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TRAINING OBJECTIVES. TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue.

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Presentation on theme: "TRAINING OBJECTIVES. TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 TRAINING OBJECTIVES

3 Participants will understand:
TRAINING OBJECTIVES Participants will understand: the components of a Rope Rescue System the specific duties of Rope Rescue Team members the Tandem Prusik Belay System Lowering Belay Raising Belay understand Lowering Systems Mechanical Advantage Raising Systems How to Reverse the System

4 Placer County Sheriff’s
ROPE RESCUE SYSTEM Placer County Sheriff’s Mountain Rescue Team

5 The Rope Rescue Team

6 ROPE RESCUE TEAM

7 ROPE RESCUE TEAM Safety Officer Operations Leader Systems Leader Medical Team Leader Belay Line System Operator Main Line System Operator Edge Tenders Haul Team

8 SAFETY OFFICER

9 SAFETY OFFICER Rescue situations rapidly change. The effective Safety Officer must be able to forecast potential safety issues.

10 SAFETY OFFICER The Safety Officer is responsible for monitoring and assessing the safety aspects of all team operations, door-to-door.

11 SAFETY OFFICER At least one team Safety Officer should be assigned to every rescue mission and training event.

12 SAFETY OFFICER Any member of the team can call STOP to an operation if a safety concern is detected

13 SAFETY OFFICER Scene Safety
Establishes, and marks a minimum 6’ safety zone at the edge All personnel must be on a tether beyond this safety zone

14 SAFETY OFFICER Determine if the rigging location is safe Scene Safety
Loose rocks Unstable overhang Awareness of any environmental safety issues Poison Oak Hornet’s nest Requirements for Personal Floatation Devices

15 SAFETY OFFICER Scene Safety Checks each member’s minimum PPE Helmet
Gloves Harness Establishes a Safe Zone 6’ from edge

16 SAFETY OFFICER Scene Safety
Responsible for selecting safe helicopter landing zone. Assures an emergency medical plan is in place Assures Horseplay does not occur

17 SAFETY OFFICER System Safety Checks each Anchor
Proper anchor materials Proper anchor for situation Bomb-proof anchor system Angles

18 SAFETY OFFICER System Safety Checks each system to the component level
Knots Proper carabiners in use Carabiners locked Proper and adequate edge protection in place

19 SAFETY OFFICER System Safety Checks each System Adequate MA
Proper overall setup Proper equipment used Checks for a “Kill Zone” in the rigged system and marks the kill zone area

20 SAFETY OFFICER Edge Tender Safety Edge tender has independent anchor
Edge tender is tethered before approaching the edge

21 SAFETY OFFICER Operation Safety
Assures change-over procedures are conducted in a safe manner. Assures adequate medical resources are considered when making search team assignments.

22 SAFETY OFFICER Operation Safety Monitors the entire operation.
The Safety Officer can stop the operation at any time. Monitor vehicle safety: sleepiness and adequate breaks on convoys.

23 RESCUE SYSTEMS

24 BELAY SYSTEMS

25 BELAY DEFINITIONS Belay – to provide protection against a fall by handling a tensionless rope (belay rope) in such a manner that it may be taken in or let out as another person(s) climbs, rappels, or ascends a fixed rope or is raised, lowered or transported, yet be secure to hold this load in case of failure of the main support. Self Belay – to provide protection against a fall by the person(s) needing the protection moving their adjustable connection point along a fixed rope, that remains without tension until the fall, as they climb, rappel or ascend a different fixed, or are raised, lowered or transported, by a separate rope. 3. Conditional Belay – to provide protection against a fall by using a rope, that is already under tension from all or part of the load, to hold the load should a failure occur in some other part of the system. (RFR BD adapted from BCCTR Notes prepared by Arnor Larson)

26 BELAY DEFINITIONS 4. Conditional Self Belay – to provide protection against a fall by the use of a conditional belay that is managed by the person(s) needing the protection. 5. Auto Belay – (“Deadman” Belay) a self activating belay that does not require a positive action to engage it. The term auto can be applied to any of the 4 types of belay listed above when it is appropriate. Pseudo Belay – a belay that will not work; that is pretend, counterfeit or false. The term pseudo can be applied to any of the 4 types of belay listed above when it is appropriate. (RFR BD adapted from BCCTR Notes prepared by Arnor Larson)

27 TANDEM PRUSSIK BELAY SYSTEMS

28 BELAY SYSTEMS Rescue Systems Testing
The B.C. Council of Technical Rescue (BCCTR) started testing of systems in 1982. The BCCTR has the following minimum standard: with a 200kg mass (two persons + equipment = load) tied to 3 meters of rope, the belay system must be able to withstand a 1 meter drop of the load and stop it in less than 1 meter of additional travel and with less than 15 KN of force (while retaining 80% of system strength. (copyright ©1990 – Arnor Larson)

29 BELAY SYSTEMS It is of great concern that a number of systems in present use cannot manage this bare minimum! To date the only belay system tested successfully in accordance with the BCCTR standard is the Tandem Prusik Belay. (copyright ©1990 – Arnor Larson)

30 BELAY SYSTEMS To date no Gibbs, rescuesender, or other mechanical belay device tested has met the BCCTR 1 meter minimum. Note: since 1990 the only mechanical belay device that has meet the BCCTR standard is the 540° Belay (copyright ©1990 – Arnor Larson)

31 BELAY SYSTEMS

32 BELAY SYSTEMS

33 BELAY SYSTEMS

34 BELAY SYSTEMS

35 BELAY SYSTEMS & FOCAL POINTS

36 Main & Belay Focal Points are down slope
BELAY SYSTEMS Main & Belay Focal Points are down slope

37 BELAY SYSTEMS Where is the belay line focal point?
Where is the main line focal point? Where’s Joe?

38 BELAY READY?

39 BELAY SYSTEMS – Proper Hand Position

40 TANDEM PRUSIK BELAY Tandem Prussik Belay Photo

41 TANDEM PRUSSIK BELAY with LOAD
Note: Long Prussik is at spine of Carabiner Tandem Prussik Belay with Load Photo

42 TANDEM PRUSIK RAISING BELAY (Static)
Tandem Prussik Raising Belay Static photo

43 TANDEM PRUSIK RAISING BELAY (Dynamic)
Tandem Prussik Raising Belay Dynamic photo

44 EDGE TENDER

45 EDGE TENDER Edge Tender Safety
Edge tender has independent anchor (may share a bomber anchor point, but may not attach to system anchors) Edge tender is tied into an adjustable tether before approaching the edge Clears loose rocks and tripping hazards from the edge

46 EDGE TENDER System Safety Places ropes on appropriate edge protection
Assures ropes remain on edge protection.

47 EDGE TENDER Attendant Safety Assist attendant and stokes over the edge

48 EDGE TENDER Attendant Safety
Weighting the system before going over the edge removes slack and stretch in the main line. 20’ of rope in operation, with a 2% stretch, will result in 3”-6” of sudden movement if the system is not weighted. Tightening of knots Stretch of rope Rigging extension

49 EDGE TENDER As attendant goes over the edge, the “Lower slow” used in approaching the edge should be slowed even more, The upper body of the attendant is rotating through an arc. For a brief period, the feet are neither moving back nor moving down.

50 EDGE TENDER Communicates with, and for, the attendant at the edge.
Halts system 1 meter from edge for tensioning Edge Tender Ops Leader “STOP!” “Why Stop?” “Attendant tension the system” <attendant weights system> “Lower slow” “Lowering slow” “Attendant at the edge” <attendant rotates over edge>

51 EDGE TENDER Provides voice communication between Ops Leader and Attendant to relay changes in speed control Observes the path of the rope to detect additional rope hazards requiring edge pro

52 ADJUSTABLE EDGE TENDER LEASH
8 mm Accessory cord Attached to independent anchor Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner 6 mm prusik cord Attached to 8mm cord with prusik

53 RESCUE SYSTEMS

54 BELAY LINE COMMUNICATIONS
“ON BELAY” Is the belay ready? “BELAY ON” Yes, the belay is ready “SLACK IN THE BELAY LINE” “TENSION IN THE BELAY LINE” “OFF BELAY” “BELAY OFF”

55 MAIN LINE COMMUNICATIONS
“MAIN LINE READY?” Is the main line ready? “MAIN LINE IS READY” Yes, the main line is ready “LOWER SLOW” “RAISE SLOW” “LOWER FASTER” “RAISE FASTER”

56 All Activity Stops All Devices are Set
COMMUNICATIONS “STOP” “WHY STOP” All Activity Stops All Devices are Set

57 Roll Call COMMUNICATIONS OPS: “Stand by for roll call”
OPS: “On belay?” BELAYER: “Belay on” OPS: “Main line ready?” MAINLINE: “Main line ready on four bars” OPS: “Edge tender ready?” BELAYER: “Edge Tender ready” OPS: “Attendant ready?” ATTENDANT: “Attendant ready” OPS: “Medic ready?” MAINLINE: “Medic ready” Roll Call

58 BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA
British Columbia Council on Technical Rescue de facto standard Belay Competence Drop Test Criteria 200 kg (440 lb) mass 1 meter (3.28 feet) fall 3 meters (9.84 feet) rope < 1 meter (3.28 feet) arrest distance Maximum 15 kN (3,375 lb) peak impact force This test also calls for the maximum force transmitted through the system to the anchor point to be no greater than 15 kN (3,375 lbf.)

59 BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA
Edge Transition is the Worst Case Scenario Slippage through the belay device Tightening of knots Stretch of rope Prussic extension Rigging extension

60 LOAD RELEASE HITCH

61 LOAD RELEASE HITCH The Radium 3:1 Load Release Hitch (LRH) allows the load on a rope grab to be transferred to another device The LRH is used in conjunction with a tandem prusik belay OR The LRH is used in conjunction with a Progress Capture Device (PCD)

62 LOAD RELEASE HITCH Before employing the LRH be certain that the load is being transferred to a secure anchor If there is any doubt regarding the safety of an impact loaded LRH, it should be retired

63 LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE
Attach a Figure-8 on a bight to the Load-side carabiner Place the Figure-8 close to the carabiner spine Bring the standing part of the cord up through the Anchor-end carabiner Place the standing part close to the carabiner spine

64 LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE
Bring the cord back through the Lode-side carabiner Place the cord on the Gate side of the Figure-8

65 LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE
Bring the cord back to the Anchor-side and tie a Munter hitch on the Gate side Tie the Munter Hitch in the Release position with the standing end on the Gate side

66 LOAD RELEASE HITCH HOW TO TIE
Secure the LRH by forming a mule knot around all three cords Position the mule knot against the Munter hitch Provides a 3:1 mechanical advantage Can hold heavy loads without tightening

67 IMPROPER BELAY DEVICES

68 IMPROPER BELAY DEVICES

69 IMPROPER BELAY DEVICES

70 LOWERING SYSTEMS Kurt Bandilla

71 LOWERING SYSTEMS

72 LOWERING SYSTEMS Brake Bar Rack Standard for MRT Lowering systems
A U-Shaped frame A series of bars Hyper-bar Tie Off Add Friction

73 LOWERING SYSTEMS Advantages
Allows friction to be varied, even when loaded Does not twist rope Can be easily attached to a rope without detaching from anchor Can use two ropes Can use varying sized ropes

74 LOWERING SYSTEMS Disadvantages
Bulkier and heavier than other lowering devices May take slightly longer to load the rope

75 LOWERING SYSTEMS Other Considerations Eye may be oriented 90o
Rope should pass over the loading groove Welded eye on the frame is rated over 10,000 lbs. (44 kN)

76 LOWERING SYSTEMS Other Considerations Bars may be aluminum or steel
Bars come in a variety of shapes Only use bars designed for your brake bar Assure you are using a rescue rated brake bar rack

77 LOWERING SYSTEMS Set up your anchor or check to assure that an established anchor is adequate Equipment that will be used later is attached to the anchor plate

78 LOWERING SYSTEMS Tie a figure-8 in the end of the rope and clip to the large hole in the anchor plate with a locking carabiner This assures the rope does not leave unexpectedly if someone pulls the rope before the system is complete

79 LOWERING SYSTEMS To have the lowering system pass the whistle test, tie an 8mm prusik hitch to the anchor plate with a load release hitch The disadvantage is having to mind the prusik

80 LOWERING SYSTEMS Rig the rope through the brake bar Advise Ops Leader,
“Main Line Ready to Lower!” Lock off the Brake Bar if it is to be unattended for any length of time

81 LOWERING SYSTEMS Tying Off

82 LOWERING SYSTEMS Brake Bar tie-off using the hyper-bar
Demonstrate Tie-off of Brake Bar without hyper-bars

83 MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE REVIEW

84 Gravity = Weight 1 kN = 224.81 lbf 1 Person ≈ 1 kN 2 Person ≈ 2 kN

85 The average rescuer can hold or apply a
The average rescuer can hold or apply a .2 kN force with one hand (≈ 45 lbs) The average rescuer can hold or apply a .4 kN force with two hands (≈ 90 lbs) Hauling an rope ‘hand-over-hand’ is applying a force of lbs

86 Impulse (force of impact)
The average reaction time to a failure or rope movement is 1 sec In 1 sec a 1 kN load will travel 16 feet The 1 kN load will be traveling 21.8 mph A fall of 16 ft on 85 ft of static rope will result in an impact force of 13.5 kN (3035 lbs)

87 BELAY INCOMPETENCE CRITERIA
Falls on a static rope Fatal falls on a static belay line would be the result of belayers not paying attention What happens at 12 kN?

88 Provides change of direction ONLY
Pulley Types: Fixed pulley Provides change of direction ONLY

89 – Adds Mechanical Advantage
Pulley Types: Movable pulley – Adds Mechanical Advantage

90 The longest distance a pulley system can be stretched, the distance from the anchored pulley to the moving pulley, is called the stroke. The longer the stroke, the more useful the MA system.

91 If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN
2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 248:1

92 If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN
1:1, 3:1, 5:1, 115:1

93 RAISING SYSTEMS Clark Wurzberger

94 RAISING SYSTEMS Hauling without the aid of a system is a Mechanical Advantage of 1:1 Also known as the Armstrong Method

95 RAISING SYSTEMS Our simplest system is the Simple 2:1 Mechanical Advantage Components are: Rope One pulley

96 RAISING SYSTEMS Our basic haul system is the simple 3:1 Mechanical Advantage Components are: Rope Two (2) pulleys One (1) rope grab

97 RAISING SYSTEMS With the addition of a single pulley, the 3:1 is converted to a 5:1Mechanical Advantage Components are: Rope Four (4) pulleys

98 RAISING SYSTEMS Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 3:1 provides a compound 6:1Mechanical Advantage

99 Setting and Resetting the System
RAISING SYSTEMS Setting and Resetting the System Once the haul team has collapsed the system, it must be reset to its maximum length so hauling can continue Haul Prusik reaches Progress Capture Device (PCD) Main Line Lead: “Stop Resetting” PCD is set by Haul Team Member Haul Team Member setting PCD: “Set” Haul Team Member fully extends the throw of the system Haul Team Member extending system: “Reset” OPS: “Raise Slow” Do NOT use the words “Reset” or “Resetting” while actually extending the system. Only use the word “Reset” when the task is fully completed.

100 RAISING SYSTEMS Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 5:1 provides a compound 10:1Mechanical Advantage

101 REVERSING THE SYSTEMS

102 REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Work on only one line at a time
Change the Main Line first, then the Belay Line Wait for direction from the Ops Leader before you do anything. Don’t anticipate a change to the system

103 REVERSING THE SYSTEMS before you do it Communicate
Tell the Ops Leader what you are doing, before you do it

104 REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Throughout the conversion, the system load will be on the Main Line. The Belay line will be locked off or continually tended

105 REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
Step 1 Assure you have the equipment you will need One Pulley One Progress Capture Device (PCD)

106 REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
Step 2 Lock off your lowering device

107 REVERSING THE SYSTEMS Step 2 Attach your Progress Capture Device (PCD)

108 REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
Step 3 Unlock the lowering device and load the PCD Step 4 Attach the pulley to the LRH and rig the pulley

109 REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
Step 5 Assemble your Haul pulley onto the running end of the rope Step6 Assemble your Rope Grab Device

110 REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
Step 5 Attach your Rope Grab Device Advise Ops Leader, “Main Line Ready to Haul!”

111 REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
Step 1 Assure you have the equipment you will need One Brake Bar Rack

112 REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
Step 2 Lower the Load onto the Progress Capture Device (PCD) Remove the pulley and Rope grab and attach to the anchor plate

113 REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
Step 3 Load the lowering device and lock it off Step 4 Use the Load Release Hitch to transfer the load to the lowering device

114 REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
Step 5 Remove the Progress Capture Device Retie the LRH Step 6 Prepare to Lower Advise Ops Leader, “Main Line Ready to Lower!”

115 Tomorrow 07:30 24 hour packs Helmet Harness Gloves
Orange Shirts / Green pants Lunch Water


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