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 Prepares musculo-skeletal system for work: ◦ Training ◦ Competition  Enhance: ◦ Injury Prevention Qualities  Injuries are the Coaches’ fault ◦ General.

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Presentation on theme: " Prepares musculo-skeletal system for work: ◦ Training ◦ Competition  Enhance: ◦ Injury Prevention Qualities  Injuries are the Coaches’ fault ◦ General."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Prepares musculo-skeletal system for work: ◦ Training ◦ Competition  Enhance: ◦ Injury Prevention Qualities  Injuries are the Coaches’ fault ◦ General Athleticism ◦ Sports-Specific Skill Development  Reinforces certain skills related to performance  Dynamic Performance needs a Dynamic Warm-Up  Very important for sprinters/jumpers ◦

4  Increase the athlete’s internal temperature: ◦ Physical  Core Temperature  Makes connective tissues more supple  Heart Rate/Blood Flow ◦ Neural  Excites the nervous system  PAP ◦ Mental  Psychologically prepares the athlete - FOCUS

5 Common Sequence  Slow to moderate jog in one direction for several minutes, followed by...  Several minutes of static stretching ◦ Generally done in a seated or lying position  General Drills  Event-Specific Drills  Performance ◦ Training ◦ Competition

6  Too general in nature ◦ Slow jogging is non-specific to any event  Reinforces incorrect neuro-motor patterns re:  Speed/Power  Dynamic event mechanics  ALL T&F events are dynamic  Increased core temperature is quickly lost: : ◦ Minimal body movement during static stretching  The athlete is generally seated or lying on the ground ◦ Time Consuming  Athlete must re-warm prior to training/competition ◦ Static stretching has a calming effect on the muscles  However, this is the time to prime them for action!

7  Studies have shown no relationship between static stretching and dynamic performance ◦ Can make the muscles weaker  Fowles & Sale; 1997 ◦ Promote neural inhibition  Moore; 1984 ◦ Limits maximum strength output  Kokonen; 1998  Recent studies support a “hybrid” approach: ◦ Static Stretching Can Be Included – However…  Should be Limited in Scope/Duration  Should Precede Dynamic Movement/Stretching  The focus should still be on Dynamic Movement

8  Utilizes ◦ Variable-speed movements/calisthenics ◦ Can include some jogging, but should stress  Multi-directional running, skipping, lunging, etc.  Can do drills within the warm-up ◦ Sequence:  Begin with General Movements  The entire team can benefit/participate  Progress to Specific Movements  Start slowly and build up the intensity  As the body warms, functional flexibility increases

9  This warm-up is faster ◦ Saving 15 to 30 minutes a day (or over an hour a week) for use elsewhere  Such as weights, skill development, etc. ◦ However, you must monitor the pace…  Kids will slack off/socialize too much if you let them  Uses movement to prepare for and improve movement-based physical performance  The literature does not support the theory that static stretching prior to performance reduces injury

10  Slow to Fast  General to Specific  Program Varieties: ◦ Partner Relays ◦ Movement Chains  Partner Relays/Movement Chains are used as the General Warm-Up ◦ Prior to strength training ◦ Preparation for Team Practices ◦ BEFORE event-specific warm-ups/drills

11  Coach or Group Leader combines various: ◦ Speed/Running Drills ◦ Balance Drills ◦ Calisthenics, etc.  “You Go, I Go” sequence ◦ After completion, jog across “no man’s land” ◦ Switch exercises with your partner  The only limitation is creativity ◦ Implements can be used  Medicine Balls or Weights (tossing, throwing, etc.)  Resistance Bands (pulling, pushing, etc.)  Body Weight (Push-ups, Burpies, etc)

12  A combination of movements ◦ Similar form agility or running drill ◦ A short jog between sets  Continuous Chain of Movements ◦ Each is performed for a specific distance ◦ Each is completed one after another  WITHOUT STOPPING  Until ALL 3 or 4 movements in the chain are done  Example:  Heel-to-Toe Walk  High Knee Walk  “A”-Skip  Build-up Strides

13  No set “formula” for exercises ◦ You are limited only by your imagination ◦ Be creative – use crawling, rolling, lunging, etc.  Make the exercises “athletic” ◦ They should match the day’s theme  Don’t do slow movements to prepare for a speed day! ◦ Slow-to-Fast; Inside-Out; Big-to-Small  The Core of the Body is the Key – start there!  Always be cognizant of the “firing order” of muscles  Variety is the Spice of Life! ◦ Challenges the basic bio-motor abilities  Speed, Strength, Flexibility, Coordination, Endurance

14  What it IS (or at least should be…) ◦ Increases functional mobility  Demands of gymnast are different from a shot putter  Dynamic Stretching is for: ◦ Loosening muscles enough for efficient movement… ◦ Within the useable dynamic range  NOT necessarily the maximum possible range  Be conscious of micro-tearing  Aforementioned strength/stability losses  Need to Develop ◦ Stability and Strength (Functional Stiffness)  At the extreme ranges of motion  Easier said than done…

15  Stretching is NOT a warm-up  Muscles need to be warm prior to extensive stretching**  Static stretching is best suited for the end of the training session  **Some recent research is showing that one CAN stretch a cold muscle (per Michael Boyle)  Dynamic movements: ◦ Should NOT to be confused with high-intensity, ballistic stretching of a “cold” muscle  Hopefully we know better…

16  Important to remember: ◦ “Performance is not a stretching contest”  (Vern Gambetta)  Dynamic Flexibility is: ◦ Combination of Motion and Stability ◦ “Mostability” (Gambetta) ◦ As opposed to Instability  It IS possible to over-stretch before a session  Especially as it relates to speed & power  A certain amount of muscle rigidity is beneficial to certain aspects of performance  A good example is postural integrity  Stretch-shortening movements

17  How does it work? ◦ Reciprocal Inhibition  Takes advantage of natural relaxation after contraction  Is not under conscious control  Allow Rest & Recovery ◦ At least seconds per body part between reps  Examples: ◦ Hold-Relax ◦ Hold-Relax-Contract ◦ CRAC (using agonist & antagonist muscles)

18  Not age appropriate for pre-teen athletes  Most appropriate early in the training session ◦ One of the faster methods known for developing functional mobility ◦ These mobility gains are intended for the session at hand  Not intended for long-term flexibility gains  That is where static stretching is useful  However, some studies have shown it to be beneficial in the same manner as static stretching

19  Common methods ◦ A position is achieved and held at the end of the range of motion  No isometric contractions (agonist or antagonist)  No bouncing  Maintain correct skeletal alignment ◦ Great for long-term flexibility gains ◦ Body (muscles) should be WARM! ◦ Consider subsequent sessions, recovery, etc.  The literature supports 20–30 second holds ◦ Most of the stress relaxation occurs in the first seconds of the stretch

20  Best done at the end of the training session during the cool-down period  Tends to have a calming effect on the athlete  Helps the athlete restore their regular heart rate and body temperature  Helps the athlete recover from the workout and eliminate waste products (lactic acid)  Consistent (daily) stretching is more effective than one large dose in a session

21  A greater range of motion can be achieved using a rope: ◦ Able to more effectively move a limb or body part to its limit by applying external force through pulling on the rope. ◦ Nearly any static stretch can be performed with a rope (or belt)  Demo ◦ Rope Stretch – Hamstring Rope Stretch – Hamstring ◦ Rope Stretch – Hip/Torso Rope Stretch – Hip/Torso

22  Transitions the athlete from high-intensity training back to “normal” – can include: ◦ Moderate mobility exercises ◦ Restorative massage/foam rolling  Don’t forget about the fascia!  Consider jogging/shuffling/walking ◦ Bare feet on a soft surface such as grass and soft sand  Strengthen the athletes’ feet ◦ Consider various directions/types of movement  This is the time for static stretching ◦ Develop significant tissue flexibility adaptations ◦ Make this the last part of the cool-down

23 Questions? Comments? A good joke?

24 Cameron T. Gary Speed, Strength & Jump Coach USATF Level 2 – Jumps CTG Development PO Box Chula Vista, CA


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