# Mechanical Waves Mechanical Waves.

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Mechanical Waves Mechanical Waves

Mechanical Waves In mathematics and science, a wave is a disturbance that travels through space and time, usually accompanied by the transfer of energy.

What are mechanical waves?
A mechanical wave is a disturbance in matter that carries energy from one place to another.

3 Main Types of Mechanical Waves
Transverse Longitudinal Surface

Transverse Waves A transverse wave causes the medium to vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.

Transverse Waves A transverse wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction that the wave moves

Shaking one end of a rope up and down creates Transverse Waves

Human Wave is a Transverse Wave

Human Wave is a Transverse Wave

Direction of the Transverse Wave

Check for understanding….
Move a rope up and down and observe the waves. How does the direction of the wave compare with the direction in which the rope moves? Create a human wave like at a ball game. How does the direction of the wave compare with the direction in which the wave moves? In a transverse wave , the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of the wave velocity.  A transverse wave may be created by shaking one end of a rope up and down or side to side.  One example is a ripple on a pond.

Longitudinal Waves = A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction of the wave. parallel circuit parallel port parallel planting

Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal Waves

Check for Understanding: What are compressions and rarefactions in Longitudinal Waves?
An area where the particles are spaced close together is called a compression. An area in a medium where particles are spread out is called a rarefaction.

Surface Waves Surface waves are combinations of transverse and longitudinal waves. These waves occur at the surface between two mediums, such as water and air. Up-and-down motion combines with back-and-forth motion. The combination produces circular motion.

Surface Waves

Surface Wave A surface wave is a wave that travels along a surface separating two media.

A surface wave is a wave that travels along a surface separating two media, such as water and air.

Check for Understanding Surface Waves
Where do surface waves occur? …at the surface between two mediums. How do surface waves move? …up and down like a transverse wave on a rope, and back and forth like coils in a spring.

Vocabulary: Properties of Mechanical Waves
The wavelength, λ is the distance from any point on the wave to the adjacent point(one complete wave). The amplitude of a wave is the maximum height of the wave.  The amplitude does not affect the wave speed. The frequency, Hz of a wave is the number of oscillations of cycles during an amount of time, usually a second.  Frequency is measured in Hertz.  One hertz is one cycle per second. The period of a wave is the time it takes for the wave to travel a distance of one wavelength.

Longitudinal Wave vs. Transverse Wave

Summary

Wave examples which illustrate the definitions http://paws. kettering
Transverse Waves Longitudinal Waves Surface Waves

Where do waves get their energy?
A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place. A source of energy that causes a medium to vibrate. Where do waves get their energy? Transverse- human wave; shaking a rope Longitudinal- coiled spring; sound Surface- ocean wave Give examples of the 3 main types of waves. Solid Medium (e.g. land) Gas Medium (e.g. air) Liquid Medium (e.g. water) How are mechanical waves carried?