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What is a force? A force is a push or pull, or an action that has the ability to change motion. Forces can increase or decrease the speed of a moving object. Forces can also change the direction in which an object is moving.

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**5.1 How are forces created? Forces are created in many ways.**

For example, your muscles create force when you swing a baseball bat.

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**Contact-actual touching 2. Long-Range— forces acting at a distance**

Two Kinds of Forces Frictional Force Tensional Force Normal Force Air Resistance Force Applied Force Spring Force Contact-actual touching 2. Long-Range— forces acting at a distance A Gravitational B. Electromagnetic C. Nuclear

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**5.1 How forces act One way forces act is the result of direct contact.**

A contact force is transmitted by matter directly touching other matter such as wind acting to slow a parachute.

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5.1 How forces act The force of gravity between Earth and Moon appears to be what people once called “action-at-a-distance”. Today we know that the gravitational force is carried from the Earth to the Moon by a force field.

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Four Elemental Forces All forces in the universe come from only four basic forces. Electromagnetic forces are important to technology. Gravity is a universal force.

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**Classify these forces as contact forces or the result of force fields.**

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**Effects of Forces Forces can cause objects to Change speed**

Change velocity Change shape

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**Measuring Forces To measure a force, we can use Spring scales**

Force gauges

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**What are the units for FORCE?**

Newtons-abbreviated (N) -metric unit for force Pounds-abbreviated (lb) -English unit for force

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5.1 Units of force The pound is a unit of force commonly used in the United States. For smaller amounts, pounds are divided into ounces (oz.). There are 16 ounces in 1 pound.

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5.1 Newtons Although we use pounds all the time in our everyday life, scientists prefer to measure forces in newtons. The newton (N) is a metric unit of force.

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5.1 Unit conversions The newton (N) is a smaller unit of force than the pound (lb). If one pound of force equals newtons, then a 100 lb person weighs newtons.

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**5.1 Contact forces from ropes and springs**

Ropes and springs are often used to make and apply forces. Ropes are used to transfer forces or change their direction. The pulling force carried by a rope is called tension. Tension always acts along the direction of the rope.

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5.1 Spring forces The force created by a spring is proportional to the ratio of the extended or compressed length divided by the original (resting) length. If you stretch a spring twice as much, it makes a force that is twice as strong.

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**Vectors (Representing forces)**

Vectors or scalars are used to represent quantities in physics. We will use vectors to represent forces. A scalar is a line segment, whose length represents only magnitude (amount) A vector is an “arrow” whose length represents magnitude and the direction it points represents the direction the force acts.

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5.1 The force vector The direction of a force makes a big difference in what the force does. That means force is a vector, like velocity or position. Arrows are often used to show the direction of forces in diagrams.

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**Drawing Vectors Length represents magnitude, or amount**

Direction is direction of force Draw a vector representing a force of 25 Newtons acting to the right.

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5.1 Drawing a force vector The arrow points in the direction of the force.

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**Drawing Vectors Length represents magnitude, or amount**

Direction is direction of force Draw a vector representing a force of 25 Newtons acting to the right. Draw a vector representing a force of 50 N acting to the left

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Resultant Force Sometimes, forces act together. When they do, it is as if they were equal to just one force A NET FORCE is the force that results from the addition of two or more forces. VA VB VR

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Tip to Tail Method 20 N Place the tail of one vector at the tip of the other. The vector sum (also called the resultant) is shown in red. Draw resultant vectors from beginning (tail) first vector to end (tip) of last vector. The resultant is also called the “NET FORCE” 16 N 20 N 16 N 4 N 21 N 12 N 9 N 9 N 12 N

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Draw the Vectors….. Two workers are moving a refrigerator. One pushes forward with a force of 200 newtons, the other pushes forward with a force of 300 newtons.. The net force they (together) exert on the refrigerator is:?

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Draw the Vectors….. Two students are moving a refrigerator. One pushes forward with a force of 200 newtons, the other pushes backward with a force of 300 newtons. Force is a vector. The total force they (together) exert on the refrigerator is:

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Forces in Combination Forces acting in same direction are added together to find “Net Force” Forces acting in opposite directions are subtracted to find “Net Force”

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Equilibrium If the net force acting on an object is equal to zero, the object is said to be in equilibrium, and the forces are “balanced”

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Equilibrium

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Unbalanced Forces When net force acting on an object, the forces are “Unbalanced” Unbalanced forces cause objects to change their motion, either by changing their speed or velocity

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**What will happen to the load?**

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**Gravitational Force The attractive force acting between all masses**

This is a major force but it is the weakest of all the long range forces!

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**Factors effecting the Stength of a gravitational attraction**

Masses of two masses Distance between the two masses Larger masses = greater attraction Larger distances between masses = less attraction

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5.1 Gravity The force of gravity on an object is called weight. At Earth’s surface, gravity exerts a force of 9.8 N on every kilogram of mass.

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**5.1 Weight vs. mass Weight and mass are not the same.**

Mass is a fundamental property of matter measured in kilograms (kg). Weight is a force measured in newtons (N). Weight depends on mass and gravity.

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**Weight depends on mass and gravity**

A 10-kilogram rock has the same mass no matter where it is in the universe. On Earth, the10 kg. rock weighs 98 N.. On the moon, the same rock only weighs 16 N.

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5.1 Calculating weight

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**Sig. fig. = 600 N Sig. fig. = 200 N Solving Problems**

Calculate the weight of a 60-kilogram person (in newtons) on Earth and on Mars. Looking for: …weight of person in newtons on both planets Given: …mass = 60 kg; g = 3.7 N/kg on Mars; …implied g = 9.8 N/kg on Earth Relationships: W = m x g Solution: 60 kg x 9.8 N/kg = 588 N 60 kg x 3.7 N/kg = 222 N Sig. fig. = 600 N Sig. fig. = 200 N

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**Would you weigh more or less on a mountain compared to a plain?**

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Ocean Tides The Moon is primarily responsible for ocean tides on Earth. The Sun contributes to tides also. What are spring tides and neap tides?

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Spring Tides Sun Earth Full Moon New Moon

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Neap Tides First Quarter Sun Earth Last Quarter

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Force and Its Representation

Force and Its Representation

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