3 A wire rope is a Machine with many moving parts
4 The Core Fiber IWRCStrand
5 How to describe any wire rope A typical wire rope may be designated 6X25 FW PRF RLL XIP IWRC. This translates to: A 6 strand (6X25) of filler wire construction (FW). The grade of wire used is Extra Improved Plow Steel (XIP). The strands are preformed (PRF) in helical pattern before being laid Right lang (RLL) around an Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC).
6 6X19 IWRC (Internal Wirerope Core)
8 Paint To Paint = 1 Lay
9 How a Wire Rope “Machine” Works
10 Right Lay Regular Lay Left Lay Regular Lay Right Lay Lang Lay Equalizes Unequal Forces on The Rope as it Goes Over the Sheaves
11 LUBRICATION Ropes and chains shall be regularly lubricated
12 BLOCK & TACKLE
14 Slings Choker Basket Straight Bridle
15 Straight Sling
16 Choker Sling
17 Basket Sling
18 Bridle Sling
19 Two legged Bridle Sling
20 Four legged Bridle Sling
21 Four legged Bridle Sling
24 Mechanical Splice
25 Hand Tucked Eye Splice
26 Hand Tucked Eye Splice
28 Mechanical Splice
31 ROPE INSPECTIONS
32 Always measure the diameter of any rope at its widest point - by turning the caliper on the rope
33 What’s wrong with this?
34 Broken Wires
35 How many broken wires?
37 Close-up view
39 Bird Caging
41 Slings and Attachments
42 OSHA STANDARDS 29 CFR 1926 CONSTRUCTION
(a) Rigging equipment for material handling (a) General. (1) Inspection of rigging equipment (2) Rigging equipment shall not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load (3) Rigging equipment, when not in use, shall be removed (4) Marking of special custom design grabs, hooks, clamps, or other lifting accessories, for such units as modular panels, prefabricated structures and similar materials, shall be marked to indicate the safe working loads and shall be proof-tested prior to use to 125 percent of their rated load.
44 (5) "Scope." –Applies to slings used in conjunction with other material handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, in employment's covered by this part. –Types of slings covered are those made from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene). (6) "Inspections." –Each day before being used, –Additional inspections where service conditions warrant. –Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service (a) Rigging equipment for material handling
(b) Alloy steel chains. (2) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy steel chains, shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the chain.
(b) Alloy steel chains. –(b)(3) Job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods, etc., or other such attachments, shall not be used.
48 Alloy Steel Chain (b)(4) Rated capacity (working load limit) for alloy steel chain slings shall conform to the values shown in Table H-1.
49 Cracked,Pitted & Non-alloy Repair Link (b)(5) Whenever wear at any point of any chain link exceeds that shown in Table H-2, the assembly shall be removed from service.
50 Legal Repair Link
51 Illegal Repair Link Doesn’t have design load Strength - Malleability
52 Sling shackle
58 (b)(6) "Inspections." –(i) In addition to the inspection required by other paragraphs of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service conditions; (C) nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months. (b)(6)(ii) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall make such record available for examination (b) Rigging equipment for material handling Rope Inspections
59 (c) Wire rope. –Use tables H-3 - H-4 Rated Capacities For Single Leg Slings - to determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications of improved plow steel wire rope and wire rope slings with various types of terminals (c) Rigging equipment for material handling
60 (c)(2) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. (c)(3) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots, except on haul back lines on scrapers (c) Rigging equipment for material handling
61 (c)(4) The following limitations shall apply to the use of wire rope: –(i) Eye splice –(ii)Eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings continuous piece without knot or splice. –(iii) Eyes in wire rope slings –(iv) When wire rope shows signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. (5) When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, –(i) When used for eye splices, the U-bolt shall be applied so that the "U" section is in contact with the dead end of the rope. (c)(6) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices (c) Rigging equipment for material handling
62 Internal Color Code String To ID. MFG.
63 Wire Rope Clips
65 Sand cast clip
66 Fist Grip
67 Double Saddle Wire Rope Clip
68 (e) Synthetic webbing (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene). (1) The employer shall have each synthetic web sling marked or coded to show: –(i) Name or trademark of manufacturer. –(ii) Rated capacities for the type of hitch. –(iii) Type of material (e) Rigging equipment for material handling
69 (2) Rated capacity shall not be exceeded. (3) "Webbing." Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width. (4) "Fittings." Fittings shall be: –(i) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and –(ii) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the webbing (e) Rigging equipment for material handling
70 (5) "Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes.” Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling (e) Rigging equipment for material handling
71 (6) "Environmental conditions." When synthetic web slings are used, the following precautions shall be taken: –(i) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present. –(ii) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present. –(iii) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present (e) Rigging equipment for material handling
72 (7) "Safe operating temperatures." Synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180 deg. F (82.2 deg. C). Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 200 deg. F (93.33 deg. C) (e) Rigging equipment for material handling
73 (8) "Removal from service." Synthetic web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: –(i) Acid or caustic burns; –(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface; –(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts; –(iv) Broken or worn stitches; or –(v) Distortion of fittings (e) Rigging equipment for material handling
74 All rigging equipment must be inspected on a regular basis
75 Check handle of metal mesh sling for rated load capacity
76 Most damage is easy to see
77 Heat Damage
79 Do Not use for lifting Doesn’t have design load Strength - Malleability