Presentation on theme: "TRAINING OBJECTIVES. TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue."— Presentation transcript:
3Participants will understand: TRAINING OBJECTIVESParticipants will understand:the components of a Rope Rescue Systemthe specific duties of Rope Rescue Team membersthe Tandem Prusik Belay SystemLowering BelayRaising Belayunderstand Lowering SystemsMechanical AdvantageRaising SystemsHow to Reverse the System
4Placer County Sheriff’s ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMPlacer County Sheriff’sMountain Rescue Team
9SAFETY OFFICERRescue situations rapidly change. The effective Safety Officer must be able to forecast potential safety issues.
10SAFETY OFFICERThe Safety Officer is responsible for monitoring and assessing the safety aspects of all team operations, door-to-door.
11SAFETY OFFICERAt least one team Safety Officer should be assigned to every rescue mission and training event.
12SAFETY OFFICERAny member of the team can call STOP to an operation if a safety concern is detected
13SAFETY OFFICER Scene Safety Establishes, and marks a minimum 6’ safety zone at the edgeAll personnel must be on a tether beyond this safety zone
14SAFETY OFFICER Determine if the rigging location is safe Scene Safety Loose rocksUnstable overhangAwareness of any environmental safety issuesPoison OakHornet’s nestRequirements for Personal Floatation Devices
15SAFETY OFFICER Scene Safety Checks each member’s minimum PPE Helmet GlovesHarnessEstablishes a Safe Zone 6’ from edge
16SAFETY OFFICER Scene Safety Responsible for selecting safe helicopter landing zone.Assures an emergency medical plan is in placeAssures Horseplay does not occur
17SAFETY OFFICER System Safety Checks each Anchor Proper anchor materialsProper anchor for situationBomb-proof anchor systemAngles
18SAFETY OFFICER System Safety Checks each system to the component level KnotsProper carabiners in useCarabiners lockedProper and adequate edge protection in place
19SAFETY OFFICER System Safety Checks each System Adequate MA Proper overall setupProper equipment usedChecks for a “Kill Zone” in the rigged system and marks the kill zone area
20SAFETY OFFICER Edge Tender Safety Edge tender has independent anchor Edge tender is tethered before approaching the edge
21SAFETY OFFICER Operation Safety Assures change-over procedures are conducted in a safe manner.Assures adequate medical resources are considered when making search team assignments.
22SAFETY OFFICER Operation Safety Monitors the entire operation. The Safety Officer can stop the operation at any time.Monitor vehicle safety: sleepiness and adequate breaks on convoys.
25BELAY DEFINITIONSBelay – to provide protection against a fall by handling a tensionless rope (belay rope) in such a manner that it may be taken in or let out as another person(s) climbs, rappels, or ascends a fixed rope or is raised, lowered or transported, yet be secure to hold this load in case of failure of the main support.Self Belay – to provide protection against a fall by the person(s) needing the protection moving their adjustable connection point along a fixed rope, that remains without tension until the fall, as they climb, rappel or ascend a different fixed, or are raised, lowered or transported, by a separate rope.3. Conditional Belay – to provide protection against a fall by using a rope, that is already under tension from all or part of the load, to hold the load should a failure occur in some other part of the system.(RFR BD adapted from BCCTR Notes prepared by Arnor Larson)
26BELAY DEFINITIONS4. Conditional Self Belay – to provide protection against a fall by the use of a conditional belay that is managed by the person(s) needing the protection.5. Auto Belay – (“Deadman” Belay) a self activating belay that does not require a positive action to engage it. The term auto can be applied to any of the 4 types of belay listed above when it is appropriate.Pseudo Belay – a belay that will not work; that is pretend, counterfeit or false. The term pseudo can be applied to any of the 4 types of belay listed above when it is appropriate.(RFR BD adapted from BCCTR Notes prepared by Arnor Larson)
45EDGE TENDER Edge Tender Safety Edge tender has independent anchor (may share a bomber anchor point, but may not attach to system anchors)Edge tender is tied into an adjustable tether before approaching the edgeClears loose rocks and tripping hazards from the edge
46EDGE TENDER System Safety Places ropes on appropriate edge protection Assures ropes remain on edge protection.
47EDGE TENDERAttendant SafetyAssist attendant and stokes over the edge
48EDGE TENDER Attendant Safety Weighting the system before going over the edge removes slack and stretch in the main line. 20’ of rope in operation, with a 2% stretch, will result in 3”-6” of sudden movement if the system is not weighted.Tightening of knotsStretch of ropeRigging extension
49EDGE TENDERAs attendant goes over the edge, the “Lower slow” used in approaching the edge should be slowed even more,The upper body of the attendant is rotating through an arc. For a brief period, the feet are neither moving back nor moving down.
50EDGE TENDER Communicates with, and for, the attendant at the edge. Halts system 1 meter from edge for tensioningEdge Tender Ops Leader“STOP!”“Why Stop?”“Attendant tensionthe system” <attendant weights system>“Lower slow”“Lowering slow”“Attendant at the edge” <attendant rotatesover edge>
51EDGE TENDERProvides voice communication between Ops Leader and Attendant to relay changes in speed controlObserves the path of the rope to detect additional rope hazards requiring edge pro
52ADJUSTABLE EDGE TENDER LEASH 8 mm Accessory cordAttached to independent anchorAttached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner6 mm prusik cordAttached to 8mm cord with prusik
54BELAY LINE COMMUNICATIONS “ON BELAY” Is the belay ready?“BELAY ON” Yes, the belay is ready“SLACK IN THE BELAY LINE”“TENSION IN THE BELAY LINE”“OFF BELAY”“BELAY OFF”
55MAIN LINE COMMUNICATIONS “MAIN LINE READY?” Is the main line ready?“MAIN LINE IS READY” Yes, the main line is ready“LOWER SLOW”“RAISE SLOW”“LOWER FASTER”“RAISE FASTER”
56All Activity Stops All Devices are Set COMMUNICATIONS“STOP”“WHY STOP”All Activity StopsAll Devices are Set
57Roll Call COMMUNICATIONS OPS: “Stand by for roll call” OPS: “On belay?”BELAYER: “Belay on”OPS: “Main line ready?”MAINLINE: “Main line ready on four bars”OPS: “Edge tender ready?”BELAYER: “Edge Tender ready”OPS: “Attendant ready?”ATTENDANT: “Attendant ready”OPS: “Medic ready?”MAINLINE: “Medic ready”Roll Call
58BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA British Columbia Council on Technical Rescuede facto standardBelay Competence Drop Test Criteria200 kg (440 lb) mass1 meter (3.28 feet) fall3 meters (9.84 feet) rope< 1 meter (3.28 feet) arrest distanceMaximum 15 kN (3,375 lb) peak impact forceThis test also calls for the maximum force transmitted throughthe system to the anchor point to be no greater than 15 kN (3,375 lbf.)
59BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA Edge Transition is the Worst Case ScenarioSlippage through the belay deviceTightening of knotsStretch of ropePrussic extensionRigging extension
61LOAD RELEASE HITCHThe Radium 3:1 Load Release Hitch (LRH) allows the load on a rope grab to be transferred to another deviceThe LRH is used in conjunction with a tandem prusik belayORThe LRH is used in conjunction with a Progress Capture Device (PCD)
62LOAD RELEASE HITCHBefore employing the LRH be certain that the load is being transferred to a secure anchorIf there is any doubt regarding the safety of an impact loaded LRH, it should be retired
63LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE Attach a Figure-8 on a bight to the Load-side carabinerPlace the Figure-8 close to the carabiner spineBring the standing part of the cord up through the Anchor-end carabinerPlace the standing part close to the carabiner spine
64LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE Bring the cord back through the Lode-side carabinerPlace the cord on the Gate side of the Figure-8
65LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE Bring the cord back to the Anchor-side and tie a Munter hitch on the Gate sideTie the Munter Hitch in the Release position with the standing end on the Gate side
66LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE Secure the LRH by forming a mule knot around all three cordsPosition the mule knot against the Munter hitchProvides a 3:1 mechanical advantageCan hold heavy loads without tightening
72LOWERING SYSTEMS Brake Bar Rack Standard for MRT Lowering systems A U-Shaped frameA series of barsHyper-barTie OffAdd Friction
73LOWERING SYSTEMS Advantages Allows friction to be varied, even when loadedDoes not twist ropeCan be easily attached to a rope without detaching from anchorCan use two ropesCan use varying sized ropes
74LOWERING SYSTEMS Disadvantages Bulkier and heavier than other lowering devicesMay take slightly longer to load the rope
75LOWERING SYSTEMS Other Considerations Eye may be oriented 90o Rope should pass over the loading grooveWelded eye on the frame is rated over 10,000 lbs. (44 kN)
76LOWERING SYSTEMS Other Considerations Bars may be aluminum or steel Bars come in a variety of shapesOnly use bars designed for your brake barAssure you are using a rescue rated brake bar rack
77LOWERING SYSTEMSSet up your anchor or check to assure that an established anchor is adequateEquipment that will be used later is attached to the anchor plate
78LOWERING SYSTEMSTie a figure-8 in the end of the rope and clip to the large hole in the anchor plate with a locking carabinerThis assures the rope does not leave unexpectedly if someone pulls the rope before the system is complete
79LOWERING SYSTEMSTo have the lowering system pass the whistle test, tie an 8mm prusik hitch to the anchor plate with a load release hitchThe disadvantage is having to mind the prusik
80LOWERING SYSTEMS Rig the rope through the brake bar Advise Ops Leader, “Main Line Ready to Lower!”Lock off the Brake Bar if it is to be unattended for any length of time
84Gravity = Weight 1 kN = 224.81 lbf 1 Person ≈ 1 kN 2 Person ≈ 2 kN
85The average rescuer can hold or apply a The average rescuer can hold or apply a .2 kN force with one hand (≈ 45 lbs)The average rescuer can hold or apply a .4 kN force with two hands (≈ 90 lbs)Hauling an rope ‘hand-over-hand’ is applying a force of lbs
86Impulse (force of impact) The average reaction time to a failure or rope movement is 1 secIn 1 sec a 1 kN load will travel 16 feetThe 1 kN load will be traveling 21.8 mphA fall of 16 ft on 85 ft of static rope will result in an impact force of 13.5 kN (3035 lbs)
87BELAY INCOMPETENCE CRITERIA Falls on a static ropeFatal falls on a static belay line would be the result of belayers not paying attentionWhat happens at 12 kN?
88Provides change of direction ONLY Pulley Types:Fixed pulleyProvides change of direction ONLY
94RAISING SYSTEMSHauling without the aid of a system is a Mechanical Advantage of 1:1Also known as the Armstrong Method
95RAISING SYSTEMSOur simplest system is the Simple 2:1 Mechanical AdvantageComponents are:RopeOne pulley
96RAISING SYSTEMSOur basic haul system is the simple 3:1 Mechanical AdvantageComponents are:RopeTwo (2) pulleysOne (1) rope grab
97RAISING SYSTEMSWith the addition of a single pulley, the 3:1 is converted to a 5:1Mechanical AdvantageComponents are:RopeFour (4) pulleys
98RAISING SYSTEMSPiggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 3:1 provides a compound 6:1Mechanical Advantage
99Setting and Resetting the System RAISING SYSTEMSSetting and Resetting the SystemOnce the haul team has collapsed the system, it must be resetto its maximum length so hauling can continueHaul Prusik reaches Progress Capture Device (PCD)Main Line Lead: “Stop Resetting”PCD is set by Haul Team MemberHaul Team Member setting PCD: “Set”Haul Team Member fully extends the throw of the systemHaul Team Member extending system: “Reset”OPS: “Raise Slow”Do NOT use the words “Reset” or “Resetting” while actually extendingthe system. Only use the word “Reset” when the task is fully completed.
100RAISING SYSTEMSPiggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 5:1 provides a compound 10:1Mechanical Advantage
102REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Work on only one line at a time Change the Main Line first, then the Belay LineWait for direction from the Ops Leader before you do anything.Don’t anticipate a change to the system
103REVERSING THE SYSTEMS before you do it Communicate Tell the Ops Leader what you are doing,before you do it
104REVERSING THE SYSTEMSThroughout the conversion, the system load will be on the Main Line.The Belay line will be locked off or continually tended
105REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 1Assure you have the equipment you will needOne PulleyOne Progress Capture Device (PCD)
106REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 2Lock off your lowering device
107REVERSING THE SYSTEMSStep 2Attach your Progress Capture Device (PCD)
108REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 3Unlock the lowering device and load the PCDStep 4Attach the pulley to the LRH and rig the pulley
109REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 5Assemble your Haul pulley onto the running end of the ropeStep6Assemble your Rope Grab Device
110REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 5Attach your Rope Grab DeviceAdvise Ops Leader,“Main Line Ready to Haul!”
111REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 1Assure you have the equipment you will needOne Brake Bar Rack
112REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 2Lower the Load onto the Progress Capture Device (PCD)Remove the pulley and Rope grab and attach to the anchor plate
113REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 3Load the lowering device and lock it offStep 4Use the Load Release Hitch to transfer the load to the lowering device
114REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 5Remove the Progress Capture DeviceRetie the LRHStep 6Prepare to LowerAdvise Ops Leader,“Main Line Ready to Lower!”