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Ropes & Knots Ropes & Knots.

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Presentation on theme: "Ropes & Knots Ropes & Knots."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ropes & Knots Ropes & Knots

2 Objectives All objectives meet NFPA 1001
After completing this lesson, you will be able to identify and properly knot, use, and maintain various types of rope.

3 Rope Terminology Strand Yarns Fibers Sheath (Jacket, mantle)
Core (Kern)

4 Rope Materials Two basic categories: Natural Fibers Synthetic Fibers

5 Natural Fibers No longer accepted in life safety applications
Utility Purposes Only

6 Manila - made from the trunk of the Abaca plant found in Manila
Sisal - ¾ the tensile strength of Manila. Used as binder’s twine Cotton - soft and pliable. Strength much less than Manila

7 Disadvantages Short noncontinuous strands = poor tensile strength. Decays easily Deteriorates quickly Water - loses half its tensile strength when wet Humidity - loses half strength in one year

8 Abrasion and Chemicals - Severely affected when exposed to these hazards
Charing - Chars at 190°C (380ºF) and loses strength at 82ºC (180ºF)

9 Advantages Inexpensive Biodegradable

10 Sealing Searing rope ends
Bind with twine and dip in varnish or white glue

11 Synthetic Fibers Used for rescue Resists mildew/rotting
Stronger and easily maintained Continuous fibers that run entire length of rope

12 Nylon One of the best and strongest materials
Has high resistance to abrasion High tensile strength. 3½ times stronger than Manila Resists moisture and most chemicals maintains 80%

13 Melting point of 204º - 260ºC (400º - 500ºF)
Not suitable for vehicle stabilization as the rope stretches under load

14 Polypropylene Very lightweight Floats and resists water damage
Resists rotting, mildew, and abrasion Affected by heat.Loses strength at 93ºC and melt at 140º Difficult to secure into good knots

15 Polyester Not subject to water, sunlight, and most chemical damage
Loses strength at 149ºC and begins to melt at 232ºC

16 Kevlar Aramid Fiber Resists temperatures of 260ºC
Easily damaged by abrasion Hard to tie knots with

17 Rope Construction Laid (Twisted) Twisted yarns form strands
Three stands twisted form rope Used for natural and synthetic ropes Easily inspected

18 Braided Rope Reduces or eliminates twisting
Has no outer sheath or core Subject to direct abrasion and damage

19 Braid-On-Braid Rope Often confused with Kernmantel Rope due to having a jacket Has braided core and sheath Sheath has herringbone pattern Static type rope and very strong Outer sheath may slide along core

20 Kernmantel Rope Has braided sheath
Inner core may be twisted or braided and made of high strength fibers Comes in both static and dynamic types of rope

21 Rope Catagories Static = Low stretch of 1½ - 2% Used for Rescue
Dynamic = High stretch % Used for climbing NFPA 1983 states breaking elongation should not be less than 15% and no more than55%

22 Rope Classifications Life Safety - Only used once to support rescuers and victims (Except for training). Must be made of a continuous filament fiber Utility - Used for anything except life safety.

23 Elements of a Knot Bight - a loop that does not cross over itself
Loop - a bight that crosses over or under the standing part Round turn - End of rope continued around top of loop until standing lengths are parallel

24 Underhand and Overhand loops
Working end (forms knot) Running end (Used for work i.e. pulling, hoisting, and belaying) Standing part (Used for work)

25 Types of Knots Overhand knot Bowline Clove Hitch Figure of Eight

26 Double Figure of Eight Figure of Eight on a Bight Double Loop Figure of Eight Becket or Sheet Bend

27 Half Hitch & Overhand Half Hitch Overhand Knot Hoisting tools
Stabalizing tall objects Overhand Knot Foundation knot for beginning other knots Safety knot to secure other knots (especially synthetic ropes)

28 Bowline Used to form a loop that will not constrict object
Easily untied Primarily used for utility and life safety (Rope rescue harness) Inside and outside working ends equally as strong. Inside preferred.

29 Clove Hitch Basically two Half Hitches
Used to attach a rope to an object Used with Overhand Knot for hoisting tools Withstands pull in either direction without slipping MUST NOT BE USED IN LIFE SAFETY APPLICATIONS

30 Figure-Eight Knot Has replaced the Bowline Due to synthetic rope
Less likely to damage rope Stronger Easier to tie, untie, inspect, and keep neat

31 Uses of the Figure-Eight
Figure-Eight - Foundation knot Figure-Eight Follow Through - Joins ropes of equal size

32 Uses of the Figure-Eight cont...
Figure-Eight on a Bight - Securing loop in middle or end of rope (Used for safety lines, safety harness, litter and rescue equipment and anchor lines)

33 Uses of the Figure-Eight cont…
Double-Loop Figure-Eight - Rescue Harness Webbing harnesses are recommended for life safety applications Double-Loop Figure-Eight recommended over Bowline

34 Becket Bend/Sheet Bend
Used for joining unequal diameter ropes or rope to chains Unlikely to slip when wet Utility applications ONLY

35 Hoisting Before hoisting complete all preparations
Ensure solid footing Check for electrical hazards

36 Hoisting During Hoisting Use hand -over-hand method
protect rope pulled over sharp edges Work in teams All personnel are clear Use a tag line Secure with Overhand Safety Knot

37 Hoisting Hoisting of air cylinders and fire extinguishers is NOT RECOMMENDED

38 Rope Maintenance Identify all ropes
Inspect periodically and after each use Maintain Rope Log Test or tag and dispose worn or damaged rope Remove and tag used rescue rope

39 Removing Rope from Service
Excessive sheath wear Severely shock loaded/overloaded Chemically contaminated Old Lacks uniform diameter/texture Used for life safety

40 Cleaning and Storage Stored by coiling or bagging
Washed by hand in cool water (No detergents) Note: Rope Washers and Washing Machines used by other Dept.’s. Rinse and dry

41 Drying Rope In clothes dryer with no heat
Air dried on flat surface out of sunlight Hung in hose tower


43 Figure Eight on a Bight

44 Figure of Eight Re-threaded

45 Review Rescue Knot Video Click Link

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