this era was to control the harvest of game species. In 1852 the first state game laws and salaried game wardens in Maine. In 1852 the first state game laws and salaried game wardens in Maine. 12 years (1864) later New York implemented the first state hunting license requirements. 12 years (1864) later New York implemented the first state hunting license requirements Yellowstone became the nation’s first national park Yellowstone became the nation’s first national park. Iowa became the first to establish limits on game birds Iowa became the first to establish limits on game birds By 1880, all states had game laws. By 1880, all states had game laws.

24 Era Of Protection ( ) 1900, Lacy Act helped limit market hunting by making interstate transport of illegally killed game a federal offense, and regulating importation of exotic wildlife. 1900, Lacy Act helped limit market hunting by making interstate transport of illegally killed game a federal offense, and regulating importation of exotic wildlife. 1913, Weeks-McLean Act, developed federal control over migratory birds and ended spring waterfowl hunting. 1913, Weeks-McLean Act, developed federal control over migratory birds and ended spring waterfowl hunting. 1915, first funds for predator control. 1915, first funds for predator control. State game and fish departments developed. State game and fish departments developed.

25 Teddy Roosevelt Major contributor to wildlife management. Major contributor to wildlife management. Believed that wise use of resources would continue the existence of wildlife. Believed that wise use of resources would continue the existence of wildlife. Personal philosophy of conservation Personal philosophy of conservation Outdoor resources as important systems Outdoor resources as important systems Conservation as public responsibility Conservation as public responsibility Private resource ownership as a public trust Private resource ownership as a public trust science used for resource management science used for resource management Pelican Island (Vero Beach, FL) – 1 st Federal Bird Reservation Pelican Island (Vero Beach, FL) – 1 st Federal Bird Reservation 148 million acres of land set aside for national forest, national parks doubled. 148 million acres of land set aside for national forest, national parks doubled.

26 Era Of Game Management ( ) Increase in public funding and effective conservation administration. Increase in public funding and effective conservation administration. Duck Stamp Act, 1934, Proceeds secure wetlands for breeding, migration stopover,and wintering of waterfowl. Duck Stamp Act, 1934, Proceeds secure wetlands for breeding, migration stopover,and wintering of waterfowl.

27 Era Of Game Management Pittman-Robertson Act which taxed hunting equipment and ammo. Pittman-Robertson Act which taxed hunting equipment and ammo. Sept Sept excise tax that provides funds to each state to manage such animals and their habitats. Notable species that have come back from the brink since the implementation of this act include white-tailed deer, wild turkey, and wood ducks.

28 Era Of Environmental Management (1966-present) 1966, Endangered Species Act (several amendments) 1966, Endangered Species Act (several amendments) 1969, National Environmental Policy Act 1969, National Environmental Policy Act 1970, Environmental Protection Agency 1970, Environmental Protection Agency 1980, Nongame Wildlife Act 1980, Nongame Wildlife Act 1999, Endangered Species List includes: 133 mammals, 124 birds, 25 fish. 1999, Endangered Species List includes: 133 mammals, 124 birds, 25 fish.

29 Wildlife Management Today Conservation Associations Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Quail Unlimited Quail Unlimited National Rifle Association National Rifle Association Texas Waterfowl Associations Texas Waterfowl Associations

30 Where do you think wildlife management is going?


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