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ROPES AND KNOTS FVCC Fire Rescue. LIFE SAFETY & UTILITY ROPE APPLICATIONS Life Safety Used solely to support rescuers/victims Must be synthetic, block.

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Presentation on theme: "ROPES AND KNOTS FVCC Fire Rescue. LIFE SAFETY & UTILITY ROPE APPLICATIONS Life Safety Used solely to support rescuers/victims Must be synthetic, block."— Presentation transcript:


2 LIFE SAFETY & UTILITY ROPE APPLICATIONS Life Safety Used solely to support rescuers/victims Must be synthetic, block creel, virgin fiber May not be reused unless meets all reuse criteria Utility Used for any but life safety applications May be synthetic or natural fiber May be reused TS 6–1

3 CRITERIA FOR REUSING LIFE SAFETY ROPE Has no visible damage Has never been exposed to heat, flame, or abrasion Has never been subjected to any impact load Has never been exposed to harmful chemical liquids, solids, gases, mists, or vapors Passes inspection before and after each use TS 6–2

4 Homework Distinguish between life safety and utility rope applications. Mark “A” for life safety applications or “B” for utility rope applications. 1. __ Pulling someone from the water 2. __ SCBA guide rope 3. __ Tag line 4. __ Securing backpack assembly to confined space rescuer's harness when rescuer cannot enter space wearing standard SCBA 5. __ Securing a victim in a Stokes basket 6. __ Cordoning off an area 7. __ Hanging a salvage cover to dry 8. __ Hoisting a tool or piece of equipment 9. __ Safety harness tie-in during confined space entry 10. __ Securing a charged hose to a ladder 11. __ Drying clothes 12. __ Lowering a victim from a building during training exercise 13. __ Rappelling 14. __ Roping off an area 15. __ Stabilizing a vehicle for extrication

5 ROPE TERMINOLOGY VS 6-1 Strand Yarns Fibers Sheath or JacketCore Mantle Kern

6 ROPE CONSTRUCTION VS 6-2 Laid (Twisted)Braided Braid-on-Braid Static KernmantleDynamic Kernmantle

7 Homework Match rope materials to their descriptions. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 16. Strong, hard fiber from the abaca plant; type #1 best for rope and identified by a colored string twisted into the fibers; short, non-continuous strands provide poor tensile strength 17. Synthetic rope with three to three and one-half times the tensile strength of manila, but may lose up to 15 percent of its strength when wet; stretches under load so is not suitable for vehicle stabilization or similar applications 18. Synthetic fiber sometimes known as Dacron®; particularly suitable to high-strength, low-stretch applications such as vehicle stabilization; very susceptible to damage by alkalis 19. Very lightweight synthetic rope used for water rescue because it absorbs no water and floats; difficult fiber to secure into solid knots and hitches a. Manila b. Nylon c. Polyethylene d. Polyester

8 Homework Match rope materials to their descriptions. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 20. Same synthetic fiber as that used in bulletproof vests; also known as Kevlar®; easily damaged by abrasion so must be sheathed in polyester or nylon; very difficult to knot 21. Soft, pliable natural fiber; generally white or light colored; most susceptible to physical abrasion and damage of all natural fiber ropes 22. New synthetic fiber with a high molecular weight; strongest of the synthetic rope fibers; also known as H. Spectra® 23. Very lightweight fiber from same synthetic family as polypropylene; surface has slick, oily feel; can be manufactured in bright colors for good visibility a.Gel spun polyethylene b.Cotton c.Polypropylene d.Aramid

9 NATURAL FIBER ROPE Types Manila Sisal Cotton Used for many years Is no longer accepted for life safety applications TS 6–3

10 SYNTHETIC ROPE Types Nylon Polypropylene Polyester Polyethylene Preferable to natural fiber rope Excellent resistance to mildew and rotting Excellent strength TS 6–4  Aramid  Gel spun polyethylene (H. Spectra ® )

11 DYNAMIC (HIGH STRETCH) ROPE Used when long falls are a possibility Designed for high stretch without breaking Not considered practical for hauling applications TS 6–5

12 STATIC (LOW STRETCH) ROPE Preferred for rescues requiring raising and lowering heavy loads Designed for low stretch without breaking Used for hauling, rescue, rappelling, and where no falls are likely to occur or only very short falls are possible TS 6–6

13 LAID (TWISTED) ROPE CONSTRUCTION Constructed by twisting yarns together to form strands; three strands twisted together make final rope Susceptible to abrasion and other types of physical damage TS 6–7

14 BRAIDED ROPE CONSTRUCTION Is constructed of uniformly intertwined strands Reduces or eliminates twisting common to laid ropes Is subject to direct abrasion and damage TS 6–8

15 BRAID-ON-BRAID (DOUBLE BRAID) ROPE CONSTRUCTION Is constructed with both a braided core and a braided sheath Is very strong Does not resist abrasion as well as kernmantle; sheath may slide along the inner core of the rope TS 6–9

16 KERNMANTLE ROPE CONSTRUCTION Has braided covering or sheath over main load-bearing strands Comes in both dynamic and static types TS 6–10

17 Homework Select facts about rope construction. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 23. What type of rope construction is illustrated above? a. Laidb. Braidedc. Braid-on-braidd. Kernmantle 24. Firefighter A says that static rope stretches very little. Firefighter B says that dynamic lines stretch more than static lines under weight and shock loads. Who is right? a.Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 25. Why is static rope preferred for rescue work? a. Its elasticity absorbs the weight of a fall b. It has a low stretch factor c. It has a high stretch factor d. It stretches more than dynamic rope under weight and shock loads

18 Homework 26. What statement below is true in regard to laid (twisted) rope construction? a. The tightness of the lay (twist) determines the rope’s properties. b. Generally six strands are twisted together to make the final rope. c. Twisted rope is resistant to abrasion and other types of physical damage. d. Twisted rope is difficult to inspect. 27. What type of rope construction is illustrated below? a. Laid b. Braided c. Braid-on-braid d. Kernmantle 28. Firefighter A says that braided rope eliminates the twisting common to laid ropes. Firefighter B says that braided rope is constructed mostly of natural fibers though some are made from synthetic fibers. Who is right? a. Firefighter Ab. Firefighter Bc. Both A and Bd. Neither A nor B

19 Homework 29. What type of rope construction is illustrated below? a. Laid b. Braided c. Braid-on-braid d. Kernmantle 30. How many strands are there generally in a laid rope? a. Sevenb. Fivec. Threed. Two 31. Which of the following ropes possesses half its strength in its sheath and the other half in its core? a. Laidb. Braidedc. Braid-on-braidd. Kernmantle

20 Homework 32. Which type of rope construction is also called twisted construction? a. Kernmantleb. Braidedc. Laidd. Woven 33. Which of the following ropes possesses three-quarters of its strength in its core and the remaining quarter in its sheath? a. Laidb. Braided c. Braid-on-braidd. Kernmantle 34. Which rope construction is most easily inspected, but also most susceptible to physical damage? a. Braidedb. Laid c. Braid-on-braidd. Kernmantle

21 Homework 35. Which of the following is the most commonly used rescue rope? a. Dynamic braid-on-braidb. Static braid-on-braid c. Dynamic kernmantled. Static kernmantle 36. What type of rope construction is illustrated below? a. Laidc. Braid-on-braid b. Braided d. Kernmantle

22 ROPE CARE & MAINTENANCE Number or otherwise identify all ropes. Inspect after each use. Make periodic inspections. Use approved inspection methods. Immediately red-label rope damaged on scene. Keep a rope logbook. Remove used life safety rope from service per manufacturer’s criteria. TS 6–11

23 REASONS TO REMOVE ROPE FROM SERVICE Excessive sheath wear Severely shock loaded Overloaded Chemically contaminated Old TS 6–12 Lacks uniform diameter Lacks uniform texture Does not meet manufacturer’s criteria for reuse as life safety rope

24 GUIDELINES FOR INSPECTING ROPE Inspect visually and tactilely after each use. Remove damaged rope from service. Inspect for flaws and damage specific to rope type. TS 6–13

25 INSPECTING LAID ROPE Look for... Soft, crusty, stiff or brittle spots Cuts Nicks Abrasions Internal mildew TS 6–14

26 INSPECTING BRAIDED ROPE Look for... Heat sears Nicks Cuts Excess or unusual fuzziness TS 6–15

27 INSPECTING BRAID-ON-BRAID ROPE Look for... Heat sears Nicks Cuts Lumps that indicate core damage Sliding sheath TS 6–16

28 INSPECTING KERNMANTLE ROPE Look for... Lumps Depressions Soft spots Irregularities in shape or weave Foul smells TS 6–17 Discoloration Roughness Abrasions Fuzziness

29 MAINTAINING A ROPE LOGBOOK Start record with purchase of each piece of rescue rope. Keep track of each use and the inspection/ maintenance records of the rope. Keep log in waterproof envelope.e The rope log is usually placed in a pocket sewn on the side of the rope’s storage bag. TS 6–18

30 CLEANING NATURAL FIBER ROPES Do not use water; ropes cannot be cleaned effectively. Wipe or gently brush to remove as much dirt and grit as possible. TS 6–19

31 CLEANING SYNTHETIC ROPE BY HAND Use cool water and mild soap (no detergents, bleaches, or solvent-based cleaners). Wipe with damp cloth that has been dipped in cool soapy water and then wrung out, or scrub gently with brush. Rinse thoroughly. Dry out of direct sunlight. TS 6–20

32 CLEANING SYNTHETIC ROPE IN ROPE WASHER Use cool water. Feed through washer to remove larger particles of dirt. Remove stubborn dirt by hand with cloth or scrub brush. Dry thoroughly out of direct sunlight. TS 6–21

33 CLEANING SYNTHETIC ROPE IN CLOTHES WASHING MACHINE Use a front-loading, tumbling-type machine without a plastic window. Place rope in cloth bag in bird's-nest coil. Wash and rinse in cool water for recommended period of time. TS 6–22 Use mild soaps (no detergents, bleaches, or solvent-based cleaners), and follow mfgr.’s directions. Dry thoroughly out of direct sunlight. Contact the rope mfg. for special cleaning problems.

34 ROPE DRYING METHODS Spread out on a hose rack out of sunlight Suspended in a hose tower Loosely coiled in a hose dryer TS 6–23

35 LIFE SAFETY ROPE STORAGE In clean, dry spaces that have adequate ventilation Coiled In bag Best for kernmantle rope and other life safety rope Allows easy carrying; keeps dirt and grime from rope TS 6–24



38 Homework Select facts about rope cleaning and storage. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 37. How should natural fiber ropes be cleaned? a. In cool water with a brush b. By wiping or gently brushing c. By coiling in a cloth bag and washing in a clothes washing machine d. By feeding through a rope washer 38. Which of the following is not an approved method of drying rope ? a. Air drying b. Drying in a hose tower or on hose racks c. Drying in a clothes dryer d. Looping over clothesline and drying in the sun 39. What water temperature should be selected when using a clothes washer to clean rope? a. Warmb. Hotc. Coldd. Any of the above

39 Homework 40. What type of machine should be used for washing ropes in a clothes washing machine? a. Front-loadingb. Commercialc. Top-loadingd. Heavy-duty 41. What type of cleaning agent should be used for cleaning rope? a. Bleachb. Solvent-based cleaner c. Soapd. Detergent 42. What should the water temperature be for cleaning a rope with a rope washer? a. Warmb. Cold c Hotd. Any of the above

40 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT KNOTS The ability to tie knots is a vital part of fire and rescue operations. Synthetic rope material has changed methods of selecting and tying knots: Manila and other natural fiber ropes are no longer considered safe for life safety use. Synthetic rope is slick and may slide under load, so it requires an overhand or half hitch safety knot on the working end. The bends in knots weaken rope: outside fibers are stretched; inside fibers are bent or crushed. TS 6–25

41 DESIRABLE KNOT ELEMENTS Easy to tie Easy to identify Easy to untie Secure under load (not subject to slippage) Tied with few abrupt bends Strong enough for required job TS 6–26

42 ELEMENTS OF A KNOT I VS 6-5 Bight Underhand Loop Round Turn Overhand Loop

43 ELEMENTS OF A KNOT II VS 6-6 Working End Standing Part Running End

44 KNOT TERMS Working end — Used for forming knot Standing part — Between working and running ends Running end — Used to hoist, pull, belay, etc. Bight — Loop that does not cross over itself Loop — Side of bight crossed over or under standing part Round turn — End of rope continued around top of loop until standing lengths are parallel TS 6–27

45 PRIMARY KNOT APPLICATIONS Overhand knot A foundation knot for beginning other knots A safety knot or backup to secure other knots (particularly those of synthetic rope) to prevent the working end from slipping back through the knot and causing it to fail Half hitch Hoisting tools Stabilizing tall objects TS 6–28a

46 PRIMARY KNOT APPLICATIONS (cont.) Bowline — Various utility and life safety (rope rescue harness) applications Clove hitch Attaching ropes to objects Hoisting (with overhand knot) Figure-eight — Foundation knot for other knots in family Figure-eight follow through — Joining ropes of equal diameters TS 6–28b

47 PRIMARY KNOT APPLICATIONS (cont.) Figure-eight on a bight — Securing a loop in middle or end of a rope for a safety line, safety harness, litter and rescue equipment, anchor lines Double-loop figure-eight — Constructing a rope rescue harness Becket bend (sheet bend) Joining ropes of unequal diameter Joining rope to chain TS 6–28c

48 HALF HITCH & OVERHAND SAFETY VS Overhand SafetyTwo Half Hitches


50 BOWLINE KNOT Is used to form a loop that will not constrict the object it is placed around Is untied easily Shares degree of acceptability in both life safety and utility applications TS 6–29



53 CLOVE HITCH Is easily formed of two half hitches May be used with overhand safety knot for hoisting tools and equipment May be formed anywhere on the rope Withstands pull in either direction without slipping, when properly tied TS 6–30






59 FIGURE-EIGHT KNOT Has replaced the bowline since the introduction of synthetic rope Is not as likely as the bowline to damage the rope Is stronger than the bowline Is an easy knot to tie, untie, inspect, and keep neat TS 6–31


61 BECKET BEND (SHEET BEND) Is not likely to slip when the rope is wet Is dependable and useful for fire service utility applications TS 6–32

62 Homework VS 6-5 a. Bight b. Loop c. Overhand Loop d. Round Turn e. Underhand Loop

63 Homework a.Running End b.Standing Part c.Working End

64 Homework Match knots to their primary applications. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 51. __ Joining ropes of unequal diameters, joining rope to chain 52. __ Joining ropes of equal diameters 53. __ Securing a loop in a rope for a safety line, safety harness, litter and rescue equipment, anchor lines 54. __ Foundation knot for other knots in family 55. __ Safety backup a. Overhand knot b. Figure-eight c. Becket bend or sheet bend d. Figure-eight on a bight e. Figure-eight follow through

65 Homework 56. Attaching ropes to objects; hoisting (with overhand knot) 57. Forming a loop that will not constrict the object it is placed around 58. Constructing rope rescue harnesses when webbing harness is unavailable 59. Hoisting tools; stabilizing tall objects a. Bowline b. Clove hitch c. Half hitch d. Double-loop figure-eight

66 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE HOISTING Plan carefully, and complete all preparations. Ensure solid footing. Choose an area clear of electrical hazards if possible. Know that pressurized cylinders such as SCBA bottles and fire extinguishers should NOT be hoisted. TS 6–33

67 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS DURING HOISTING Use hand-over-hand method to control rope. Use edge rollers to protect rope pulled over sharp edges. Work in teams when working from heights. Look to ensure all personnel are clear of hoisting area. Use extreme caution if you must work near electrical hazards. TS 6–34a

68 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS DURING HOISTING (cont.) Secure nozzle handle on charged lines to prevent accidental discharge. Use a tag line as necessary to prevent equipment from contacting building or other objects. Secure knots with overhand safety knots as appropriate. TS 6–34b


70 HOISTING A LADDER Use bowline or figure-eight on a bight. Place knot through two rungs of ladder about one-third down from top. Place loop over top of ladder. TS 6–35

71 HOISTING HOSELINES VS 6-18 Charged LineDry Line

72 HOISTING TOOLS & EQUIPMENT VS 6-19 Pike Pole Axe Portable Fan Half Hitch Half Hitch Half Hitch Clove Hitch Clove Hitch Working End Tag Line Bowline Tag Line

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