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Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: 1. neither in substance 2. nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord References about Inciting Discord Nahjul Balaaghah contains 14 references about Inciting Discord, some of which appear here The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. 1. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah 3. The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 2, Page 46 Ali: about Inciting Discord This is part of a Khutba delivered on Ali’s return from Siffin. Ali describes Arabia before the proclamation of Prophethood, Inciting discord was the part appearing as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Ibn Qutaybah, `Uyun, I, 326; 2. al-Tabari, al-Mustarshid, p. 73; 3. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, III, 112; 4. al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 331, 354; 5. Ibn Talhah, Matalib, I.

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon2, Ali: about Inducing Discord At that time people were in Discord with the rope of religion broken, the pillars of belief shaken, principles profaned, the order muddled, the exit narrow, the source dark, the guidance listless and ignorance predominant. And Allah was disobeyed, Satan given support and Belief betrayed. Therefore the pillars of religion were ruined, its knowledge overlooked, its ways trampled upon, and its paths in decay. People obeyed Satan and treaded his paths, sought its water from his wellspring. With them Satan's flag flew forward, his standard raised high. In malicious discord it trampled them, and with its feet it treaded them. Vices stood high in it therefore they had strayed, were perplexed, ignorant, and seduced, …. وَالنَّاسُ في فِتَن انْجَذَمَ فِيها حَبْلُ الدِّينِ، وَتَزَعْزَعَتْ سَوَارِي اليَقِينِ، وَاخْتَلَفَ النَّجْرُ، وَتَشَتَّتَ الاَْمْرُ، وَضَاقَ الْـمَخْرَجُ، وَعَمِيَ المَصْدَرُ، فَالهُدَى خَامِلٌ، واَلعَمَى شَامِلٌ. عُصِيَ الرَّحْمنُ، وَنُصِرَ الشَّيْطَانُ، وَخُذِلَ الاِْيمَانُ، فَانْهَارَتْ دَعَائِمُهُ، وَتَنكَّرَتْ مَعَالِمُهُ، وَدَرَسَتْ سُبُلُهُ، وَعَفَتْ شُرُكُهُ أَطَاعُوا الشَّيْطَانَ فَسَلَكُوا مَسَالِكَهُ، وَوَرَدُوا مَنَاهِلَهُ، بِهِمْ سَارَتْ أَعْلامُهُ، وَقَامَ لِوَاؤُهُ، في فِتَن دَاسَتْهُمْ بِأَخْفَافِهَا، وَوَطِئَتْهُمْ بأَظْلاَفِهَا، وَقَامَتْ عَلَى سَنَابِكِهَا، فَهُمْ فِيهَا تَائِهُونَ حَائِرونَ جَاهِلُونَ مَفْتُونُونَ،....

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 5, 52 Page Ali: about (After the Prophet’s death, Abbas ibn Abd al- Muttalib and Abu Sufyan offered to pay allegiance to Ali for the Khilaafah.) Ali sensing the ill intention of Abu Sufyan and the problems that may result, gave this Khutba part of which appears as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, bab 6, 137; 2. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 127; 3. al-Bayhaqi, al-Mahasin, II, 139, see `Arshi

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 5, Ali: about Discord O’ people! Avoid the malice of discord by the vessels of deliverance, And turn away from the path of dissension and dispense with the crowns of pride. Prosperous is the one who rises with wings of power, or else remains peaceful so others enjoy ease. The aspiration for Khilaafah is like turbid water or a morsel that suffocates the one who swallows it. One who plucks fruits before ripening is like one who cultivates in another's field. أَيُّها النَّاسُ، شُقُّوا أَمْوَاجَ الفِتَنِ بِسُفُنِ النَّجَاةِ، وَعَرِّجُوا عَنْ طَريقِ الـمُنَافَرَةِ، وَضَعُوا تِيجَانَ الـمُفَاخَرَةِ. أَفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجَنَاح، أوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأَراحَ، مَاءٌ آجِنٌ، وَلُقْمَةٌ يَغَصُّ بِهَا آكِلُهَا، وَمُجْتَنِي الَّثمَرَةِ لِغَيْرِ وَقْتِ إِينَاعِهَا كالزَّارعِ بِغَيْرِ أَرْضِهِ.

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 50, Page 88 Ali: about Discord Ali about the admixture of right and wrong, talks about Discord and enticing it as appears in the following: See next slide please Other sources: 1. al-Barqi, al-Mahasin, I, 208; 2. al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, bab al-bida` wa al-ra'y wa al- maqayis; 3. Idem., Rawdat al-Kafi, 58; 4. al-Ya`qubi, Ta'rikh, II, 136; 5. al-Tawhidi, al-Basa'ir, 32.

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 5, Ali: about Discord O’ people! Avoid the malice of discord by the vessels of deliverance, And turn away from the path of dissension and dispense with the crowns of pride. Prosperous is the one who rises with wings of power, or else remains peaceful so others enjoy ease. The aspiration for Khilaafah is like turbid water or a morsel that suffocates the one who swallows it. One who plucks fruits before ripening is like one who cultivates in another's field. أَيُّها النَّاسُ، شُقُّوا أَمْوَاجَ الفِتَنِ بِسُفُنِ النَّجَاةِ، وَعَرِّجُوا عَنْ طَريقِ الـمُنَافَرَةِ، وَضَعُوا تِيجَانَ الـمُفَاخَرَةِ. أَفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجَنَاح، أوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأَراحَ، مَاءٌ آجِنٌ، وَلُقْمَةٌ يَغَصُّ بِهَا آكِلُهَا، وَمُجْتَنِي الَّثمَرَةِ لِغَيْرِ وَقْتِ إِينَاعِهَا كالزَّارعِ بِغَيْرِ أَرْضِهِ.

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 50, Ali: about Discord Malicious discords start through wishes followed and orders innovated, in which the Book of Allah is not followed. People assist each other about them though they contradict the Religion of Allah. If falsehood had been unmixed with the Truth, it would have been clear for those in search of it. And if Truth was pure from admixture with falsehood, it would have silenced those who defy. However, something is taken from here and something from there, and the two are mixed! It is then that Satan overpowers his followers, but saved will be the ones whom Allah had apportioned virtue from before. إِنَّمَا بَدْءُ وُقُوعِ الْفِتَنِ أَهْوَاءٌ تُتَّبَعُ، وَأَحْكَامٌ تُبْتَدَعُ، يُخَالَفُ فِيهَا كِتابُ اللهِ، وَيَتَوَلَّى عَلَيْهَا رِجَالٌ رِجَالاً، عَلَى غَيْرِ دِينِ اللهِ، فَلَوْ أَنَّ الْبَاطِلَ خَلَصَ مِنْ مِزَاجِ الْحَقِّ لَمْ يَخْفَ عَلَى الْمُرْتَادِينَ، وَلَوْ أَنَّ الْحقَّ خَلَصَ مِنْ لَبْسِ البَاطِلِ انْقَطَعَتْ عَنْهُ أَلْسُنُ الْمُعَانِدِينَ; وَلكِن يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ هذَا ضِغْثٌ، وَمِنْ هذَا ضِغْثٌ، فَيُمْزَجَانِ! فَهُنَالِكَ يَسْتَوْلي الشَّيْطَانُ عَلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِ، وَيَنْجُو الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُمْ مِنَ اللهِ الْحُسْنَى.

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 93, 137 Page Ali: about Benu Umayya About the mischief mongering of Benu Umayya and the discord they lead to, as appears in the following: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Ya`qubi, Tar'ikh, II, 182; 2. Abu Nu`aym, Hilyah, I, 68; 3. al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat, I, 6, 7, 16; 4. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, I, 377 (h.z.b), III, 200 (`a.dh.m); 5. al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, II, 466; 6. Ibn `Abd al-Birr, Jami`, I, 114; 7. Ibn Hajar, al-'Isabah, II, 509; 8. al-Tabari, al-Riyad, 198; 9. al-Suyuti, Ta'rikh al-khulafa', 124; 10. Dahlan, al-Futuhat, II, 337; 11. al-Qunduzi, Yanabi`, 224.

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 93, Ali: about Benu Umayya When malicious discords arrive they confound the right with the wrong, and when they clear away they leave a warning. The discords cannot be known as they approach but would be recognized as they leave. Discords inflict just like winds blowing, striking some cities and missing others. Beware that in my view the worst discord for you is the discord of Benu Umayya, because it is a dark discord that is blinding. Its sway is wide spread and its ill-effects are meant for particular people. He would be in distress who remains clear-sighted about it, and he would be worry free the one who is blinded about it. إِنّ الْفِتَنَ إِذَا أَقْبَلَتْ شَبَّهِتْ، وَإِذَا أَدْبَرَتْ نَبَّهَتْ، يُنْكَرْنَ مُقْبِلاَت، وَيُعْرَفْنَ مُدْبِرَات، يَحُمْنَ حَوْمَ الرِّيَاحِ، يُصِبْنَ بَلَداً وَيُخْطِئْنَ بَلَداً. أَلاَ وَإِنَّ أَخْوَفَ الْفِتَنِ عِنْدِي عَلَيْكُمْ فَتْنَةُ بَنِي اُمَيَّةَ، فإِنَّهَا فِتْنَةٌ عَمْيَاءُ مُظْلِمَةٌ: عَمَّتْ خُطَّتُهَا، وَخَصَّتْ بَلِيَّتُهَا، وَأَصَابَ الْبَلاَءُ مَنْ أَبْصَرَ فِيهَا، وَأَخْطَأَ الْبَلاَءُ مَنْ عَمِيَ عَنْهَا.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 102, Page 148 Ali: about Inducing Discord Ali about future discords likely to show up. This is part of a Khutba about the Day of Judgment, part of which appears here: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 153; 2. al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 131; 3. al-Kulayni, Furu` al-Kafi, IV, 31; 4. al-Mufid, al-Majalis, 95; 5. al-Tusi, al-'Amali, I,197.

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 102, Ali: Inducing Discord Ahead of you are blinding discords like a dark night, neither horses can stand to face them, nor their banners can turn back. The discords arrive unrelenting, their leader accosts them to leap, and their rider would exhaust them urging. The instigators of the discords are people who are rudely boisterous, pilfering little. They will be fought (for the sake of Allah) by a people held low in the estimate of the arrogant and insolent of the earth, but well regarded in Heavens. Then woe to you O' Basra! Facing up the infliction of Allah’s soldiers, not able to raise dust or cries. And your inhabitants would face a bloody death and dire hunger. فِتَنٌ كَقِطَعِ الْلَّيْلِ الْمُظْلِمِ، لاَ تَقُومُ لَهَا قَائِمَةٌ، وَلاَ تُرَدُّ لَهَا رَايَةٌ، تَأْتِيكُمْ مَزْمُومَةً مَرْحُولَةً: يَحْفِزُهَا قَائِدُهَا، وَيَجْهَدُهَا رَاكِبُهَا، أَهْلُهَا قَوْمٌ شَدِيدٌ كَلَبُهُمْ، قَلِيلٌ سَلَبُهُمْ، يُجَاهِدُهُمْ فِي اللهِ قَوْمٌ أَذِلَّةٌ عِنْدَ الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ، فِي الاَْرْضِ مَجْهُولُونَ، وَفِي السَّماءِ مَعْرُوفُونَ. فَوَيْلٌ لَكِ يَا بَصْرَةُ عِنْدَ ذلِكَ، مِنْ جَيْش مِنْ نِقَمِ الله! لاَ رَهَجَ لَهُ، وَلاَ حَسَّ، وَسَيُبْتَلَى أَهْلُكِ بِالْمَوْتِ الاْحْمَرِ، وَالْجُوعِ الاَْغْبَرِ

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 151, Page 120 Ali: about Discord Ali gave a sermon about the condition of the people during disorder, and advice against oppression and unlawful earning. Part of this sermon is about Discord as appears in the following: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Sayyid al-Yamani, al-Taraz, I, 334

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 151, Ali: about Discord You, O' people of Arabia, calamities have come near, avoid the intoxication of wealth, beware the mishap of the reprimand, keep steadfast during the mischief of discord, (when the discord’s insides disclose itself, manifesting its secrets, and its axis straitens up, and its rotation gains strength). Discord begins in imperceptible stages but develops as hideous. In its youth it is like a teen age but with ominous effects. Oppressors inherit each other by agreement. Their first serves as a leader for him who follows and vice versa. They vie with each other for this lowly world, and clamor over this smelly carcass. But shortly they would renounce each other, annihilating by despise, and cursing one another when they meet. ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ مَعْشَرَ الْعَرَبِ أَغْرَاضُ بَلاَيَا قَدِ اقْتَرَبَتْ، فَاتَّقُوا سَكَرَاتِ النِّعْمَةِ، وَاحْذَرُوا بِوَائِقَ النِّقْمَةِ، وَتَثَبَّتُوا فِي قَتَامِ الْعِشْوَةِ، وَاعْوِجَاجِ الْفِتْنَةِ عِنْدَ طُلُوعِ جَنِينِهَا، وَظُهُورِ كَمِينِهَا، وَانْتِصَابِ قُطْبِهَا، وَمَدَارِ رَحَاهَا. تَبْدَأُ فِي مَدَارِجَ خَفِيَّة، وَتَؤُولُ إِلَى فَظَاعَة جَلِيَّة، شِبَابُهَا كَشِبَابِ الْغُلاَمِ، وَآثَارُهَا كَآثَارِ السِّلاَمِ، يَتَوَارَثُهَا الظَّلَمَةُ بالْعُهُودِ! أَوَّلُهُمْ قَائِدٌ لاِخِرِهِمْ، وَآخِرُهُمْ مُقْتَد بأَوَّلِهِمْ، يَتَنَافَسُونَ في دُنْيا دَنِيَّة، وَيَتَكَالَبُونَ عَلى جِيفَة مُرِيحَة، وَعَنْ قَلِيل يَتَبَرَّأُ التَّابِعُ مِنَ الْمَتْبُوعِ، وَالْقَائِدُ مِنَ الْمَقُودِ، فَيَتَزَايَلُونَ بِالْبِغْضَاءِ، وَيَتَلاَعَنُونَ عِنْدَ اللِّقَاءِ.

19 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 156, Page 220 Ali: about Discord About the malice in Basra; and warning the people of Basra about what was to occur as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Tusi, Talkhis al-Shafi, I, 326; 2. al-Hilli, Mukhtasar Basa'ir al-darajat, 195;(3) al-Tabarsi, al- 'Ihtijaj, I, 326;(4) al-Muttaqi, Kanz, VIII, 215;(5) al-Majlisi, Bihar, bab al-fitan wa al-mihan, 448.

20 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord In Sermon 156, Ali: about Discord "The Prophet replied, "Yes it is so, but what about your enduring at present?" I said, "O' Prophet of Allah, this is not an occasion for endurance, but rather an occasion for glad tidings and gratefulness." Then he said: “O' Ali, people will be tested through their wealth, as if favoring Allah by their faith and expecting His mercy. Thus they feel safe from His wrath, regard His unlawful as lawful by raising false doubts and foolish desires. They will hold lawful the use of wine by calling it barley water, a bribe by calling it a gift, and taking of usurious interest by calling it sale.” I said, "O' Prophet of Allah, how should I deal with them at the time, whether to hold them to have gone back in heresy or just in discord." He said, "in discord." فَقُلْتَ لِي: «أَبْشِرْ، فَإِنَّ الشَّهَادَةَ مِنْ وَرَائِكَ»؟. فَقَالَ لي: «إِنَّ ذلِكَ لَكَذلِكَ، فَكَيْفَ صَبْرُكَ إِذَنْ»؟. فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، لَيسَ هذَا مِنْ مَوَاطِنِ الصَّبْرِ، وَلكِنْ مِنْ مَوَاطِنِ البشرى وَالشُّكُرِ. وَقَالَ: «يَا عَلِيُّ، إِنَّ الْقَوْمَ سَيُفْتَنُونَ بِأَمْوَالِهمْ، وَيَمُنُّونَ بِدِينِهِم عَلَى رَبِّهِمْ، وَيَتَمَنَّوْنَ رَحْمَتَهُ، وَيَأْمَنُونَ سَطْوَتَهُ، وَيَسْتَحِلُّونَ حَرَامَهُ بِالشُّبُهَاتِ الْكَاذِبَةِ، وَالاَْهْوَاءِ السَّاهِيَةِ، فَيَسْتَحِلُّونَ الْخَمْرَ بِالنَّبِيذِ، وَالسُّحْتَ بِالْهَدِيَّةِ، وَالرِّبَا بِالْبَيْعِ». قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، فَبِأَيِّ الْمَنَازِلِ أُنْزِلُهُمْ عِنْدَ ذلِكَ؟ أَبِمَنْزِلَةِ رِدَّة، أَمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ فِتْنَة؟ فَقَالَ: «بِمَنْزِلَةِ فِتْنَة».

21 Nahjul Balaaghah about Inciting Discord Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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