Building Robot Drive Trains 1. Building Robot Drive Trains is the first volume in the new "Robot DNA" series by McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics. 2.It is just what robotics hobbyists need to build an effective drive train using inexpensive, off-the-shelf parts. 3. Leaving heavy-duty “tech speak” behind, the authors focus on the actual concepts and applications necessary to build – and understand -- these critical force-conveying systems. 4.If you want a clear, straightforward guide to the nuts- and-bolts of drive trains, this is the way to go.
Building Robot Drive Trains Chapters include: The Basics of Robot Locomotion * Motor Types: An Overview * Using DC Motors * Using RC Servo Motors * Using Stepper Motors * Motor Mounting * Basic Motor Control * Advanced Motor Control * Electronics Interfacing * Wheels and Treads * Locomotion for Multipods * Glossary of Terms, Tables, Formulas * 75 illustrations
Pulleys axlesgroove Pulley are wheels and axles with a groove around the outside chainbelt A pulley needs a rope, chain or belt around the groove to make it do work
Lifting Pulleys Lifting Pulleys in transmission systems – Single pulley – Moveable pulley – Block and Tackle
Pulley Examples direction Reverses the direction of force Two or more pulleys with less force Two or more pulleys connected together permit a heavy load to be lifted with less force http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/leonardo/InventorsToolbox.asp
Fixed Pulley: Wheel attached to surface Changes the direction of the applied force NO mechanical advantage – same amount of force is required Fixed (single) pulley
Single Pulley The resistance arm and the effort arm are both the radius of the pulley. Since they are equal, there is no mechanical advantage.
100 ft 100 lbs Single Pulley Provides change of motion, but no mechanical advantage
Movable Pulley Movable Pulley : Pulley moves along the rope Wheel supports the load Effort is in the same direction as movement Reduces the forces needed to move an object Movable pulley
MA in a Moveable pulley A moveable pulley is a second-class pulley. The effort arm is the diameter and the resistance arm is the radius. MA = d E ÷ d R MA = 2 ÷ 1 = 2 Mechanical Advantage = 2
Another Moveable pulley Provides change of direction and a mechanical advantage of 1:2 (at the expense of having to increase the amount of line to pull) 50 lbs 100 lbs These kinds of diagrams are easier to analyze
http://www.swe.org/iac/LP/pulley_03.html In the second picture, the weight is held by two ropes instead of one. That means the weight is split equally between the two ropes, so each one holds only half the weight.
Combined (double) Pulley Combined (double) Pulley : Has at least two wheels The more complex the pulley, the more the effort needed to move the object decreases COMBINED PULLEY
The effort needed to lift the load is less than half the weight of the load. The main disadvantage is it travels a very long distance.
Mechanical Advantage number of ropes Mechanical Advantage is the same as the number of ropes supporting the object MA=2 MA=2 MA=4
How about these? Calculate MA for these and similar
Pulleys as used in robots A pulley is basically a wheel with a groove in the circumference of the wheel, with a belt or cable being fed around the groove. Pulleys create a mechanical advantage by connecting a small input drive pulley to a larger follower with a belt. Driver (Effort) Follower (Resistance)
Mechanical Advantage of a Pulley Drive Train MA = FOLLOWER ÷ DRIVER The Pulley Drive Train above produces an MA of 4. This means 10 lbs of input torque will create 40 lbs output, but the driver must rotate 4 times to rotate output 1 time. Speed is reduced by 4. Driver 1mm Follower 4mm
Increasing Speed Increase the speed of the output by using a larger driver gear and a smaller follower gear. Speed increases and power decreases. Driver 4mm Follower 1mm
Compound Drive Pulley Trains A Compound Drive Pulley Train has pairs of pulleys working in combination, with the follower of one pulley sharing the same axle as the driver of the next sequential pulley train.
Example 1: Compound Drive Pulley Trains MA = (FOLLOWER 1 X FOLLOWER 2) ÷ (DRIVER 1 x DRIVER 2) – Driver 1 = 2mmFollower 1 = 8mm – Driver 2 = 3mmFollower 2 = 9mm Calculate MA (8*9)/(2*3) = 72/6 = 12)
MA = (FOLLOWER 1 X FOLLOWER 2) ÷ (DRIVER 1 x DRIVER 2) – Driver 1 = 3mmFollower 1 = 9mm – Driver 2 = 2mmFollower 2 = 14mm Example 2: Compound Drive Pulley Trains Calculate MA
Problem 2 Sketch the following two pulley trains: – A: Simple pulley train with belt wrapped so both pulleys rotate in same direction. – B. Simple pulley train with belt wrapped so both pulleys rotate in opposite direction.
Solution to Problem 2 A: Simple pulley train with belt wrapped so both pulleys rotate in same direction.
Solution to Problem 2 B. Simple pulley train with belt wrapped so both pulleys rotate in opposite direction.
Problem 3 Calculate the mechanical advantage of the compound pulley drive train model. – Show your work. – Small Pulley Diameter = 25mm – Large Pulley Diameter = 100mm
the amount of rope you have to pull Pulleys are used to gain mechanical advantage trading the amount of rope you have to pull to lift an object for how heavy the object can be.
http://www.swe.org/iac/LP/pulley_03.html The more lines of support (ropes) a pulley has, the more mechanical advantage it has!
Review of Pulleys 1.Give real-world example of each of the following pulleys. 1.Force Multiplier 2.Speed Multiplier 3.Direction Changer 2.Give one example of a simple machine or transmission that changes output motion. Identify both input and output motions. 3.Give examples of using Pulleys in Robotics, especially humanoid robot design.
Pulley Engineering Elaboration Design, Create, and Verify a pulley system with a mechanical advantage of: –4–4 –5–5 –6–6 Be sure to include drawings of your systems and how you verified the MA of the systems For block and tackle systems, what effect most greatly reduces the MA?
Evaluation Pulley Puzzlers The girl in the illustration is trying to lift herself and the swing using the rope. What would you predict would happen if she pulled down on the rope? If she weighs 90 pounds and the swing weighs ten pounds, how much force does she need to apply?
Evaluation Pulley Puzzlers 1.We should assume that it is an extensionless, massless rope, a massless pulley that does not hinder its rotation, and a rigid support. 2.We should imagine a box around the girl and the swing with only the rope extending out from the box to isolate the forces acting on the objects inside the box from the external forces. 3.The rope supports the box once, goes through the pulley and supports the box again. 4.The tension of the rope going upwards is T on each side, so the total tension is 2T. 5.The combined force from the tension in the rope must be greater than the combined weight of the girl and the chair for the chair to be lifted. 6.For a 90 pound girl and 10 pound chair, she must use a force of 50 pounds of more to be able to lift herself off the ground.
Evaluation Pulley Puzzlers The man in the illustration below is trying to lift himself and the block on which he is standing off the ground. Is this possible? 1.This movable pulley allows the man to pull upwards and the block on which he stands will rise with him on top. 2.He must apply a force equal to his weight and the weight of the block because there is only 1 supporting rope outside the system. 3.There is a mechanical advantage of 1. 4.Yes, it can be done.
Evaluation Pulley Puzzlers A long rope passes over a single pulley and has bananas on one end and a monkey on the other. If the monkey and the bananas have the same mass, can the monkey ever reach the bananas if he climbs the rope? Assume that the rope is massless, there is no friction, and the rope is limitless.
Evaluation Pulley Puzzlers The opposite external torques produced by the bananas and the monkey will cancel each other out. Any upward movement of the monkey will be equaled by an upward movement of the bananas. If the monkey started below the bananas, the distance between the two will always stay the same. Because we assume that the rope is limitless and the bananas will never wedge into the pulley, the monkey will never be able to reach the bananas.
How to use pulleys in your robot? Look to the pulleys used in other robots. Look to gears, chains and other similar constructions in our robots. How to use old Goodwill/Home Depot components?
Ancient Pulleys Engagement Archimedes, who was kinsman and a friend of King Hieron of Syracuse, wrote to him that with any given force it was possible to move any given weight, and emboldened, as we were told, by the strength of his demonstration, he declared that, if there were another world, and he could go to it, he could move this. Hieron was astonished, and begged him to put his proposition into execution, and show him some great weight moved by a slight force. Archimedes therefore fixed upon a three-master merchantman of the royal fleet, which had been dragged ashore by the great labors of many men, and after putting on board many passengers and the customary freight, he seated himself at a distance from her, and without any great effort, but quietly setting in motion with his hand a system of compound pulleys, drew her towards him smoothly and evenly, as though she were gliding through the water. - Plutarch Instructor: Read this in your best theatrical voice What else did Archimedes study?
Archimedes Advantage Have two volunteers attempt to hold two metal rods apart while the instructor attempts to force them together with a “pulley system.” Discuss the Mechanical Advantage offered by pulleys Engagement Teacher 2Teacher 1 Instructor Ask volunteers to keep the bars parallel and to hold the ends not the middle