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Tools for Success In Literacy Nancy Hennessy M.Ed. AZIDA 2/28/09

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1 Tools for Success In Literacy Nancy Hennessy M.Ed. AZIDA 2/28/09

2 Will….. I saw a red surfbord laying on the rode. It look like my friend so I hid it in the bushis just in case. When I whent to the beach I saw my frend Spence he had his bord….

3 “I would rather have a root canal than read.” -excitement and love for learning that “little bunnies” have as they enter school slowly dies-

4 -Significant numbers of struggling readers -Special education not “closing gap” -Increasing demands for literacy

5 “Statistically, more American children suffer long term life harm from the process of learning to read than from parental abuse, accidents and all other childhood diseases and disorders combined. In purely economic terms, reading related difficulties cost our nation more than the war on terrorism, crime, and drugs combined.” Children of the Code National Institute for Family Literacy

6 Many educators lack knowledge of structure of language….. Foundational knowledge & methodology often not taught in preparation proems…… Most licensure tests do not assess research- based reading knowledge………..

7 Analysis of 252 reading course syllabi from 72 institutions.

8 Coverage of 5 Essential Components 5/54/5 3/52/5 1/5 none

9 State Level Requirements… … “Only a handful of states has revised their teaching standards to insist that institutions train teachers in the science of reading instruction.” Some states with revised standards for higher education: Florida, Maryland, Colorado, Virginia, Idaho, Michigan Moats, 2008

10 Professional Development Practices

11 Meet my colleague (or perhaps, yours…) Ursula the Uninformed

12 My story and others-true confessions I, Ursula and perhaps, a few of you, were dysteachic! Had the art but the science was pseudo at best! Dysteachia still exists!

13 Ursula and others, in the absence of knowledge/understanding, have had to rely on: –tradition –beliefs –superstition –anecdote –intuition “Research is only defensible foundation for educational practice.” Voice of Evidence, 2004

14 Isn’t it enough that I bought a new reading program? Didn’t you learn how to teach reading in licensing program? Is this (PD) really going to take more than an afternoon? You want me to do what?

15 Voice of evidence Data Collaboration Flexibility Instruction What we and our kids need is Ida the Informed…………….. She’s got her change shoes on!!!! Disciplinary Knowledge Attitudes

16 Leadership Collaboration Best Practices

17 Michael Fullan, 2008

18 New materials New behaviors/practices New beliefs/understandings -Michael Fullan

19 Using what we have learned to create: Informed literacy instruction = Practices x Instructor x Environment

20 Informed Literacy Instruction=P x I x E Practices- aligned with evidence about effective literacy instruction Instructors-possess adequate knowledge, training, experience and support to deliver instructional programs with fidelity and intensity. Environments-that allocate resources and time so that all learners (educators & and students) have access to continuum of learning opportunities targeted at appropriate level, delivered with sufficient intensity, duration and support. Adapted Emerson Dickman, 2007

21 What might we learn about practices, knowledge and environment if we could catch a ride on a few of Ida’s & Ike’s neural networks or yours?

22 What do students need to know and be able to do (it)? How do we know if they have learned it? What will we do if they have not learned it? What will we do if they already know it?

23 “A well child model”  A tiered approach to instruction: -Core reading program -Small group supplemental -Intensive strategic 1:1 or small group  Ongoing assessment process: Benchmark, screening, progress monitoring. diagnostic & comprehensive…..

24 RTI………………………………. “A framework, process, approach that has three primary purposes: -prevention -intervention -a component of identification of students with LD.” A little bit of Hennessy & others.. “The practice of providing: -high-quality instruction/intervention - matched to student needs - using learning rate over time and level of performance to inform educational decisions.” IDEA Partnerships, 2007

25 Systematic approach that calls for systems change……….. –Curriculum and instruction –Structure of support programs –School organization –Allocation of materials, resources, time –Professional development

26 New Roles in Response to Intervention Creating Success for Schools and Students ASHA CASE CEC CLD DLD IDA IRA LDA NASDE NASP NCLD NEA SSWA Speech Language Pathologist LD Teacher Reading Intervention Specialist Reading Specialist Parent & Family School Psychologist General Education Teacher School Social Worker A Collaborative Project November, 2006

27 Systematic instruction Logical sequence concepts/skills Intentional v.s. incidental Instruction Differentiated instruction Mastery of prerequisite skills Integration and generalization of concepts/skills (adapted Reid Lyon, 2008)

28 Assessment Who What When Why

29 Assessment Screening Who-all of the kids When-three times a year What-skills that critical to acquisition Fab Five, indicators for being “at risk” Why –Who is at risk for reading failure? –Who should we monitor? –Who needs intervention?

30 Comprehensive Assessment “ formal and informal measures designed to collect data on history, cognitive processes and academic achievement to be used for purposes of identifying/diagnosing learning disabilities.”

31 Comprehensive evaluation is conducted by a multidisciplinary team to determine eligibility for special education and related services. Parents are informed………. Evaluation uses multiple sources of assessment data e.g. data from standardized and norm-referenced measures, observations made by parents, students, and teachers, and data collected in Tiers 1 and 2. Intensive, systematic, specialized instruction is provided and additional RTI data are collected, as needed, in accordance with special education timelines and other mandates. Procedural safeguards……………………. NJCLD, 2005

32 Using what we have learned to create: Informed literacy instruction = Practices x Instructor x Environment

33 Ursula and I used to think that if we knew how to use our teacher’s manual, we knew how to teach reading. Ida is well aware she can only teach what she understands …

34 “The single most powerful and influential invention in the history of the world is right before and between your eyes.”

35 The reading brain………. Left inferior frontal gyrus Left temporo-parietal cortex Left infero-temporal cortex neural basis of reading Speech sounds Alphabetic code Visual word form

36 Brain Briefings, Society for Neuroscience Dyslexia

37 Word Recognition x Language Comprehension= Reading Comprehension Gough & Tunmer,

38 Dspt dcds f rfrm ffrts, crtn grps f yth—frcn-mrcns, Ltns, nglsh Lngg Lrnrs (LLs), nd this frm lw-ncm hms—cntn t ndrprrm n cmmn ndctrs f cdmc chvmnt. Th crrnt trnd twrd hgh-stks tstng mks the chvmnt gp bth mr glrng nd mr cnsqntl. n k rt f th gp s dsprts n ltrc chvmnt. lthgh rsrch hs tght s mch bt wht s ndd t lrn t rd wrds ff pg... Carnegie Report, 2003

39 Despite decades of reform efforts, certain groups of youth—African-Americans, Latinos, English Language Learners (ELLs), and those from low-income homes— continue to underperform on common indicators of academic achievement. The current trend toward high- stakes testing makes the achievement gap both more glaring and more consequential. One key root of the gap is disparities in literacy achievement. Although research has taught us much about what is needed to learn to read words off a page, it has provided much less knowledge about effective means of helping students learn to read to learn. Carnegie Report, 2003

40 Scarborough’s Reading Rope (2001) p. 54 ● Background Knowledge ● Vocabulary Knowledge ● Language Structures ● Verbal Reasoning ● Literacy Knowledge ● Phonological Awareness ● Decoding (and Spelling) ● Sight Recognition SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.

41 Four Processing Systems “A model for thinking about how reading develops” Seidenberg and McClellan, 1989 Adams, 1990

42 Four Processing Systems Moats, 2005 Context Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Meaning Processor writing outputspeech outputreading input speech sound system letter memory Phonemic Awareness Fluency Phonics Concept & Information; Sentence Context; Text Structure Vocabulary

43 p i t c h /p/ /i/ /ch/ to throw, erect, propose, a tone, a playing field The scouts will pitch their tents.

44 “Literacy is a secondary system, dependent on language as the primary system so effective teachers know a good deal about language.” Snow, 2005

45 Including but not limited to…. Understanding: –contributions and instructional implications of language systems and, –as well as the complexity of skilled reading.

46 Can you read this word? What you know about this word? Which language systems are you tapping into?

47 Consider the language-literacy connection… Structure of language –Phonology –Morphology –Orthography –Semantics –Syntax –Discourse and pragmatics –Etymology Components of instruction –Phonemic awareness –Phonics (decoding and spelling) –Fluency –Vocabulary –Comprehension –Writing –Assessment Moats, LETRS 2005

48 Reading Rope 2001 ● Background Knowledge ● Vocabulary Knowledge ● Language Structures ● Verbal Reasoning ● Literacy Knowledge ● Phonological Awareness ● Decoding (and Spelling) ● Sight Recognition SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.

49 What about kids like Will, Maria, Avi, Joseph????

50 Dyslexia is….. a specific learning _________ that is ___________ based and characterized by difficulties with decoding and _______ that are the result of a deficit in the ________component of language and is often______ in relation to other abilities__________and effective classroom Instruction, secondary consequences may include problems in_________. Research Definition-IDA, 2002 comprehension phonological disability encoding unexpected Neurologically cognitive

51 “Most people think dyslexia is a reading disorder but it is also a spelling and writing problem.” Berninger, 2006 “Students with dyslexia needed more than 20 times the amount of practice that students without dyslexia need to learn letter sequences.” Berninger, 2000

52 Closing the gap… “If a child is dyslexic early on in school, that child will continue to experience reading problems unless he is provided with scientifically based proven intervention.” Shaywitz, 2003

53 Ida & Ike understand that: “Teaching matters and good teaching can change the brain in a way that has potential to benefit struggling readers.” Shaywitz, 2003

54 I think Ida & Ike know a thing or two about an informed environment.

55 How can I create a professional learning community in which…… Support and guidance is provided for implementation of evidence-based instructional improvements. Everyone is responsible for student achievement. Everyone commits to a norm of continuous learning. Resources are allocated for professional learning and recognized as essential to student success in these cultures.

56 Skill Development Ladder Unconsciously Skilled/Talented Consciously Skilled Consciously Unskilled Unconsciously Unskilled

57 They know that if as an educator, I seek no feedback from my students, teachers; I do not analyze and evaluate my work in a manner that changes my own emphasis, repertoire or timing; I do not visit or observe others as they teach, assess, coach, lead; I do not share the work of students with colleagues for feedback, suggestions and critique; I do not attend workshops, seminars, training courses and read professional literature on aspects of my teaching;

58 I do not welcome visitors with experience and expertise to observe and provide feedback on practices in my classroom, school, district; I have no individualized professional development plan focused on classroom, school, district changes to improve student learning; and finally, I have no systematic evaluation of my practices tied to individual, grade/department, school and district wide goals, THEN I have absolutely no way to become better as a educator Adapted Carl Glickman, 2002

59 “Tempered radicals inspire change …They inspire by having the courage to tell the truth even when it is difficult to do so, and by having the conviction to stay engaged in tough conversations…their leadership inspires-and matters-in big and small ways every day.” Debra Myerson, 2005

60 Thank you! Nancy


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