TWO LOCAL STORIES Calling The Shots- on poaching an elephant Illustrates some local political/social processes Culling 50 Hippos- feeding the “community” Illustrates some technical/mgmt. issues
On Poaching an Elephant (1) Background: Elements of story : Elephant shot, dies close to village, butchered by nearby residents
On Poaching An Elephant(2) Chief and Wildlife Police Officers (WPO) not in place Residents respond according to tradition (collect meat for chief) and current rules (notify WPO) Returning WPO accuse most visible (‘acting chief’ and Wildlife Sub-Authority leader) of killing elephant, torture, take to prison At trial, case dismissed for lack of evidence
On Poaching An Elephant(3) Local WPO (“reformed poacher”) indicted, serves prison term, re-employed as WPO Two years later, similar incident
Significance: Outsiders rarely aware of political/social process within “communities” Multiple actors and interests over time/not “communities” Actors influence decisions-made Lack of trust in motivations of others
A culling of Hippos Background: Elements of story: Sell hippo meat, exchange for grains Negotiated with Catholic Mission for transport both ways Appointed local committee with safe guards 12 hippos butchered; 3 trips to plateau to sell meat and return with grains Potential revenue generating exercise, ended with costing community money Outcome: profiteering and patronage
Significance: No rigorous methodology for setting quota Chief plays important role in Sub- Authority Nature of real constraints in linking wildlife conservation with local development Who controls, who are main beneficiaries?
Local Wildlife Trends 1989-2002 Counts began in 1960s Based upon local knowledge and routines No straight lines (different assumptions) 1-3 local hunters 10-12 timed transects/month Range 5-10 hours each 6 months during dry season
Some Conclusions Re-examine CBWM narrative Refocus on the ground and actors Reject universalistic claims either for or against CBWM Understanding social differences, diverse institutions, and environmental processes allows for more strategic specificity in interventions
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