2 Introduction Lighting Trusses Speaker Systems Video Walls Set Pieces Simply stated the job of the riggers is to hang all of the show equipment that must be supported by the structure of the building. Examples include:Lighting TrussesSpeaker SystemsVideo WallsSet PiecesProjection ScreensBackdropsCable Picks
3 Types of RiggingIndustrial- Marine, military, crane and factory rigging fall into this category. General Industry is were many of the components of the following areas borrow techniques and components from.Arena- Large arenas and stadiums fill up this category. Very similar to theatrical applications with industrial components.Theatrical- A strong hybrid of Industrial and Arena rigging. Many unique components and historical techniques.Aerial- Techniques refined for the flight of people with an emphasis on the performance aspect of rigging. Usually lighter components.
4 Rigger-Industrial/Arena Requires ability and working knowledge of:Methods of suspending large truss assembliesWork Load Limit and proper application of componentsVarious codes, standards, regulations, and industry practice related to overhead liftingWork Load Limits of various types of box trussesInstallation, operation, and repair of chain hoistsCalculation of bridle lengthsCalculation of loads in bridle legs and is familiar with OSHA standard and ANSI standard B30.9 for slings and bridlesAble to work at heightUnderstands and practices safe methods of fall protection
5 Rigger-TheatricalTheatrical riggers must have a working knowledge of theatrical rigging systems, the hardware and its proper installation.We must understand the Work Load Limit and proper application of a variety of hardware and fittings, including:wire ropewire rope clipschainchain fillingshooksboltsand shackles.Know and understand the various codes, standards, regulations, and industry practice related to overhead lifting and their application in theatrical rigging systems.
6 Introduction Rigging Components Work Flow Fall Protection Lifelines ProceduresRescueRigging from Lifts
8 Wire RopeWire rope, a.k.a. steel or cable, is one of the most common and important tools that riggers use. Wire rope is constructed from individual steel wires twisted together to form strands. Strands are wound around a core to form a rope. There are many different types of wire rope designed forvarying applications.The most common type of wire rope used for arena rigging is 6x19 IWRC (internal wire rope core), made from extra improved plow steel. This rope has six strands wound around a wire rope core. Each stand is made up of 19 individual wires.
9 Wire RopeWire rope lengths used for arena rigging have mechanical eye splices made around steel thimbles. This type of splice retains 95% of the original strength of the wire rope. The swage is the sleeve which is pressed by machine to form the eye splice.swageeyethimblewire rope
10 Wire RopeTwo sizes of wire rope are commonly used for arena rigging. 3/8” wire rope is typically used with one-ton hoists and 5/8” shackles. 1/2” wire rope is typically used with two-ton hoists and 3/8” shackles. The table below gives nominal break strengths for 6x19 IWRC, extra improved plow steel, wire rope.The 5% strength reduction factor for the mechanical eye splice has been figured into the table.size weight lbs./ft. nominal strength3/8” ,345 lbs.1/2” ,270 lbs.Lengths of wire rope are often color-coded with spray paint for easy identification as follows:length color5ft. red10ft. white20ft. blue30ft. green50ft. yellow
11 Rules for Wire RopeNever put more than one fitting through an eye splice.Never bend wire rope within four inches of the swage.Never use a length of wire rope with a broken wire.Never use rusty wire rope.Never use wire rope with bent or malformed thimbles.Always pad corners and edges that wire rope will bend over.Whenever possible choose lengths of steel that are less kinked and twisted.
12 SpansetsSpansets, a.k.a. round slings, consist of circular strands of polyester covered by a nylon sheath. Lengths ranging from one foot to ten feet are commonly used for arena rigging. The length of a spanset is not determined by its diameter, but by pulling the loop taught and measuring the inside length.By law, all spansets must have a tag listing working load limits and length. Don’t use a spanset without a tag.Length
13 SpansetsSpansets are very strong and very flexible. They are used in applications where wire rope would be too abrasive or too inflexible, e.g. for slinging trusses. Round slings are susceptible to damage by fire or chemicals. They generally are not as durable as wire rope slings and are more expensive. It is important to inspect each sling prior to use. visibly damaged slings should never be used.
14 ShacklesShackles are the steel links used to attach rigging components. Shackles consist of two parts; the pin and the bell, a.k.a. bow. Shackles used for arena rigging have a threaded pin which screws into the bell.bellthreadsflangepin
15 ShacklesThree sizes of shackles are commonly encountered in arena rigging; 1/2”, 5/8”, and 3/4”. The table below provides information on these three sizes and the size of wire rope to be paired with it.size working load limit weight wire rope1/2” lbs lbs /4”5/8” lbs lbs. 3/8”3/4” lbs lbs. 1/2”A commonly encountered problem with shackles used for arena rigging is botched pin threads. Don’t use shackles with pins that are hard to turn. The exception to this is a pin that is hard to turn due to fresh paint. To correct this problem, work the pin in and out several times to loosen the paint.
16 ShacklesShackles are designed to be loaded in two or three directions. If they are to be loaded in three directions, one direction must be on the pin and the other two on the bell. Shackles are not designed to be cross loaded, i.e. in two directions on the bell, but not on the pin. Cross loading reduces the working load limit by half.loadloadINCORRECTcross loadingload
17 Turnbuckles Construction: Galvanized, Stainless Steel Domestic vs. ImportDifferent end connections: eye, clevis, hook and round eyeOrientation right and left handed threadsWLL usually not printed on the componentNot for use in a dynamic situation.Exercise:How to tighten and loosen properlyHow to mouse and tie off properly
18 Deck Chain Deck chain, aka STAC (Special Alloy Chain) is designed for making small adjustments in the length of rigging components.
19 Deck Chain The standard length of a deck chain is three feet. Each link is four inches long.The W.L.L. is 12,000 lbs. With a 4:1 design factor.A link will accept up to a ¾” shackle.
24 Deadhang Deadhangs are used to suspend loads directly below beams. Beam PadBasketFree ShackleWorking ShackleDown Leg (Stinger)Hoist Hook
25 Bridle Bridles are used to suspend loads between beams. Adjusting the length of the bridle legs allows a rigger to hit any point between the beams.BasketsBridle LegsApexHoist Hook or Stinger
26 Deck Chain Deck chains are used to adjust the length of bridles Working linksDeck chains are used to adjust the length of bridlesDoing so allows riggers to shift points without having to move the bridleDead linksHoist hookHoist chainTarget pointAB
27 Truss Horizontal Box Truss Tower Box Truss Triangular Truss Truss is used in arena rigging to suspend equipment such as lighting instruments, speakers, curtains and set pieces. The trusses are usually slung with round slings, clipped to chain motor hoists, and raised to the desired trim height. Truss is usually made from welded steel or aluminum tubing. To save weight, aluminum truss is more commonly used.There are three main truss configurations:Horizontal Box TrussTower Box TrussTriangular Truss
28 TrussHorizontal box truss: Consists of four main pipes supported by perpendicular cross-members on the top and bottom, and diagonal cross-members on the sides.side viewtop viewDiagonal cross-members make stronger truss than perpendicular cross-members. Since horizontal box truss is designed with diagonal cross-bracing only on the sides, it is only meant to be loaded on one axis, with the load suspended directly below it. Side loading horizontal box truss, or assembling it with the perpendicular cross-members on thesides, results in a weaker truss configuration.
29 TrussTower box truss: Consists of four main pipes supported by diagonal cross-members on the top, bottom and sides.side viewtop viewThe diagonal members on all four sides of tower box truss make it strong vertically and horizontally. It should be used in applications where a vertical and horizontal load may be applied simultaneously. It is also designed to be stood on end and used as a vertical pillar or tower.
30 TrussTriangular truss: Consists of three main pipes supported by diagonal cross-members on all three sides.side viewtop viewTriangular truss is usually suspended in a point down configuration as shown in the end view above. Loads suspended from the bottom chord (point), are less apt to spin the truss. Triangular truss may also be used as a vertical pillar or tower.
31 Truss CORRECT INCORRECT INCORRECT Trussing typically comes in sections which are bolted together to make a truss of the desired length. Care must also be given to match the pattern of the cross-members which make up the sides of the truss.CORRECTINCORRECTINCORRECT
32 Truss Bolting Use a spud wrench to line up bolt holes as needed. Keep the bolts loose until all four are made.Be sure to use one washer on the bolt side and one washer on the nut side.Always torque truss bolts with a socket wrench. Two 8” Crescent wrenches won’t provide adequate torque.Flying truss with loose or missing bolts could be potentially disastrous.Always double check that all the bolts are tight before flying truss.
33 Rigging Hardware Eye bolts Block and Falls Come-a-long Lever Hoist Chain FallsTheatrical PipePipe ClampsRatchet StrapsArbor Weight
34 Eye Bolts Come in various sizes and shapes Shouldered and non-shoulderedExamples in training structureImport and DomesticMeant to take load in a vertical configuration only.Remember that the W.L.L. decreases when a Eye-bolt is pulled from an angle.
35 Lever Hoist and Chain Fall ¼,1, 2 and 3 ton modelsUsed in place of motors sometimesDo not require powerMay be limited by the amount of chainLever HoistUsed to lift loads short distancesNo power necessary1, 2 and 3 ton models available.
36 Pipe clamps and Pipe Pipe clamps Also called Chez Boroughs Used in lighting and riggingBeware of the WLL of the clampSteel and Aluminum models availablePipe Schedule 40 and Schedule 80Used in theatrical RiggingOutside Dia. of 1 ½” to 4”Most common is 2” OD
37 Ratchet Straps Ratchet Straps Used for theatrical, arena and Industrial useCome in sizes of 1” and 2”Used tagged and newer models when availableSeveral different hook and end connections availableEndless loop models and hook modelsLubricate regularlyInspect prior to useConduct Exercise using 2” endless loop ratchet.
39 Chain HoistsThe most commonly used hoists for theatrical rigging are CM™ Loadstar chain motor hoists.½-ton and 1-ton hoists have single reeved chains.2-ton hoists have double reeved chains.
40 Chain Motor HoistsElectric chain motor hoists are the most common tool used to suspend loads for arena rigging.hookswivelcontrol cablechain bageye bolt for chain bag clipchainpower cableto control boxThree sizes of hoists are commonly used:Size Speed Weight Chain Weight/ft1/2 ton 16 ft./min. 62 lbs lbs.1 ton 16 ft./min. 98 lbs lbs.2 ton 8 ft./min. 110 lbs lbs.
41 Drum Hoists or Winch Typically used for performer flying and scenery High performance and high cost. Typically a permanent install item.Portable units used in movie stunts and arenas.
42 Load DistributionsTwo Point Truss.5Evenly Distributed Truss
43 Load Distributions Evenly Distributed Truss Three Point Truss .1875 .625Evenly Distributed Truss
44 Load DistributionsFour Point Truss.133.367Evenly Distributed Truss
45 Load Distributions Evenly Distributed Truss Five Point Truss .098 .286 .232Evenly Distributed Truss
46 Rigging Techniques Tag lines Hard hat safety, glasses, gloves, steel toe work bootsPlacing wood pads underneath craneTalking to crane operator:How to signal the liftDestination of the loadDirection of the swingRadios work better when the signal man cannot be seenProper footprint of the crane to be looked at before work can begin
47 Trunnion Characteristics -Lifting points Not a positive connectionEnables two part slingEasier to unhookRequires a vertical pullGood for hooking below topObstructions above trunnion a problem
48 Anchor and Lifting Equalization Needs to be done when dispersing the weight of a load over a long or short distance.Can lower the need for single point attachmentsSeveral attachments spread out can raise the lifting device capacity
49 Center of GravityUsually marked or mathematically found and marked by an engineerCan be found by running a tape measure down the object to be lifted and marking center if a balanced loadMay be off center with certain piecesMay need to be considered variable when lifting liqudsExtremely important when liftingSometimes found with trial and error with lighter objects
52 Work Flow for Load inMark the plot on the floor using tape measures and chalk.Place appropriate motor next to each marked point.Assemble wire rope, shackles, deck chain, etc.Road riggers instruct the sequence of points that are pulled.Riggers position themselves on the beams above points.Lower in ropes positioned in the proper upstage / downstage and cross-stage planes.One rope needed for a deadhang and two ropes for a normal two-leg bridle.Ground riggers double check that components are assembled correctly and that the ropes are hanging in the correct planes and free of obstruction.A bowline is used to tie the rope into theappropriate shackle. Length of the bowlineloop is determined by consultation with thehigh rigger and/or knowledge of the requiredlength for a given beam.
53 Work Flow for Load inHigh riggers attach the components around the appropriate beam and have the point checked for position.A ground rigger plumbs the chain and puts body weight on it. This chinches the hitches and takes the sag out of bridle legs.If a plumb chain does not fall in the middle of the point drawn on the floor, the ground rigger asks for it to be slid along the beam until it does. If sliding doesn’t allow the point to hit the middle of the mark, the head or road rigger must be consulted for adjustment of the component lengths.Riggers move from point to point until the entire show is hung.Two designated high riggers stay behind and double check the correct assembly of each point before returning to the floor.Storage cases and empty motor cases are moved into a storage area.A small rigging crew stays until all the chain motor hoists are at trim height.This is a precaution in case of a bad motor which must be swapped out.
54 Work Flow for Load outGround riggers retrieve stored cases and high riggers to head for the grid.Motor cases are placed near where each point will land.Storage cases are positioned in a central location.Hoists run until the equipment is at a convenient work height.The equipment is removed and the truss landed on the ground.Pickle (local control) is used to lower the hoist into road case.Hoists run to limit, motor reversed for a couple of links.Pile the excess chain into the case.Disconnect the strain relief clip.Disconnect power cable and pickle.Clip the empty chain bag onto box.Motor box is now prepped for thehigh rigger to lower in the remainderof the chain.
55 Work Flow for Load outHigh rigger ties into the proper shackle, lifts and holds the weight of the point and disassembles the hitches around the beams.When the high rigger has disassembled the hitches and is ready to lower the components to the ground, he calls to the ground rigger and waits until he are in position to receive the point.Ground rigger verbally controls the rate of descent.Ground rigger ensures that no one walks beneath the point as it is being lowered and guides the chain into the road case.Ground rigger then guides the wire rope and other components onto the floor.Coil the wire rope.Fold the burlap beam pads.Store the shackles, spansets,and deck chain in the appropriate cases.
57 Harnesses Only full body harnesses are acceptable for fall arrest. OSHA (D) (17) “The attachment point of the body harness must be in the center of the wearer’s back near shoulder level, or above the wearer’s head.”
58 Lanyards Only shock absorbing lanyards are acceptable for fall arrest. The lanyard must have a nominal break strength of 5,400 pounds and a withstand a tensile load of 4000 lbs. without deformation.The lanyard length must be adjusted to provide a free-fall of no greater than 6 feet and prevent contact with lower levels.
59 LanyardsOSHA (D)(5) “Snaphooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connecting member.”Only locking connectors are acceptable for fall arrest.
60 OSHA Fall Protection Regulations Section 1926.501B(1) “Unprotected sides and edges.” “Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.”Rich ContentThe content is relevant and uniquely valuable to me.Appropriate TechnologyThe technology used on the site helps but never hinders my goals.Compelling Visual DesignThe visual appearance is appropriate, appealing and supports my goals.Full Disclosure of InformationI know how my information is being used and I benefit by sharing it.
61 OSHA Training Requirements OSHA (A)(1) “The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards.”OSHA (B)(1) “The employer shall verify compliance with paragraph A of this section by preparing a written certification record. The written certification record shall contain the name of the employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the employer.”
62 Passive Fall Protection Passive Fall Protection Systems help prevent falls from heights. They are preferable because they require no action on the part of the workers they protect.Examples include:GuardrailsPersonnel NetsHole CoversLadder Cages
63 Fall ProtectionThe following rules apply to personal fall protection equipment:Fall protection equipment must fit properly, be adjusted correctly, and inspected before each use.All components must have a min. break strength of 5000 lbs.Lanyards must limit the arresting force on a rigger to 900 lbs.Riggers must not free-fall more than 6 feet or contact lower levels.Lanyards must be attached to the harness in the center of the riggers back.Any equipment subject to impact loading must be removed from service and replaced.
64 Fall Arrest vs. Fall Restraint Fall restraint systems- involve the use of a body belt which prevents a worker from reaching an area where a free-fall could occur. Body belts should never be used if there is any chance of a free-fall.
65 Fall Arrest vs. Fall Restraint Fall arrest systems- protect workers who must access areas where free-falls are possible. Fall arrest systems are designed to stop a free-falling worker. Full body harnesses and shock-absorbing lanyards are required.
66 Personal Fall Arrest Systems Personal Fall Arrest Systems consist of:Anchorage ConnectorShock Absorbing LanyardFull Body Harness
67 Personal Fall Arrest Systems All personal fall arrest components must be inspected for damage prior to each use.All fall arrest components must have a minimum tensile strength of 5000 lbs. (22.2 KN)Maximum weight for a rigger and tools is 310 pounds.Any personal fall arrest equipment subjected to impact loading must be immediately removed from service.Maximum arresting force on a person wearing a full body harness must be 1800 lbs. or lessMaximum deceleration distance is 3-1/2 feet.
68 Calculating Fall Distances A six foot shock absorbing lanyard requires a minimum /2 foot clearance between the attachment point and the lower level.
69 AnchorageOSHA (D)(15) “Anchorages used for the attachment of personal fall protection shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5000 lbs. (22.2KN) per employee attached.”
70 AnchorageWorkers on suspended scaffold, (swing stages), must have a fall protection anchorage independent of the anchorage for the scaffold.Riggers working on rappel must use an OSHA compliant fall protection system in addition to the rappel rope.Rappel lineFall protection line
71 AnchorageOSHA (D)(23) “Personal fall arrest systems shall not be attached to guardrail systems, nor shall they be attached to hoists.”Don’t attach your fall protection, i.e. lanyards, here.
73 Self Retracting Lifelines Self retracting lifelines are spring loaded cable reels that automatically adjust the length of cable.In the event of a fall, a centrifugal brake engages, (just like a car’s seat belt).Climbing up or down too quickly may engage the brake or build slack in the cable.
74 Self Retracting Lifelines SRL’s are designed to be clipped directly into the back d-ring.Depending on the type of SRL, attaching a shock absorber between the harness and SRL may result in a greater fall distance and overload the SRL.
75 Vertical Fall ArrestOSHA (D)(10)(I) “When vertical lifelines are used, each employee shall be attached to a separate lifeline.”OSHA (D)(12) “Self retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distances to 2 ft. or less shall be capable of sustaining a min. tensile load of 3000 lbs.(13.3 KN).”OSHA (D)(13) “Self retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distances to 2 ft. or less, ripstich lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a min. tensile load of 5000 lbs.(22.2 KN).”
76 Vertical LifelinesRope grabs or cable grabs are typically used to attach workers to vertical lifelines.
77 Vertical Lifelines3 ft. is the maximum lanyard length when attaching to a trailing rope or cable grab.Be sure your rope grab is traveling along the rope properly. This prevents either hanging from it or creating slack in the lifeline.
78 Horizontal LifelinesOSHA (D)(8) “Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, installed and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two.”
79 Horizontal LifelinesHorizontal lifelines typically require large clearances above lower levels.
81 Lifeline Anchorage Make connections as shown above. Tying knot a or choking around a beam, significantly reduces the strength of a lifeline.Lifelines are not designed to support the required load if they have been knotted or choked.All sharp surfaces must be avoided or padded to prevent the cutting or abrading lifelines.Make connections as shown above.
83 ProceduresWorkers are required to use a fall protection system 100% of the time when exposed to fall hazards.Y-lanyards are used to allow workers to remain attached to the fall arrest system at all times.
84 Procedures-Swing falls Workers must not be allowed to take swinging falls into walls, beams or other objects.Anchorage should be made directly above workers.
85 ProceduresIn order to prevent a free-fall greater than six feet:The attachment on the harness must be at or below the level of attachment to the anchorage, or the lanyard must be shortened.OKOKNO!
87 RescueOSHA (D) (20) “The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves.”
88 Rescue Self Rescue: The fallen worker climbs to safety. Assisted Rescue: Co-workers help the fallen worker to climb to safety.Ladder/ Manlift Rescue: Co-workers either lower a ladder or raise a manlift to the fallen worker.Roped Rescue: Employs a belay line and lifting apparatus to secure the fallen worker & raise them to safety, or lift them off their fall protection and lower them to the ground.
90 LiftsPersonnel lifts come in various sizes, configurations, and power sources.Three main types of personnel lifts are used for entertainment rigging:Single person Genie™ liftsScissors liftsBoom lifts
91 LiftsGenie™ lifts are one-person work platforms small enough to be loaded onto trucks by hand.They are typically pushed into place then raised with an electric motor.Genie™ lifts have removable outriggers which must be in place to raise the platform.
92 Lifts“When working from an elevated scissors lift (ANSI A92.6), a worker need only be protected from falling by a properly designed and maintained guardrail system.”OSHA Standards Interpretation and Compliance Letters
93 LiftsOSHA (b) (2)(v) “A body belt shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift”OSHA (b) (2)(iii) “Belting off to an adjacent pole structure or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.”