2Wave MotionA wave is a moving self-sustained disturbance of a medium – either a field or a substance.Mechanical waves are waves in a material medium.Mechanical waves requireSome source of disturbanceA medium that can be disturbedSome physical connection between or mechanism though which adjacent portions of the medium influence each otherAll waves carry energy and momentum
3Wave CharacteristicsThe state of being displaced moves through the medium as a wave.A progressive or travelling wave is a self-sustaining disturbance of a medium that propagates from one region to another, carrying energy and momentum.Examples: waves on a string, surface waves on liquids, sound waves in air, and compression waves in solids or liquids.In all cases the disturbance advances and not the medium.
4Traveling WavesFlip one end of a long rope that is under tension and fixed at one endThe pulse travels to the right with a definite speedA disturbance of this type is called a traveling wave
5Description of a WaveA steady stream of pulses on a very long string produces a continuous waveThe blade oscillates in simple harmonic motionEach small segment of the string, such as P, oscillates with simple harmonic motion
6Amplitude and Wavelength Amplitude (A) is the maximum displacement of string above the equilibrium positionWavelength (λ), is the distance between two successive points that behave identically
7Longitudinal WavesIn a longitudinal wave, the elements of the medium undergo displacements parallel to the motion of the waveA longitudinal wave is also called a compression wave
8Longitudinal Wave Represented as a Sine Curve A longitudinal wave can also be represented as a sine curveCompressions correspond to crests and stretches correspond to troughsAlso called density waves or pressure waves
9Transverse WavesIn a transverse wave, each element that is disturbed moves in a direction perpendicular to the wave motion
10WaveformsWavepulse in taut rope. Shape of pulse is determined by motion of driver.If driver (hand) oscillates up and down in a regular way, it generates a wave train – a constant frequency carrier whose amplitude is modulated (varies with time.)
11Waveform – The shape of a Wave The high points are crests of the waveThe low points are troughs of the waveAs a 2-D or 3-D wave propagates, it creates a wavefront
12Velocity of WavesPeriod (T) of a periodic wave - time it takes for a single profile to pass a point in space - the number of seconds per cycles.The inverse of the period (1 /T) is the frequency f, the number of profiles passing per second, the number of cycles per second.The distance in space over which the wave executes one cycle of its basic repeated form is the wavelength, l – the length of the profile.
13Velocity of WavesThe speed of the wave — the rate (in m/s) at which the wave advancesIs derived from the basic speed equation of distance/timeSince a length of wave l passes by in a time T, its speed must equal l /T = f lThe speed of any progressive periodic wave:v = fl
14Example 1A youngster in a boat watches waves on a lake that seem to be an endless succession of identical crests passing, with a half-second between them. If one wave takes 1.5 s to sweep straight down the length of her 4.5 m-long boat, what are the frequency, period, and wavelength of the waves?Given: The waves are periodic; 0.5 s between crests; L = 4.5 m; t = 1.5 sFind: T, f, v, and l
15Transverse Waves: Strings The speed of a mechanical wave is determined by the inertial and elastic properties of the medium and not in any way by the motion of the sourcePulse traveling with a speed v along a lightweight, flexible string under constant tension FTv (11.3)When m/L is large, there is a lot of inertia and the speed is low. When FT is large, the string tends to spring back rapidly, and the speed is high
16Example 2A 2.0 m-long horizontal string having a mass of 40 g is slung over a light frictionless pulley, and its end is attached to a hanging 2.0 kg mass. Compute the speed of the wavepulse on the string. Ignore the weight of the overhanging length of rope.Given: A string of length l = 2.0 m, m = 40 g supporting a 2.0 kg loadFind: v
17Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction and Absorption End of rope is held stationary; energy pumped in at the other end, the reflected wave ideally carries away all the original energyIt is inverted – 180° out-of-phase with the incident waveEnd of the rope is free; it will rise up as the pulse arrives until all the energy is stored elastically.The rope then snaps back down, producing a reflected wavepulse that is right side up.
18Reflection of Waves – Fixed Boundary Whenever a traveling wave reaches a boundary, some or all of the wave is reflectedWhen it is reflected from a fixed end, the wave is invertedThe shape remains the same
19Reflected Wave – Open Boundary When a traveling wave reaches an open boundary, all or part of it is reflectedWhen reflected from an open boundary, the pulse is not inverted
20Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction and Absorption When a wave passes from one medium to another having different physical characteristics, there will be a redistribution of energy.Medium is also displaced, and a portion of the incident energy appears as a refracted wave.If the incident wave is periodic, the transmitted wave has the same frequency but a different speed and therefore a different wavelength: the larger the density of the refracting medium, the smaller the length of the wave.
21Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction and Absorption When a wave meets a hole or another obstacle, it can be bent around it or through it—DiffractionA wave can lose part or all of its energy when it meets a boundary – Absorption.
22Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction and Absorption A wave passing through a “lens” will be both reflected AND refracted. Examples include light (of course) and also sound (through the balloon of different gas)Absorption can either SUBTRACT (beach sand) or ADD (wind) energy to a wave, depending on which way the energy is being transferred.
23Superposition of Waves Superposition Principle: In the region where two or more waves overlap, the resultant is the algebraic sum of the various contributions at each point.Superimposing two harmonic waves of the same frequency and amplitude: at every value of x, add the heights of the two sine curves – above the axis as positive and below it as negative.The sum of any number of harmonic waves of the same frequency traveling in the same direction is also a harmonic wave of that frequency.
24Interference of WavesTwo traveling waves can meet and pass through each other without being destroyed or even alteredWaves obey the Superposition PrincipleIf two or more traveling waves are moving through a medium, the resulting wave is found by adding together the displacements of the individual waves point by pointActually only true for waves with small amplitudes
25Constructive Interference Two waves, a and b, have the same frequency and amplitudeAre in phaseThe combined wave, c, has the same frequency and a greater amplitude
26Destructive Interference Two waves, a and b, have the same amplitude and frequencyThey are 180° out of phaseWhen they combine, the waveforms cancel
27SuperpositionWhen two or more waves interact, their amplitudes are added (superimposed) one upon the other, creating interference.Constructive interferenceoccurs when the superpositionincreases amplitude.Destructive interferencedecreases the amplitude.
28Natural Frequency/Harmonics If a periodic force occurs at the appropriate frequency, a standing wave will be produced in the medium.The lowest natural frequency in a medium is its fundamental harmonic.Double this frequency to produce the 2nd harmonic.Triple this frequency to produce the 3rd harmonic
30Frequency and Periodw0 - the natural angular frequency, the specific frequency at which a physical system oscillates all by itself once set in motionnatural angular frequencyand since w0 = 2pf0natural linear frequencySince T= 1/f0Period
31Waves and EnergyAs waves propagate, their energy alternates between two froms:Transverse Waves – Potential <> KineticLongitudinal Waves – Pressure <> KineticLight Waves – Electric <> Magnetic
32Waves and Energy Generally – HIGHER FREQUENCY = HIGHER ENERGY HIGHER AMPLITUDE = HIGHER ENERGY
33Nodes and ModesNodes occur/are located at points of equilibrium within a wave.Anitnodes occur/are located at points of greatest displacement (amplitude) within a wave.
34Nodes and Modes One-dimensional modes: Transverse – guitar or piano stringsRotational – jump rope, lassoTwo- and Three-dimensional modes:Radial – concentric circular nodes and anti-nodesAngular – linear nodes and anti-nodes radiating outward from center.