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ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS. TRAINING OBJECTIVES ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue System.

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Presentation on theme: "ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS. TRAINING OBJECTIVES ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue System."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS

2 TRAINING OBJECTIVES

3 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue System the specific duties of Rope Rescue Team members the Tandem Prusik Belay System Lowering Belay Raising Belay understand Lowering Systems Mechanical Advantage Raising Systems How to Reverse the System

4 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS ROPE RESCUE SYSTEM Placer County Sheriff’s Mountain Rescue Team

5 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS The Rope Rescue Team

6 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS ROPE RESCUE TEAM

7 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS ROPE RESCUE TEAM Safety Officer Operations Leader Systems Leader Medical Team Leader Belay Line System Operator Main Line System Operator Edge Tenders Haul Team

8 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS SAFETY OFFICER

9 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Rescue situations rapidly change. The effective Safety Officer must be able to forecast potential safety issues. SAFETY OFFICER

10 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS The Safety Officer is responsible for monitoring and assessing the safety aspects of all team operations, door-to-door. SAFETY OFFICER

11 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS SAFETY OFFICER At least one team Safety Officer should be assigned to every rescue mission and training event.

12 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Any member of the team can call STOP to an operation if a safety concern is detected SAFETY OFFICER

13 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Scene Safety –Establishes, and marks a minimum 6’ safety zone at the edge –All personnel must be on a tether beyond this safety zone SAFETY OFFICER

14 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Scene Safety Determine if the rigging location is safe –Loose rocks –Unstable overhang –Awareness of any environmental safety issues Poison Oak Hornet’s nest SAFETY OFFICER Requirements for Personal Floatation Devices

15 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Scene Safety –Checks each member’s minimum PPE Helmet Gloves Harness –Establishes a Safe Zone 6’ from edge SAFETY OFFICER

16 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Scene Safety –Responsible for selecting safe helicopter landing zone. –Assures an emergency medical plan is in place –Assures Horseplay does not occur SAFETY OFFICER

17 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 2.System Safety –Checks each Anchor Proper anchor materials Proper anchor for situation Bomb-proof anchor system Angles SAFETY OFFICER

18 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 2.System Safety –Checks each system to the component level Knots Proper carabiners in use Carabiners locked Proper and adequate edge protection in place SAFETY OFFICER

19 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 2.System Safety –Checks each System Adequate MA Proper overall setup Proper equipment used –Checks for a “Kill Zone” in the rigged system and marks the kill zone area SAFETY OFFICER

20 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 3.Edge Tender Safety –Edge tender has independent anchor –Edge tender is tethered before approaching the edge SAFETY OFFICER

21 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 4.Operation Safety –Assures change-over procedures are conducted in a safe manner. –Assures adequate medical resources are considered when making search team assignments. SAFETY OFFICER

22 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 4.Operation Safety –Monitors the entire operation. –The Safety Officer can stop the operation at any time. –Monitor vehicle safety: sleepiness and adequate breaks on convoys. SAFETY OFFICER

23 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RESCUE SYSTEMS

24 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS

25 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY DEFINITIONS 1.Belay – to provide protection against a fall by handling a tensionless rope (belay rope) in such a manner that it may be taken in or let out as another person(s) climbs, rappels, or ascends a fixed rope or is raised, lowered or transported, yet be secure to hold this load in case of failure of the main support. 2.Self Belay – to provide protection against a fall by the person(s) needing the protection moving their adjustable connection point along a fixed rope, that remains without tension until the fall, as they climb, rappel or ascend a different fixed, or are raised, lowered or transported, by a separate rope. 3.Conditional Belay – to provide protection against a fall by using a rope, that is already under tension from all or part of the load, to hold the load should a failure occur in some other part of the system. (RFR BD adapted from BCCTR Notes prepared by Arnor Larson)

26 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY DEFINITIONS 4.Conditional Self Belay – to provide protection against a fall by the use of a conditional belay that is managed by the person(s) needing the protection. 5.Auto Belay – (“Deadman” Belay) a self activating belay that does not require a positive action to engage it. The term auto can be applied to any of the 4 types of belay listed above when it is appropriate. 6.Pseudo Belay – a belay that will not work; that is pretend, counterfeit or false. The term pseudo can be applied to any of the 4 types of belay listed above when it is appropriate. (RFR BD adapted from BCCTR Notes prepared by Arnor Larson)

27 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TANDEM PRUSSIK BELAY SYSTEMS

28 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS Rescue Systems Testing The B.C. Council of Technical Rescue (BCCTR) started testing of systems in The BCCTR has the following minimum standard: with a 200kg mass (two persons + equipment = load) tied to 3 meters of rope, the belay system must be able to withstand a 1 meter drop of the load and stop it in less than 1 meter of additional travel and with less than 15 KN of force (while retaining 80% of system strength. (copyright ©1990 – Arnor Larson)

29 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS It is of great concern that a number of systems in present use cannot manage this bare minimum! To date the only belay system tested successfully in accordance with the BCCTR standard is the Tandem Prusik Belay. (copyright ©1990 – Arnor Larson)

30 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS To date no Gibbs, rescuesender, or other mechanical belay device tested has met the BCCTR 1 meter minimum. Note: since 1990 the only mechanical belay device that has meet the BCCTR standard is the 540° Belay (copyright ©1990 – Arnor Larson)

31 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS

32 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS

33 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS

34 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS

35 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS & FOCAL POINTS

36 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS Main & Belay Focal Points are down slope

37 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS Where is the belay line focal point? Where is the main line focal point? Where’s Joe?

38 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY READY?

39 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY SYSTEMS – Proper Hand Position

40 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TANDEM PRUSIK BELAY

41 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TANDEM PRUSSIK BELAY with LOAD

42 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TANDEM PRUSIK RAISING BELAY (Static)

43 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS TANDEM PRUSIK RAISING BELAY (Dynamic)

44 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS EDGE TENDER

45 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Edge Tender Safety –Edge tender has independent anchor (may share a bomber anchor point, but may not attach to system anchors) –Edge tender is tied into an adjustable tether before approaching the edge –Clears loose rocks and tripping hazards from the edge EDGE TENDER

46 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 2.System Safety –Places ropes on appropriate edge protection –Assures ropes remain on edge protection. EDGE TENDER

47 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Attendant Safety –Assist attendant and stokes over the edge EDGE TENDER

48 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 1.Attendant Safety –Weighting the system before going over the edge removes slack and stretch in the main line. 20’ of rope in operation, with a 2% stretch, will result in 3”-6” of sudden movement if the system is not weighted. Tightening of knots Stretch of rope Rigging extension EDGE TENDER

49 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS –As attendant goes over the edge, the “Lower slow” used in approaching the edge should be slowed even more, –The upper body of the attendant is rotating through an arc. For a brief period, the feet are neither moving back nor moving down. EDGE TENDER

50 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS EDGE TENDER –Communicates with, and for, the attendant at the edge. Halts system 1 meter from edge for tensioning Edge TenderOps Leader “STOP!” “Why Stop?” “Attendant tension the system” “Lower slow” “Lowering slow” “Attendant at the edge” “Lower slow”

51 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS –Provides voice communication between Ops Leader and Attendant to relay changes in speed control –Observes the path of the rope to detect additional rope hazards requiring edge pro EDGE TENDER

52 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS 8 mm Accessory cord –Attached to independent anchor –Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner 6 mm prusik cord –Attached to 8mm cord with prusik –Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner ADJUSTABLE EDGE TENDER LEASH

53 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RESCUE SYSTEMS

54 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY LINE COMMUNICATIONS “ON BELAY” Is the belay ready? »“BELAY ON” Yes, the belay is ready “SLACK IN THE BELAY LINE” »“SLACK IN THE BELAY LINE” “TENSION IN THE BELAY LINE” »“TENSION IN THE BELAY LINE” “OFF BELAY” »“BELAY OFF”

55 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS MAIN LINE COMMUNICATIONS “MAIN LINE READY?”I s the main line ready? »“MAIN LINE IS READY” Yes, the main line is ready “LOWER SLOW” »“LOWER SLOW” “RAISE SLOW” »“RAISE SLOW” “LOWER FASTER” »“LOWER FASTER” “RAISE FASTER” »“RAISE FASTER”

56 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS COMMUNICATIONS “STOP” »“WHY STOP” All Activity Stops All Devices are Set

57 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS COMMUNICATIONS OPS: “Stand by for roll call” OPS: “On belay?” BELAYER: “Belay on” OPS: “Main line ready?” MAINLINE: “Main line ready on four bars” OPS: “Edge tender ready?” BELAYER: “Edge Tender ready” OPS: “Attendant ready?” ATTENDANT: “Attendant ready” OPS: “Medic ready?” MAINLINE: “Medic ready” Roll Call

58 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA British Columbia Council on Technical Rescue de facto standard Belay Competence Drop Test Criteria –200 kg (440 lb) mass –1 meter (3.28 feet) fall –3 meters (9.84 feet) rope –< 1 meter (3.28 feet) arrest distance –Maximum 15 kN (3,375 lb) peak impact force This test also calls for the maximum force transmitted through the system to the anchor point to be no greater than 15 kN (3,375 lbf.)

59 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Edge Transition is the Worst Case Scenario –Slippage through the belay device –Tightening of knots –Stretch of rope –Prussic extension –Rigging extension BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA

60 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOAD RELEASE HITCH

61 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS The Radium 3:1 Load Release Hitch (LRH) allows the load on a rope grab to be transferred to another device The LRH is used in conjunction with a tandem prusik belay OR The LRH is used in conjunction with a Progress Capture Device (PCD) LOAD RELEASE HITCH

62 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Before employing the LRH be certain that the load is being transferred to a secure anchor If there is any doubt regarding the safety of an impact loaded LRH, it should be retired LOAD RELEASE HITCH

63 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Attach a Figure-8 on a bight to the Load-side carabiner Place the Figure-8 close to the carabiner spine Bring the standing part of the cord up through the Anchor- end carabiner Place the standing part close to the carabiner spine LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE

64 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Bring the cord back through the Lode-side carabiner Place the cord on the Gate side of the Figure-8 LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE

65 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Bring the cord back to the Anchor- side and tie a Munter hitch on the Gate side Tie the Munter Hitch in the Release position with the standing end on the Gate side LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE

66 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Secure the LRH by forming a mule knot around all three cords Position the mule knot against the Munter hitch Provides a 3:1 mechanical advantage Can hold heavy loads without tightening LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE

67 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS IMPROPER BELAY DEVICES

68 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS IMPROPER BELAY DEVICES

69 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS IMPROPER BELAY DEVICES

70 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Kurt Bandilla

71 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS

72 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Brake Bar Rack –Standard for MRT Lowering systems –A U-Shaped frame –A series of bars –Hyper-bar Tie Off Add Friction

73 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Advantages –Allows friction to be varied, even when loaded –Does not twist rope –Can be easily attached to a rope without detaching from anchor –Can use two ropes –Can use varying sized ropes

74 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Disadvantages –Bulkier and heavier than other lowering devices –May take slightly longer to load the rope

75 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Other Considerations –Eye may be oriented 90 o –Rope should pass over the loading groove –Welded eye on the frame is rated over 10,000 lbs. (44 kN)

76 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Other Considerations –Bars may be aluminum or steel –Bars come in a variety of shapes –Only use bars designed for your brake bar –Assure you are using a rescue rated brake bar rack

77 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Set up your anchor or check to assure that an established anchor is adequate Equipment that will be used later is attached to the anchor plate

78 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Tie a figure-8 in the end of the rope and clip to the large hole in the anchor plate with a locking carabiner This assures the rope does not leave unexpectedly if someone pulls the rope before the system is complete

79 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS To have the lowering system pass the whistle test, tie an 8mm prusik hitch to the anchor plate with a load release hitch The disadvantage is having to mind the prusik

80 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Rig the rope through the brake bar Advise Ops Leader, “Main Line Ready to Lower!” Lock off the Brake Bar if it is to be unattended for any length of time

81 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Tying Off

82 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS LOWERING SYSTEMS Brake Bar tie-off using the hyper-bar Demonstrate Tie-off of Brake Bar without hyper-bars

83 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE REVIEW

84 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Gravity = Weight –1 kN = lb f –1 Person ≈ 1 kN –2 Person ≈ 2 kN –3 Person ≈ 3 kN

85 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS –The average rescuer can hold or apply a.2 kN force with one hand (≈ 45 lbs) –The average rescuer can hold or apply a.4 kN force with two hands (≈ 90 lbs) –Hauling an rope ‘hand-over- hand’ is applying a force of lbs

86 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Impulse (force of impact) –The average reaction time to a failure or rope movement is 1 sec –In 1 sec a 1 kN load will travel 16 feet –The 1 kN load will be traveling 21.8 mph –A fall of 16 ft on 85 ft of static rope will result in an impact force of 13.5 kN (3035 lbs)

87 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Falls on a static rope –Fatal falls on a static belay line would be the result of belayers not paying attention –What happens at 12 kN? BELAY INCOMPETENCE CRITERIA

88 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Pulley Types: Fixed pulley –Provides change of direction ONLY

89 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Pulley Types: Movable pulley – Adds Mechanical Advantage

90 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS The longest distance a pulley system can be stretched, the distance from the anchored pulley to the moving pulley, is called the stroke. The longer the stroke, the more useful the MA system.

91 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 248:1

92 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, 115:1

93 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS Clark Wurzberger

94 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS Hauling without the aid of a system is a Mechanical Advantage of 1:1 Also known as the Armstrong Method

95 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS Our simplest system is the Simple 2:1 Mechanical Advantage Components are: –Rope –One pulley

96 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS Our basic haul system is the simple 3:1 Mechanical Advantage Components are: –Rope –Two (2) pulleys –One (1) rope grab

97 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS With the addition of a single pulley, the 3:1 is converted to a 5:1Mechanical Advantage Components are: –Rope –Four (4) pulleys

98 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 3:1 provides a compound 6:1Mechanical Advantage

99 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS RAISING SYSTEMS Setting and Resetting the System Once the haul team has collapsed the system, it must be reset to its maximum length so hauling can continue Haul Prusik reaches Progress Capture Device (PCD) Main Line Lead: “Stop... Resetting” PCD is set by Haul Team Member Haul Team Member setting PCD: “Set” Haul Team Member fully extends the throw of the system Haul Team Member extending system: “Reset” OPS: “Raise Slow” Do NOT use the words “Reset” or “Resetting” while actually extending the system. Only use the word “Reset” when the task is fully completed.

100 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 5:1 provides a compound 10:1Mechanical Advantage RAISING SYSTEMS

101 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING THE SYSTEMS

102 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Work on only one line at a time Change the Main Line first, then the Belay Line Wait for direction from the Ops Leader before you do anything. Don’t anticipate a change to the system

103 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Communicate –Tell the Ops Leader what you are doing, before you do it

104 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Throughout the conversion, the system load will be on the Main Line. The Belay line will be locked off or continually tended

105 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 1 –Assure you have the equipment you will need One Pulley One Progress Capture Device (PCD)

106 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 2 –Lock off your lowering device

107 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Step 2 –Attach your Progress Capture Device (PCD)

108 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 3 –Unlock the lowering device and load the PCD Step 4 –Attach the pulley to the LRH and rig the pulley

109 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 5 –Assemble your Haul pulley onto the running end of the rope Step6 –Assemble your Rope Grab Device

110 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE Step 5 –Attach your Rope Grab Device Advise Ops Leader, “Main Line Ready to Haul!”

111 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 1 –Assure you have the equipment you will need One Brake Bar Rack

112 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 2 –Lower the Load onto the Progress Capture Device (PCD) –Remove the pulley and Rope grab and attach to the anchor plate

113 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 3 –Load the lowering device and lock it off Step 4 –Use the Load Release Hitch to transfer the load to the lowering device

114 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER Step 5 –Remove the Progress Capture Device –Retie the LRH Step 6 –Prepare to Lower Advise Ops Leader, “Main Line Ready to Lower!”

115 ROPE RESCUE SYSTEMS Tomorrow 07:30 24 hour packs –Helmet –Harness –Gloves –Orange Shirts / Green pants –Lunch –Water


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