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Rigging Proficiency Level 1.

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1 Rigging Proficiency Level 1

2 Introduction Lighting Trusses Speaker Systems Video Walls Set Pieces
Simply stated the job of the riggers is to hang all of the show equipment that must be supported by the structure of the building. Examples include: Lighting Trusses Speaker Systems Video Walls Set Pieces Projection Screens Backdrops Cable Picks

3 Types of Rigging Industrial- Marine, military, crane and factory rigging fall into this category. General Industry is were many of the components of the following areas borrow techniques and components from. Arena- Large arenas and stadiums fill up this category. Very similar to theatrical applications with industrial components. Theatrical- A strong hybrid of Industrial and Arena rigging. Many unique components and historical techniques. Aerial- Techniques refined for the flight of people with an emphasis on the performance aspect of rigging. Usually lighter components.

4 Rigger-Industrial/Arena
Requires ability and working knowledge of: Methods of suspending large truss assemblies Work Load Limit and proper application of components Various codes, standards, regulations, and industry practice related to overhead lifting Work Load Limits of various types of box trusses Installation, operation, and repair of chain hoists Calculation of bridle lengths Calculation of loads in bridle legs and is familiar with OSHA standard and ANSI standard B30.9 for slings and bridles Able to work at height Understands and practices safe methods of fall protection

5 Rigger-Theatrical Theatrical riggers must have a working knowledge of theatrical rigging systems, the hardware and its proper installation. We must understand the Work Load Limit and proper application of a variety of hardware and fittings, including: wire rope wire rope clips chain chain fillings hooks bolts and shackles. Know and understand the various codes, standards, regulations, and industry practice related to overhead lifting and their application in theatrical rigging systems.

6 Introduction Rigging Components Work Flow Fall Protection Lifelines
Procedures Rescue Rigging from Lifts

7 Rigging Components

8 Wire Rope Wire rope, a.k.a. steel or cable, is one of the most common and important tools that riggers use. Wire rope is constructed from individual steel wires twisted together to form strands. Strands are wound around a core to form a rope. There are many different types of wire rope designed for varying applications. The most common type of wire rope used for arena rigging is 6x19 IWRC (internal wire rope core), made from extra improved plow steel. This rope has six strands wound around a wire rope core. Each stand is made up of 19 individual wires.

9 Wire Rope Wire rope lengths used for arena rigging have mechanical eye splices made around steel thimbles. This type of splice retains 95% of the original strength of the wire rope. The swage is the sleeve which is pressed by machine to form the eye splice. swage eye thimble wire rope

10 Wire Rope Two sizes of wire rope are commonly used for arena rigging. 3/8” wire rope is typically used with one-ton hoists and 5/8” shackles. 1/2” wire rope is typically used with two-ton hoists and 3/8” shackles. The table below gives nominal break strengths for 6x19 IWRC, extra improved plow steel, wire rope. The 5% strength reduction factor for the mechanical eye splice has been figured into the table. size weight lbs./ft. nominal strength 3/8” ,345 lbs. 1/2” ,270 lbs. Lengths of wire rope are often color-coded with spray paint for easy identification as follows: length color 5ft. red 10ft. white 20ft. blue 30ft. green 50ft. yellow

11 Rules for Wire Rope Never put more than one fitting through an eye splice. Never bend wire rope within four inches of the swage. Never use a length of wire rope with a broken wire. Never use rusty wire rope. Never use wire rope with bent or malformed thimbles. Always pad corners and edges that wire rope will bend over. Whenever possible choose lengths of steel that are less kinked and twisted.

12 Spansets Spansets, a.k.a. round slings, consist of circular strands of polyester covered by a nylon sheath. Lengths ranging from one foot to ten feet are commonly used for arena rigging. The length of a spanset is not determined by its diameter, but by pulling the loop taught and measuring the inside length. By law, all spansets must have a tag listing working load limits and length. Don’t use a spanset without a tag. Length

13 Spansets Spansets are very strong and very flexible. They are used in applications where wire rope would be too abrasive or too inflexible, e.g. for slinging trusses. Round slings are susceptible to damage by fire or chemicals. They generally are not as durable as wire rope slings and are more expensive. It is important to inspect each sling prior to use. visibly damaged slings should never be used.

14 Shackles Shackles are the steel links used to attach rigging components. Shackles consist of two parts; the pin and the bell, a.k.a. bow. Shackles used for arena rigging have a threaded pin which screws into the bell. bell threads flange pin

15 Shackles Three sizes of shackles are commonly encountered in arena rigging; 1/2”, 5/8”, and 3/4”. The table below provides information on these three sizes and the size of wire rope to be paired with it. size working load limit weight wire rope 1/2” lbs lbs /4” 5/8” lbs lbs. 3/8” 3/4” lbs lbs. 1/2” A commonly encountered problem with shackles used for arena rigging is botched pin threads. Don’t use shackles with pins that are hard to turn. The exception to this is a pin that is hard to turn due to fresh paint. To correct this problem, work the pin in and out several times to loosen the paint.

16 Shackles Shackles are designed to be loaded in two or three directions. If they are to be loaded in three directions, one direction must be on the pin and the other two on the bell. Shackles are not designed to be cross loaded, i.e. in two directions on the bell, but not on the pin. Cross loading reduces the working load limit by half. load load INCORRECT cross loading load

17 Turnbuckles Construction: Galvanized, Stainless Steel
Domestic vs. Import Different end connections: eye, clevis, hook and round eye Orientation right and left handed threads WLL usually not printed on the component Not for use in a dynamic situation. Exercise: How to tighten and loosen properly How to mouse and tie off properly

18 Deck Chain Deck chain, aka STAC
(Special Alloy Chain) is designed for making small adjustments in the length of rigging components.

19 Deck Chain The standard length of a deck chain is three feet.
Each link is four inches long. The W.L.L. is 12,000 lbs. With a 4:1 design factor. A link will accept up to a ¾” shackle.

20 Hardware Components and Use

21 Hitches Choke

22 Hitches Basket

23 Hitches Split Basket

24 Deadhang Deadhangs are used to suspend loads directly below beams.
Beam Pad Basket Free Shackle Working Shackle Down Leg (Stinger) Hoist Hook

25 Bridle Bridles are used to suspend loads between beams.
Adjusting the length of the bridle legs allows a rigger to hit any point between the beams. Baskets Bridle Legs Apex Hoist Hook or Stinger

26 Deck Chain Deck chains are used to adjust the length of bridles
Working links Deck chains are used to adjust the length of bridles Doing so allows riggers to shift points without having to move the bridle Dead links Hoist hook Hoist chain Target point A B

27 Truss Horizontal Box Truss Tower Box Truss Triangular Truss
Truss is used in arena rigging to suspend equipment such as lighting instruments, speakers, curtains and set pieces. The trusses are usually slung with round slings, clipped to chain motor hoists, and raised to the desired trim height. Truss is usually made from welded steel or aluminum tubing. To save weight, aluminum truss is more commonly used. There are three main truss configurations: Horizontal Box Truss Tower Box Truss Triangular Truss

28 Truss Horizontal box truss: Consists of four main pipes supported by perpendicular cross-members on the top and bottom, and diagonal cross-members on the sides. side view top view Diagonal cross-members make stronger truss than perpendicular cross-members. Since horizontal box truss is designed with diagonal cross-bracing only on the sides, it is only meant to be loaded on one axis, with the load suspended directly below it. Side loading horizontal box truss, or assembling it with the perpendicular cross-members on the sides, results in a weaker truss configuration.

29 Truss Tower box truss: Consists of four main pipes supported by diagonal cross-members on the top, bottom and sides. side view top view The diagonal members on all four sides of tower box truss make it strong vertically and horizontally. It should be used in applications where a vertical and horizontal load may be applied simultaneously. It is also designed to be stood on end and used as a vertical pillar or tower.

30 Truss Triangular truss: Consists of three main pipes supported by diagonal cross-members on all three sides. side view top view Triangular truss is usually suspended in a point down configuration as shown in the end view above. Loads suspended from the bottom chord (point), are less apt to spin the truss. Triangular truss may also be used as a vertical pillar or tower.

Trussing typically comes in sections which are bolted together to make a truss of the desired length. Care must also be given to match the pattern of the cross-members which make up the sides of the truss. CORRECT INCORRECT INCORRECT

32 Truss Bolting Use a spud wrench to line up bolt holes as needed.
Keep the bolts loose until all four are made. Be sure to use one washer on the bolt side and one washer on the nut side. Always torque truss bolts with a socket wrench. Two 8” Crescent wrenches won’t provide adequate torque. Flying truss with loose or missing bolts could be potentially disastrous. Always double check that all the bolts are tight before flying truss.

33 Rigging Hardware Eye bolts Block and Falls Come-a-long Lever Hoist
Chain Falls Theatrical Pipe Pipe Clamps Ratchet Straps Arbor Weight

34 Eye Bolts Come in various sizes and shapes
Shouldered and non-shouldered Examples in training structure Import and Domestic Meant to take load in a vertical configuration only. Remember that the W.L.L. decreases when a Eye-bolt is pulled from an angle.

35 Lever Hoist and Chain Fall
¼,1, 2 and 3 ton models Used in place of motors sometimes Do not require power May be limited by the amount of chain Lever Hoist Used to lift loads short distances No power necessary 1, 2 and 3 ton models available.

36 Pipe clamps and Pipe Pipe clamps Also called Chez Boroughs
Used in lighting and rigging Beware of the WLL of the clamp Steel and Aluminum models available Pipe Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 Used in theatrical Rigging Outside Dia. of 1 ½” to 4” Most common is 2” OD

37 Ratchet Straps Ratchet Straps
Used for theatrical, arena and Industrial use Come in sizes of 1” and 2” Used tagged and newer models when available Several different hook and end connections available Endless loop models and hook models Lubricate regularly Inspect prior to use Conduct Exercise using 2” endless loop ratchet.

38 Motorized Hoists & Load Distribution

39 Chain Hoists The most commonly used hoists for theatrical rigging are CM™ Loadstar chain motor hoists. ½-ton and 1-ton hoists have single reeved chains. 2-ton hoists have double reeved chains.

40 Chain Motor Hoists Electric chain motor hoists are the most common tool used to suspend loads for arena rigging. hook swivel control cable chain bag eye bolt for chain bag clip chain power cable to control box Three sizes of hoists are commonly used: Size Speed Weight Chain Weight/ft 1/2 ton 16 ft./min. 62 lbs lbs. 1 ton 16 ft./min. 98 lbs lbs. 2 ton 8 ft./min. 110 lbs lbs.

41 Drum Hoists or Winch Typically used for performer flying and scenery
High performance and high cost. Typically a permanent install item. Portable units used in movie stunts and arenas.

42 Load Distributions Two Point Truss .5 Evenly Distributed Truss

43 Load Distributions Evenly Distributed Truss Three Point Truss .1875
.625 Evenly Distributed Truss

44 Load Distributions Four Point Truss .133 .367 Evenly Distributed Truss

45 Load Distributions Evenly Distributed Truss Five Point Truss .098 .286
.232 Evenly Distributed Truss

46 Rigging Techniques Tag lines
Hard hat safety, glasses, gloves, steel toe work boots Placing wood pads underneath crane Talking to crane operator: How to signal the lift Destination of the load Direction of the swing Radios work better when the signal man cannot be seen Proper footprint of the crane to be looked at before work can begin

47 Trunnion Characteristics -Lifting points
Not a positive connection Enables two part sling Easier to unhook Requires a vertical pull Good for hooking below top Obstructions above trunnion a problem

48 Anchor and Lifting Equalization
Needs to be done when dispersing the weight of a load over a long or short distance. Can lower the need for single point attachments Several attachments spread out can raise the lifting device capacity

49 Center of Gravity Usually marked or mathematically found and marked by an engineer Can be found by running a tape measure down the object to be lifted and marking center if a balanced load May be off center with certain pieces May need to be considered variable when lifting liquds Extremely important when lifting Sometimes found with trial and error with lighter objects

50 Center of Gravity

51 Work Flow

52 Work Flow for Load in Mark the plot on the floor using tape measures and chalk. Place appropriate motor next to each marked point. Assemble wire rope, shackles, deck chain, etc. Road riggers instruct the sequence of points that are pulled. Riggers position themselves on the beams above points. Lower in ropes positioned in the proper upstage / downstage and cross-stage planes. One rope needed for a deadhang and two ropes for a normal two-leg bridle. Ground riggers double check that components are assembled correctly and that the ropes are hanging in the correct planes and free of obstruction. A bowline is used to tie the rope into the appropriate shackle. Length of the bowline loop is determined by consultation with the high rigger and/or knowledge of the required length for a given beam.

53 Work Flow for Load in High riggers attach the components around the appropriate beam and have the point checked for position. A ground rigger plumbs the chain and puts body weight on it. This chinches the hitches and takes the sag out of bridle legs. If a plumb chain does not fall in the middle of the point drawn on the floor, the ground rigger asks for it to be slid along the beam until it does. If sliding doesn’t allow the point to hit the middle of the mark, the head or road rigger must be consulted for adjustment of the component lengths. Riggers move from point to point until the entire show is hung. Two designated high riggers stay behind and double check the correct assembly of each point before returning to the floor. Storage cases and empty motor cases are moved into a storage area. A small rigging crew stays until all the chain motor hoists are at trim height. This is a precaution in case of a bad motor which must be swapped out.

54 Work Flow for Load out Ground riggers retrieve stored cases and high riggers to head for the grid. Motor cases are placed near where each point will land. Storage cases are positioned in a central location. Hoists run until the equipment is at a convenient work height. The equipment is removed and the truss landed on the ground. Pickle (local control) is used to lower the hoist into road case. Hoists run to limit, motor reversed for a couple of links. Pile the excess chain into the case. Disconnect the strain relief clip. Disconnect power cable and pickle. Clip the empty chain bag onto box. Motor box is now prepped for the high rigger to lower in the remainder of the chain.

55 Work Flow for Load out High rigger ties into the proper shackle, lifts and holds the weight of the point and disassembles the hitches around the beams. When the high rigger has disassembled the hitches and is ready to lower the components to the ground, he calls to the ground rigger and waits until he are in position to receive the point. Ground rigger verbally controls the rate of descent. Ground rigger ensures that no one walks beneath the point as it is being lowered and guides the chain into the road case. Ground rigger then guides the wire rope and other components onto the floor. Coil the wire rope. Fold the burlap beam pads. Store the shackles, spansets, and deck chain in the appropriate cases.

56 Fall Protection

57 Harnesses Only full body harnesses are acceptable for fall arrest.
OSHA (D) (17) “The attachment point of the body harness must be in the center of the wearer’s back near shoulder level, or above the wearer’s head.”

58 Lanyards Only shock absorbing lanyards are acceptable for fall arrest.
The lanyard must have a nominal break strength of 5,400 pounds and a withstand a tensile load of 4000 lbs. without deformation. The lanyard length must be adjusted to provide a free-fall of no greater than 6 feet and prevent contact with lower levels.

59 Lanyards OSHA (D)(5) “Snaphooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connecting member.” Only locking connectors are acceptable for fall arrest.

60 OSHA Fall Protection Regulations Section 1926.501B(1)
“Unprotected sides and edges.” “Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.” Rich Content The content is relevant and uniquely valuable to me. Appropriate Technology The technology used on the site helps but never hinders my goals. Compelling Visual Design The visual appearance is appropriate, appealing and supports my goals. Full Disclosure of Information I know how my information is being used and I benefit by sharing it.

61 OSHA Training Requirements
OSHA (A)(1) “The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards.” OSHA (B)(1) “The employer shall verify compliance with paragraph A of this section by preparing a written certification record. The written certification record shall contain the name of the employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the employer.”

62 Passive Fall Protection
Passive Fall Protection Systems help prevent falls from heights. They are preferable because they require no action on the part of the workers they protect. Examples include: Guardrails Personnel Nets Hole Covers Ladder Cages

63 Fall Protection The following rules apply to personal fall protection equipment: Fall protection equipment must fit properly, be adjusted correctly, and inspected before each use. All components must have a min. break strength of 5000 lbs. Lanyards must limit the arresting force on a rigger to 900 lbs. Riggers must not free-fall more than 6 feet or contact lower levels. Lanyards must be attached to the harness in the center of the riggers back. Any equipment subject to impact loading must be removed from service and replaced.

64 Fall Arrest vs. Fall Restraint
Fall restraint systems- involve the use of a body belt which prevents a worker from reaching an area where a free-fall could occur. Body belts should never be used if there is any chance of a free-fall.

65 Fall Arrest vs. Fall Restraint
Fall arrest systems- protect workers who must access areas where free-falls are possible. Fall arrest systems are designed to stop a free-falling worker. Full body harnesses and shock-absorbing lanyards are required.

66 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Personal Fall Arrest Systems consist of: Anchorage Connector Shock Absorbing Lanyard Full Body Harness

67 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
All personal fall arrest components must be inspected for damage prior to each use. All fall arrest components must have a minimum tensile strength of 5000 lbs. (22.2 KN) Maximum weight for a rigger and tools is 310 pounds. Any personal fall arrest equipment subjected to impact loading must be immediately removed from service. Maximum arresting force on a person wearing a full body harness must be 1800 lbs. or less Maximum deceleration distance is 3-1/2 feet.

68 Calculating Fall Distances
A six foot shock absorbing lanyard requires a minimum /2 foot clearance between the attachment point and the lower level.

69 Anchorage OSHA (D)(15) “Anchorages used for the attachment of personal fall protection shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5000 lbs. (22.2KN) per employee attached.”

70 Anchorage Workers on suspended scaffold, (swing stages), must have a fall protection anchorage independent of the anchorage for the scaffold. Riggers working on rappel must use an OSHA compliant fall protection system in addition to the rappel rope. Rappel line Fall protection line

71 Anchorage OSHA (D)(23) “Personal fall arrest systems shall not be attached to guardrail systems, nor shall they be attached to hoists.” Don’t attach your fall protection, i.e. lanyards, here.

72 Lifelines

73 Self Retracting Lifelines
Self retracting lifelines are spring loaded cable reels that automatically adjust the length of cable. In the event of a fall, a centrifugal brake engages, (just like a car’s seat belt). Climbing up or down too quickly may engage the brake or build slack in the cable.

74 Self Retracting Lifelines
SRL’s are designed to be clipped directly into the back d-ring. Depending on the type of SRL, attaching a shock absorber between the harness and SRL may result in a greater fall distance and overload the SRL.

75 Vertical Fall Arrest OSHA (D)(10)(I) “When vertical lifelines are used, each employee shall be attached to a separate lifeline.” OSHA (D)(12) “Self retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distances to 2 ft. or less shall be capable of sustaining a min. tensile load of 3000 lbs.(13.3 KN).” OSHA (D)(13) “Self retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distances to 2 ft. or less, ripstich lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a min. tensile load of 5000 lbs.(22.2 KN).”

76 Vertical Lifelines Rope grabs or cable grabs are typically used to attach workers to vertical lifelines.

77 Vertical Lifelines 3 ft. is the maximum lanyard length when attaching to a trailing rope or cable grab. Be sure your rope grab is traveling along the rope properly. This prevents either hanging from it or creating slack in the lifeline.

78 Horizontal Lifelines OSHA (D)(8) “Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, installed and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two.”

79 Horizontal Lifelines Horizontal lifelines typically require large clearances above lower levels.

80 Horizontal Lifeline

81 Lifeline Anchorage Make connections as shown above.
Tying knot a or choking around a beam, significantly reduces the strength of a lifeline. Lifelines are not designed to support the required load if they have been knotted or choked. All sharp surfaces must be avoided or padded to prevent the cutting or abrading lifelines. Make connections as shown above.

82 Procedures

83 Procedures Workers are required to use a fall protection system 100% of the time when exposed to fall hazards. Y-lanyards are used to allow workers to remain attached to the fall arrest system at all times.

84 Procedures-Swing falls
Workers must not be allowed to take swinging falls into walls, beams or other objects. Anchorage should be made directly above workers.

85 Procedures In order to prevent a free-fall greater than six feet: The attachment on the harness must be at or below the level of attachment to the anchorage, or the lanyard must be shortened. OK OK NO!

86 Rescue

87 Rescue OSHA (D) (20) “The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves.”

88 Rescue Self Rescue: The fallen worker climbs to safety.
Assisted Rescue: Co-workers help the fallen worker to climb to safety. Ladder/ Manlift Rescue: Co-workers either lower a ladder or raise a manlift to the fallen worker. Roped Rescue: Employs a belay line and lifting apparatus to secure the fallen worker & raise them to safety, or lift them off their fall protection and lower them to the ground.

89 Rigging from Lifts

90 Lifts Personnel lifts come in various sizes, configurations, and power sources. Three main types of personnel lifts are used for entertainment rigging: Single person Genie™ lifts Scissors lifts Boom lifts

91 Lifts Genie™ lifts are one-person work platforms small enough to be loaded onto trucks by hand. They are typically pushed into place then raised with an electric motor. Genie™ lifts have removable outriggers which must be in place to raise the platform.

92 Lifts “When working from an elevated scissors lift (ANSI A92.6), a worker need only be protected from falling by a properly designed and maintained guardrail system.” OSHA Standards Interpretation and Compliance Letters

93 Lifts OSHA (b) (2)(v) “A body belt shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift” OSHA (b) (2)(iii) “Belting off to an adjacent pole structure or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.”

94 Thank You for Your Time

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