Presentation on theme: "HUMAN BODY Sandra Pride UNA/AMSTI"— Presentation transcript:
1HUMAN BODY Sandra Pride UNA/AMSTI email@example.com Today we will begin studying one of the most exquisitely designed machines in the world, a machine you all own. THE HUMAN BODY……The human body is designed for action and movement.. We will begin our study by watching our bodies in action.Sandra PrideUNA/AMSTI
5Investigation 1 Part 1BONESTake turns with your partner jumping rope. When your partner is jumping, watch closely to see which parts of his/her body come into action.Record your observations by writing down what you see in your journal. Label this page “Body Parts That Move When I Jump Rope” Try to discover which parts of the body move when a person jumps rope.Create a class chart.Have a jump rope for each pair of students. STUDNETS JUMP ROPE AND RECORD WHAT BODY PARTS THEY SEE MOVE AS THEY JUMP. Have students record their responses in their journal. Complete a class list of what they observed.. As you are completing the chart ask the students: Do your bones move when you jump rope?Where are your bones?How can you tell where your bones are?What do you call the whole system of bones?How many bones do you think you have in your skeleton?
6HOW MANY BONES? A Skeletal system is a group of bones. Leg and Foot Investigation 1 Part 1HOW MANY BONES?A Skeletal system is a group of bones.Let’s count up the bones to find outhow many there are in the humanskeleton.Working with your group you will count the bones in the subsystem you are assigned. Record your count in your journal.Leg and FootArm and HandHeadTorso (including the NECK, SHOULDERS, and HIPS)Have students predict independently how many bones they think are in each subgroup. Then let students begin counting with their group. Encourage them to feel for their own bones through their skin. After a few minutes ask How do your bones feel? If bones are hard, how do our bodies bend? Instruct students to feel their bodies where two bones come together. Tell them bones don’t bend, so places where the arms, legs, fingers, and so on bend are places where separate bones come together. The places where bones come together are called joints. Have students identify a few joints and return to counting. As students continue counting instruct them to write the total count on a piece of paper.
7BONE COUNT Investigation 1 Part 1 Using the Skeletal System Chart have groups report the group’s count. Write them on the chart and average the results. Propose refining the count…ASK How will we know if we missed anybones when we counted?What could we use to help us find outmore about bones?
8Skeleton Skeleton Photograph Functions of our skeleton: SUPPORT Investigation 1 Part 1SkeletonSkeleton PhotographFunctions of our skeleton:SUPPORTPROTECTIONMOVEMENTHang up the skeleton photograph. Allow students time to look at it and ask questions. Stress the functions of our skeletal system. Point out the different sizes and shapes of bones…legs, arms, ribs, and backbone. Point out the jointed areas that allow the skeleton to bend. Leg and arm bones are similar. Ask students if looking at the skeleton poster would help them get a more accurate count of the bones for the subsystem they were assigned.Point out: Femur---longest bone in the body Stirrup---shortest bone in the bodyHow the bones in the arm and leg are similar……demonstrate how the radius/ulna cross/palm down-uncross/upIntroduce cartilage is found at the end of bones and connects some bones, it is rubbery and flexible..ears and nose.
9RECOUNTInvestigation 1 Part 1Using your subsystem poster and the Counting Bones sheet, recount the bones for your assigned subsystem to see if you can get a more accurate count.Rotate group assignments. You should record the number of bones in all four skeleton subsystems.Revise the bone count on the class chart.Give each group the subsystem poster for their assigned subgroup. Begin rotations today!! When complete add updated information to recount poster.The recount should add up close to Discuss: What parts of our skeleton give us ourunique human shape?How does your skeleton give you support?What does your skeleton hold up?What parts of your skeleton provideprotection and what parts of your body areprotected?Have students compare their predictions. Each Arm has about 30 bones ….both 60Each leg has about 30 bones……both 60Torso has about 56 bones…..Spine 26, Shoulder 3, Ribs 24 Pelvis 3Head/Skull has about 30
10BONE COUNT Investigation 1 Part 1 Using the Skeletal System Chart have groups report the group’s recount. Write them on the chart and average the results.
11Science Notebooks Science Notebook Science Notebook Design Set-Up Investigation 1 Part 1Science NotebookScience NotebooksScience Notebook Design Set-UpThe first page is the cover page. You will design a cover for your notebook.The next two pages will be labeled the “Table of Contents.”The third/next page is where we will begin our journal entries.Write the date in the upper right hand corner and the page number.Turn to the back of your journal. We will label the third page from the end the “Glossary”We will use a science notebook to keep up with our ideas and observations. Much of a scientists work/time is spent observing, writing, and drawing what they observe. A lot of what we know about science was gained through observation. We want to be good scientists and keep good notes of our observations……We’ll use a notebook to help us do this. Scientists use their notebooks as recorded proof of what they have observed. Remember to stress neatness. Discuss the parts of a book…Table of Contents, Glossary etc. and where they are located. We will start our investigation of the human body by observing it in action.Glossary A skip 5 lines, B skip 5 lines, C skip 5 Lines, D skip 5 lines (turn to back)E skip 5 lines, F skip 5 lines, G skip 5 line, H skip 5 lines (next page)I skip 5 lines, J skip 5 lines, K skip 5 lines, L skip 5 lines (back side)N skip 5 lines, O skip 5 lines, P skip 5 lines, Q/R skip 5 lines, (next page)S skip 5 lines, T skip 5 lines, U/V skip 5 lines, W/X/Y/Z
12VOCABULARY Bones Cartilage Joint Skeleton Skull Torso Investigation 1 Part 1VOCABULARYBones Cartilage JointSkeleton Skull TorsoADD these words to your GLOSSARY. Discuss the meanings with your partners. Next, write a definition for each word.Bones: parts of a hard interior framework that provides shape and protection for the human body.Cartilage: a rubbery flexible material that connects bones and provides shape for some body part, nose and ears.Joint: place where two bones meet.Skeleton: the system that includes all of the bones in the human body.Skull: hollow case made from 18 fused bony plates and 2 jaw bones, that surrounds and protects the brain, inner ears, and eyes.Torso: main part of the body.Come up with a class definition for each word.
13Investigation 1 Part 1Content/InquiryThe function of the skeleton is to provide support, protection, and movementThe human skeleton has about 206 bonesASK Students: What is the function of the skeleton?How many bones are in the human skeleton?
14Skeleton Functions Foldable Investigation 1 Part 1Skeleton Functions Foldable
15Science Reading Stories Investigation 1 Part 1Science Reading StoriesA Marvelous Machine pages 1-3.*The Shape of Your Shape page 4.Instruct student to read the stories and discuss. Have students answer the questions in Science Stories pp. 2 and 3. There are questions for A Marvelous Machine, or have them present an oral presentation of the stories to their classmates.
16Inquiry Lesson Design, Math, Professional Development TheLearningCycle“The 5 E’s”InitiateApplyClarifyQuestionEvaluateExtendExplainExploreEngageWaklthroughSAY: Currently if you are following the Investigations or the AMSTI science curriculums you are using the 5E Model. When we come to model lessons from your AMSTI math or science we want you to look for each of these components. However, if you need to teach a standard that is not covered by the math or science, then we are going to work together to help you develop a lesson based on the 5E Model. So, how do you design an inquiry lesson? The place to start is with the standard (what you want to teach).CLICK
17Investigation 1 Part 1Sing this song as the engage for Investigation 3 Part 2: Ask students what helps us move:: bones, muscle, brain, tendons, joints
18“Mr. Bones”Investigation 1 Part 2Each of you will receive a skeleton puzzle called “Mr. Bones to assemble.Cut out each of the 19 pieces. Use a hole punch to punch out the black circles on each piece. Use paper fasteners to hold the pieces together. GOOD LUCK!Compare your puzzle to the skeleton poster.FosswebResponse Sheet – Bones #6Walk around as students assemble their puzzles…..do not tell them what is wrong…..ask questions to help them think about the correct placement. Pass out bone names sheet SS # 3.Show students the “Mr. Bones” puzzle at the Foss web site. Complete Response Sheet #6…..students look for what is wrong.ASSESSMENT p. 6
22Skeleton Book Foldable Investigation 1 Part 2Skeleton Book Foldable
23SIMON SAYS Investigation 1 Part 3 Play Simon Says as the engage for lnvestigation 1 Part 2….Have students touch bones using their scientific names…they can use the bone name sheet. INCLUDE: (on test) FEMUR…….PELVIS……PHALANGES…..RADIUS/ULNA…..RIB…..SKULL…..VERTEBRA
24Barn Owls Science Story page 9.* BARN OWLS Investigation 1 Part 3Science Story page 9.*BARN OWLSOwls eat small rodents but cannotdigest the fur and bones. The owl thencoughs up or regurgitates a pelletcontaining the fur and bones.Read and discuss the story with students. Ask: What do Owls eat? (voles, moles, mice and other small rodents)What part of the animal can they not digest? (bones, fur, and claws)What does regurgitate mean? (cough up)What do we call what has been regurgitated? (an owl pellet)Tell them that they will investigate an owl pellet to see if they can find/see the bones and fur found in it. Stress to students that the owl pellets are sanitary to handle, but they should wash their hands after working with them. Some students may be sensitive to the fur…they can be misted with water to keep airborne fur to a minimum. Interactive Website
25Owl Pellets Procedure for observing pellets: PUT ON GLOVES!! Investigation 1 Part 3Procedure for observing pellets:PUT ON GLOVES!!Unwrap the foil and remove the pellet.Observe the whole pellet: Notice the shape,color, and texture of the pellet. WRITE andDRAW your observations on the Owl-PelletObservation Sheet #7.Gently separate the pellet into two pieces.Place each piece on the paper plate.Separate the bones from the fur and othermaterial using your fingers or toothpicks.Remind students to handle the pellets gently. First, put on gloves. Remind them to record observation and draw their pellets on the student sheet. They should complete all 3 questions. Discuss their observations and ASK: How are these animal bones similar to human bones?How are these animal bones different from human bones?If you break here have students carefully store their bones in a plastic bag. ASSESSMENT p. 7.
26Rodent Bone Identification Investigation 1 Part 3Rodent Bone IdentificationUsing the Rodent Bone Identification Sheet #8 sort your collection of bones.Reconstruct your skeletons. You may glue them to the sheet.You may or may not have a complete skeleton.If you have empty meat trays they work great as a place to store the sheets……or you can hang them up in a sheet protector. If you use the trays the student can design a tombstone for the rodent..
27Investigation 1 Part 3Content/InquiryBones of many mammals are similar in number and shape, but differ in sizeThe shape of a bone is often a clue to its functionAsk Students: How are the bones of rodents like those of humans?Can you tell the function of a bone by its structure?Look at extensions: Bone-Name Games, Songs and Math extension are all great if time permits. Students may be able to bring in X-rays.
28Investigation 1 Part 3Sing Bones with the class as the Engage for Investigation 1 Part 3
29How many different ways can you move your body? Investigation 2 Part 1ReviewHow many different ways can you move your body?What is the human skeleton and what is it made of?What are the functions of the skeleton?Where does your body bend?Students should be able to describe ways they move.Hard internal frame made of about 206 bones.It provides structure, protection, and movement.Where two bones come together. Explain to students that the rigid, hard skeleton bends because it is articulated or jointed. The skeleton is made of many bones that are connected at places called joints.Ask students to move their hands and observe the movement of their fingers and thumb. Ask them to tough the tip of their thumb to each of their fingers on the same hand. Explain that humans are able to perform these movement because we have an opposable thumb. Humans are very unique because they have the ability to hold/grip objects and touch fingertips to thumb. Tell students that each hand has 14 joints…see how many they can find. Ask what they noticed about their thumb? It has only 2 joints….fingers have 3.
30Investigation 2 Part 1Thumb JointsLook at Student Sheet #9. There is a picture to color and a maze to trace. There is also a list of everyday tasks. All of these tasks require movement of the joints in your hand.These seem like simple tasks. However, you must complete these without using your thumb. It Will Be Taped!!!!Pass out student sheet 9.Call a student up and demonstrate how to tape their thumbs. Stress that they will need to work with a partner to complete the taping. Tell them the tape will keep their thumb from moving or immobilize it.
31What Did You Discover? Which tasks were hard to do? Investigation 2 Part 1What Did You Discover?Which tasks were hard to do?What made them hard?How did you solve the problem?How did you feel when you ran into a hard task?What are the advantages of an opposable thumb?Discuss how hard it was to complete tasks without our opposable thumbs. Pass out other opposable thumb activities.
32Vocabulary Joint articulated Immobilize Opposable Thumb Investigation 2 Part 1VocabularyJointarticulatedImmobilizeOpposable ThumbADD these words to your GLOSSARY. Discuss the meanings with your partners. Next, write a definition for each word.Discuss class definitions and add them to the glossary.Joint: a place where two bones meet.Articulated: jointedOpposable thumb: positioned opposite the othersImmobilize: prevent from moving.
33Investigation 2 Part 1Content/InquiryThumbs are essential for performing everyday task easilyASK: What is it like to perform everyday school activities without a thumb? What did you learn from taping your thumb?
34Science Reading Stories Investigation 2 Part 1Science Reading StoriesRead Your Amazing Opposable Thumb page 10Saddle JointOf theTHUMBCarpalsMetacarpalsPhalangesHave Students write a summary of the selection in their journal. Discuss with their face partners.
35Joint Tasks WHAT’S THE CATCH??? Investigation 2 Part 2Joint TasksFinding out more about the joints in our hands.There are eight tasks for each member of your group to perform.There is a card in each bag explaining what you should do.When you finish a task all of the materials used should be returned to the bag.WHAT’S THE CATCH???Review the opposable thumb and how helpful it is to us…and how hard things were without it. Demonstrate the eight tasks to students.
36Investigation 2 Part 2Joint TasksYour Joints will be IMMOBILIZED!!! STIFF THUMB: Lay a craft stick along the back of your thumb. Wrap tape around the stick and thumb, make sure the tip of the thumb is taped. Next, wrap tape around the stick and your wrist. STIFF FINGERS: Wrap tape around the middle and index fingers twice. The tape should not be tight. Slip a dowel under the tape in the space between the backs of the fingers. Wrap tape around the wrist and dowel at the other end of the dowel.Tell students as they complete the tasks their joints will be immobilized in one of two ways one of them will have stiff thumbs and the other will have stiff fingers.Divide teams into A and B. A will be stiff Thumbs and B will be stiff fingers. Allow students 4-5 minutes to completed each task. Set a timer and rotate the materials through all groups.
37Joint Tasks Which task do you think was the easiest? Why? Investigation 2 Part 2Joint TasksWhich task do you think was the easiest? Why?Which task do you think was the hardest? Why?Have students respond to the questions in their journals. Discuss responses. Point out our opposable thumps allow us to pick up and hold items and that our articulated fingers also allow us to pick up and hold things and without them things we take for granted would be very difficult.
38Investigation 2 Part 2Content/InquiryArticulated hands and opposable thumbs are essential for performing intricate tasksASK: What did we learn from our task cards? What physical features allow us to perform intricate everyday task?
39Science Reading Stories Investigation 2 Part 2Science Reading StoriesBones on the Outside? Page 11Have students solve Who Am I? Use a Venn to compare and contrast endoskeleton and exoskeleton.
40Are all of your joints the same? Do they all move the same way? Investigation 2 Part 3Naming JointsAre all of your joints the same?Do they all move the same way?There are several kinds of joints in the body, and two of them are found in the hand.Hinge joint: The simplest kind of joint. Theycan flex (close) and extend (open) like a door.Ball-and-socket joint: The most versatile joint. Theycan move in three ways: up and down, front to back,and they can rotate.Gliding joints: They allow movement in two directions, but not rotation.Show students the hinge: show how it moves back and forth only. Ask them to look for hinge joints in their hands and other part of their body (knees, elbows, fingers, toes and thumb) strong joint… limits movement in one direction.Hold up the spoon and mallet, demonstrate how a ball-and-socket joint works. Ask students to find ball-and-socket joint in their body. (Shoulder and hips)Use your index finger and move it toward and away from your palm…..move it side to side toward thumb and middle finger. Tell students this is a gliding joint, they are the most common they allow movement in two directions…no rotation. All other joints.
41Hinge Ball-and-socket Gliding Investigation 2 Part 3Identifying JointsLook at the photo of the skeleton. Can you label theskeleton’s joints?Your group will look at one of the subgroups:arms/handsskulllegs/feettorsoWith your group identify major joints in the bodyusing sheet #3, Bone Names, to help you. Writethe name of the joints you identify on a sticky note.Label joints on the poster.Hinge Ball-and-socket GlidingHang the skeleton photograph. Use sticky notes to label the major joints. Have students color on the Bone Name sheet where different joint are found. Make sure to include a key:Red: HingeBlue: Ball-and socketGreen: Gliding
42Response Sheet- Joints Investigation 2 Part 3Response Sheet- JointsRead student sheet #12.Can you help Carl?
43Vocabulary Compensate Ball-and-socket joint Hinge joint Gliding joint Investigation 2 Part 3VocabularyCompensateBall-and-socket jointHinge jointGliding jointADD these words to your GLOSSARY.Discuss the meanings with your partners.Next, write a definition for each word.Discuss and add to glossary.Compensate- to do something another wayBall-and-socket joint-where two bones meet and movement is a rotationHinge joint- where two bones meet and allow movement in one directionGliding joint- where two bones meet and allow limited movement in two directions
44Investigation 2 Part 3Content/InquiryThe human skeleton has three basic types of joints: hinge, ball-and-socket, and gliding jointsHinge, ball-and-socket, and gliding joints allow the body to move in many different waysASK: Are all joints in the human skeleton he same?How does articulated (jointed)skeleton allow movement?
45Types of Joints Foldable Investigation 2 Part 3Types of Joints Foldable
46Science Reading Stories Investigation 2 Part 3Science Reading StoriesComparing Joints? Pages 12-13Have students read the story and discuss the questions on page 13.
47Comparing Bones Can you put the bones together? Investigation 2 Part 4Comparing BonesCan you put the bones together?Chicken Bones Rodent BonesUse your bones to complete student sheet #13.Students should have 2 chicken bones and 3 rodent bones.Discuss their findings.Look at extensions: Math…great problem solving activity…..
48Muscles Investigation 3 Part 1 Remind students of the rope jumping they did. Ask them to recall what body movements they observed.SAY: We know bones don’t move by themselves, so how do you suppose bones move?What do we have in our bodies that provides the power to move our bones?When they say muscles…ask where in their bodies they have muscles? Feel (upper arms, calf, upper leg, and jaw)
49Investigation 3 Part 1MusclesMuscles are responsible for all body movements. Nothing moves unless a muscle is working.When muscles work they contract. That meanswhen they work they become shorter and feeltight and solid. If a muscle is attached to two bonesthey will be pulled toward each other when themuscle contracts.Ask students to bring their lower arm toward their upper arm and flex their biceps……feel the muscle…..it is contracted or shorter…it feels tight and hard. Do you notice that the radius and ulna are pulled toward the humerus?
50Muscles There are over 650 skeletal muscles in the human body. Investigation 3 Part 1MusclesThere are over 650 skeletal muscles in the human body.Show students the Leg Muscle transparency…tell them that it is a typical large muscle in the body. The muscle is attached to bones with strong ropelike tissues called tendons. Show the Leg and Foot poster…lay the Leg Muscle transparency over it and align carefully. Show how the tendons of the muscle attach to the heel bone and to the back of the tibia. ASK: What do you think will happen when this muscle contracts? Toe will point. Muscle is an example of one of the body’s tissues. Tissues are bodybuilding materials. All of your organs are made out of different kinds of tissues.ASK Students to: Flex the muscle in their upper arm. BicepsMove their jaw as if chewing. MasseterShrug shoulders. DeltoidTo sit down. Gluteus Maximus
51Investigation 3 Part 1Leg ModelYou will work with a partner to build a model of the leg to show how muscles move bones.You will need:2 Dowels (18cm) Bones1 rubber tube (no hole) knee joint1 rubber tube (with hole) ankle joint1 craft stick (with holes) footGOOD LUCK!!!!Check the models to make sure the holes in the dowels are oriented the same way, that the dowels are pushed into the tube until they touch,
52Leg Model Can you attach a muscle to the model to bend the knee? Investigation 3 Part 1Leg ModelCan you attach a muscle to the model to bend the knee?1 rubber band for the muscle2 paper clips for the tendon (c hooks)Can you attach two more muscles to your leg? One that makes the toe point down and one that lifts the toe up.2 rubber bands for the muscles4 paper clips for the tendons (c hooks)..\Desktop\3rd Grade Science\Human Body\Human Body - Leg.wmvTell children the muscle contraction is simulated by bringing the two ends of the rubber bad toward each other, making the muscle shorter.Call on teams to demonstrate movements…toe up, knee bend, toe down… Have the students make these moves and feel the muscles that contract when they move.Distribute Muscle Names Sheet #14
53Vocabulary Tissue Muscle Contract Tendon Investigation 3 Part 1VocabularyTissueMuscleContractTendonADD these words to your GLOSSARY.Discuss the meanings with your partners.Next, write a definition for each word.Discuss and add to glossary.Tissue: a group of cell that look the same. They form bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, fact and ligaments.Muscle: tissue that cn contract, resulting in the movement of bones.Contract: to become smaller or shorter in size.Tendon: ropelike tissue that connects muscle to bone.
54Content/Inquiry Muscles contract (shorten) when they work Investigation 3 Part 1Content/InquiryMuscles contract (shorten) when they workMuscles pull on bones when they contract, moving the bonesMuscles connect to bones with tissue called tendonASK: What to muscle do when they work?What happens when a muscle contract?How to the muscles attach to the bone to make movement possible?
55Science Reading Stories Investigation 3 Part 1Science Reading StoriesMuscles, pages 14-15Muscles and Bones: Working Together, page 16Have students read the story and write anything new they discover. DOT JOT One thing in each paragraph 14-15WEB Muscles in center……….other circles………. each muscle named and facts about them p. 16
56Investigation 3 Part 2Arm MuscleTendonsRadial Muscle
57Investigation 3 Part 2Thumb ModelLook at your hand, flex your fingers to form a claw. Where are the muscles that operate your fingers?Can you and your partner build a model of the thumb? Use the following materials.2 short craft pieces (with holes) phalanges1 long craft stick (no holes) metacarpals2 rubber tubes (no holes) jointsGood Luck!!Review the leg model and the movements it performed. Have they students use muscle and tendon as they explain the movement. Ask: How do muscles attach to the bones to make movement?Claw: Muscles are in the lower arm and long tendons. Show students the Arm and Hand poster. Place the Arm muscle transparency over the poster to show how one end of the muscle group attaches to the arm bones and the other end attaches to the fingers b long tendons.When the muscles contract, the fingers curl to grip objects. FEEL the tendons on the inside of your wrist.
58Let’s make our thumb model move!! Investigation 3 Part 2Thumb ModelLet’s make our thumb model move!!1 piece of string 30 cm long tendonPut the string in the hole in the end bone and tie a knot.Use 2 twist ties ligament guidesWrap the ties loosely around the rubber tubes. jointsSlide the tendon (string) under the ties.Operate the thumb by pulling on the tendon..\Desktop\3rd Grade Science\Human Body\Human Body Thumb.wmvThe string will be the tendon in our model. Call attention to the length.Because the tendon is so long it runs though guides made of ligaments. They are like the guides on a fishing rod….the string runs through to keep from getting tangled.
59Response Sheet – Muscles # 17 Investigation 3 Part 2Response Sheet – Muscles # 17Do you agree with Lisa?Have students complete student sheet 17. Discuss repsonses.
60Investigation 3 Part 2VocabularyLigament ADD these words to your GLOSSARY. Discuss the meanings with your partners. Next, write a definition for each word.Add new vocabulary and discuss.Ligament: tissue that connects bone to bone, sometimes they act as guldes for tendons.
61Investigation 3 Part 2Content/InquiryLigaments connect bone to bone; sometimes ligaments act as guides for tendonsASK: How do ligaments help a thumb move?
62Science Reading Stories Investigation 3 Part 2Science Reading StoriesRead The Space Race, pages 17-20Read story and discuss. Questions?
63Investigation 3 Part 3ModelsIn our models what has each part represented? Dowels Rubber Tubes Paper Clips Rubber Bands Twist TiesBonesJointsTendonsMusclesLigamentsDiscuss the leg and thumb models. How they worked and what each item represented in the model.
64Investigation 3 Part 3Making An Arm ModelYou and your partner are to construct an arm model with a biceps muscle. Use the followingmaterials:2 long dowels1 rubber tube (no holes)1 rubber band2 paper clips (c hooks)Complete Student Sheet # 18 after you construct your model..\Desktop\3rd Grade Science\Human Body\Human Body Arm.wmvDiscuss student models and Student sheet 18.
66Science Reading Stories Investigation 3 Part 3Science Reading StoriesRead The Frozen Man, pages 21-24Read the story and answer the questions on page 24.Extensions are on pages
67Coordination What systems come together to help us move? Skeletal Investigation 4 Part 1CoordinationWhat systems come together to help us move?SkeletalJointsMusclesWhen all of these systems work together to provide movement it is called coordinationExplain that coordinated movements of the bones, muscles, and joints just don’t happen. Movements are directed by the central nervous system----brain and spinal column. The central nervous system gets input through the senses. What are the 5 senses? Vision, hearing. Touch, taste and smell.When sensory input triggers an action, that input is a stimulus,,,hot, cold, pain, light, sound, smell, taste…are are stimulus.
68Falling-Cup Demonstration Investigation 4 Part 1Falling-Cup DemonstrationDo you think they will be able to get their hand out of the way when they see the cup start to fall?With your partner see how you respond to the falling-cup.First you will need to assemble a falling-cup device.Snap a lid (with hole) on a cup (with hole).Slide a long dowel through the holes.Hold the dowel in a vertical position on the desk withthe cup bottom side up.Attach a binder clip to the dowel above the cup to limit how high the cup can be raised above the desktop.Complete the demonstration. Ask what the stimulus is (cup starting to fall) visual stimulus and when the hand is pulled away this action is called the response. Ask about other stimulus/response they have encountered. Hot stove—pull hand away, sour milk/spit out, smelling brownies/eating one.Have the students construct a falling cup device and practice to see if they can get their hand out of the way before the cup hits it.
69Falling Cup Variables What could we change to make the experiment Investigation 4 Part 1Falling Cup VariablesWhat could we change to make the experimentmore difficult?Drop DistanceReleaseSet StandardsDiscuss how the drop distance and release could make the task more difficult. Instruct them to work with their partner to see how close to the desktop they can position the cup and still escape when it starts to fall. Record the distance. Also, instruct student to release smoothly they can also tape a half sheet of paper to the cup to hide the release hand.Poll students for heights…..set a class standard measure and collect data.
70Data Collection Use Student Sheet # 19 to collect data. Investigation 4 Part 1Data CollectionUse Student Sheet # 19 to collect data.Write your name and date.Fill in the height of the drop. (all the same)One person is the cup releaser; the other the responder.Each time the responder’s hand is hit, record an X in the “hit” column; misses are recorded in the “miss” column.Recording starts at the bottom of the column and proceeds upward. Recording is done by the person who releases the cup.Dropping and recording continues until either five hits or five misses are recorded-then stop.Change roles and repeat the investigation.Remind students to release the cup smoothly and to stop the investigation when one column, either hits or misses, reaches five.When students are almost finished ask Do you think your foot-response time would be faster or slower than your hand-response time.Discuss results: Each data column is a bar graph. Which body part responds quicker to the falling cup? (hand)Which was slower? (foot)Why might this be the case? (Distance from brain to spinal cord)Is there anything you could do to improve your response time? (practice, concentrate)Discuss how skills and behaviors can be improved by practice and repetition.
71Investigation 4 Part 1VocabularyCoordination Stimulus Response Response Time ADD these words to your GLOSSARY. Discuss the meanings with your partners. Next, write a definition for each word.Discuss and add to glossary.Coordination: when all parts work together to complete a task.Stimulus: something that starts a response.Response: reaction to a stimulusResponse time: the length of time it takes for a person to respond to a stimulus.
72Investigation 4 Part 1Content/InquiryIt takes longer for feet than for hands to respond to a visual stimulus because of the greater distance the message must travelAsk: Does it take the same amount of time for hands and feet to respond to a visual stimulus:
73Practice and Concentration Investigation 4 Part 2Practice and ConcentrationPractice, Practice, Practice,Practice Makes PerfectTry It Again!Did practice make a significant difference?If so, why do you think it?What factors besides practice might effect response time?OTHER FACTORS: sickness, poor conditioning, fatique,
75Investigation 4 Part 2Content/InquiryPractice increases muscle strength and reinforces neural pathwaysAsk: How does practice improve performance?
76Science Reading Stories Investigation 4 Part 2Science Reading StoriesRead Smart Training pages 25-27
77Timing Your Responses It is possible to find out how quickly you Investigation 4 Part 3Timing Your ResponsesIt is possible to find out how quickly youcan respond to a visual stimulus using aResponse timer.Build a Response TimerTape a strip to a dowel.Match the “Starting Position” end of the strip with the endof the dowel.Give directions for building the response timer and allow students time to build the timer.
78Using the Response Timer Investigation 4 Part 3Using the Response TimerOne student holds up the timer by the top of the timer.Another student, the catcher, positions their fingers over the words “starting position,” ready to catch the reaction timer the instant it begins to fall.When the catcher sees the strip fall, she catches it and notes the number under her thumb.This number represents the number of 100ths of a second it took to respond.Demonstrate using the timer with two students.
79Recording Data Use Student Sheet #22 to record your response times. Investigation 4 Part 3Recording DataUse Student Sheet #22 to record your response times.Record your response times for five trials with bothyour left and right hands.Average the results to get average response time.Compare the response times for your left and righthands, and explain why you think one hand respondsfaster than the other.Discuss results: Which hand had a quicker response time? (dominant hand)Can you explain why one hand would have a quicker response?
80Investigation 4 Part 3Content/InquiryCoordinated humans generally respond to visual stimuli in less than a quarter of a secondAsk how long does it take to respond to a visual stimulus?
81Science Reading Stories Investigation 4 Part 3Science Reading StoriesRead The Circulatory System, pages 28-29Read Story, discuss and answer questions.
82Choose Your Own Project Investigation 4 Part 4Choose Your Own ProjectProject IdeasThe object of a doing a project is to investigate aa question you still have about the human body, andlearn something new that you can share with the class.Project ProposalComplete a proposal. You should write the questionyou want to investigate and list the materials you thinkyou think you will need.Project PlanList the steps you will take to complete yourinvestigation.Students will design, conduct and present their findings.