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**Chapter 7 Newton’s Third Law**

Chapter Goal: To use Newton’s third law to understand interacting objects. Slide 7-2

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Chapter 7 Preview Slide 7-3

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Interacting Objects When a hammer hits a nail, it exerts a forward force on the nail. At the same time, the nail exerts a backward force on the hammer. If you don’t believe it, imagine hitting the nail with a glass hammer. It’s the force of the nail on the hammer that would cause the glass to shatter! Slide 7-21

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Interacting Objects When a bat hits a ball, the ball exerts a force on the bat. When you pull someone with a rope in a tug-of- war, that person pulls back on you. The bat and the ball are interacting with each other. When your chair pushes up on you (the normal force), you push down on the chair. All forces come in pairs, called action/reaction pairs. These forces occur simultaneously, and we cannot say which is the “action” and which is the “reaction.” Slide 7-22

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Interacting Objects If object A exerts a force on object B, then object B exerts a force on object A. The pair of forces, as shown, is called an action/reaction pair. Slide 7-23

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Interacting Objects Long-range forces, such as gravity, also come in pairs. If you release a ball, it falls because the earth’s gravity exerts a downward force At the same time, the ball pulls upward on the earth with a force The ocean tides are an indication of the long-range gravitational interaction of the earth and moon. Slide 7-24

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**Example 7.1 Pushing a Crate**

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**Example 7.1 Pushing a Crate**

4. Below are the free-body diagrams of the person and the crate. For each, three forces are external forces. Subscripts label which object each force acts on. There is one internal interaction, labeled as an action/reaction pair. ASSESS The completed free-body diagrams above could now be the basis for a quantitative analysis. Slide 7-34

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Propulsion If you try to walk across a frictionless floor, your foot slips and slides backward. In order to walk, your foot must stick to the floor as you straighten your leg, moving your body forward. The force that prevents slipping is static friction. The static friction force points in the forward direction. It is static friction that propels you forward! What force causes this sprinter to accelerate? Slide 7-35

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**Examples of Propulsion**

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**“For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.”**

Newton’s Third Law Every force occurs as one member of an action/reaction pair of forces. The two members of an action/reaction pair act on two different objects. The two members of an action/reaction pair are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction: A catchy phrase, which is less precise, is: “For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.” Slide 7-37

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**Reasoning with Newton’s Third Law**

When you release a ball, it falls down. The action/reaction forces of the ball and the earth are equal in magnitude. The acceleration of the ball is The acceleration of the earth is If the ball has a mass of 1 kg, the earth accelerates upward at 2 10−24 m/s2. Slide 7-38

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QuickCheck 7.2 A mosquito runs head-on into a truck. Which is true during the collision? The magnitude of the mosquito’s acceleration is larger than that of the truck. The magnitude of the truck’s acceleration is larger than that of the mosquito. The magnitude of the mosquito’s acceleration is the same as that of the truck. The truck accelerates but the mosquito does not. The mosquito accelerates but the truck does not. Slide 7-41 18

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QuickCheck 7.2 A mosquito runs head-on into a truck. Which is true during the collision? The magnitude of the mosquito’s acceleration is larger than that of the truck. The magnitude of the truck’s acceleration is larger than that of the mosquito. The magnitude of the mosquito’s acceleration is the same as that of the truck. The truck accelerates but the mosquito does not. The mosquito accelerates but the truck does not. Newton’s second law: Don’t confuse cause and effect! The same force can have very different effects. Slide 7-42 19

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**Example 7.3 The Forces on Accelerating Boxes**

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**Example 7.3 The Forces on Accelerating Boxes**

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**Acceleration Constraints**

If two objects A and B move together, their accelerations are constrained to be equal: aA = aB. This equation is called an acceleration constraint. Consider a car being towed by a truck. In this case, the acceleration constraint is aCx = aTx = ax . Because the accelerations of both objects are equal, we can drop the subscripts C and T and call both of them ax . Slide 7-46

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**Acceleration Constraints**

Sometimes the acceleration of A and B may have different signs. Consider the blocks A and B in the figure. The string constrains the two objects to accelerate together. But, as A moves to the right in the +x direction, B moves down in the −y direction. In this case, the acceleration constraint is aAx = −aBy . Slide 7-47

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Example 7.5 Pulling a Rope Slide 7-55

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Example 7.5 Pulling a Rope Slide 7-56

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Example 7.5 Pulling a Rope Slide 7-57

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**The rope’s tension is the same in both situations.**

Example 7.5 Pulling a Rope The rope’s tension is the same in both situations. Slide 7-58

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**The Massless String Approximation**

Often in problems the mass of the string or rope is much less than the masses of the objects that it connects. In such cases, we can adopt the following massless string approximation: Slide 7-59

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**The Massless String Approximation**

Two blocks are connected by a massless string, as block B is pulled to the right. Forces and act as if they are an action/reaction pair: All a massless string does is transmit a force from A to B without changing the magnitude of that force. For problems in this book, you can assume that any strings or ropes are massless unless it explicitly states otherwise. Slide 7-60

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QuickCheck 7.5 Boxes A and B are being pulled to the right on a frictionless surface. Box A has a larger mass than B. How do the two tension forces compare? T1 > T2 T1 = T2 T1 < T2 Not enough information to tell. Slide 7-61 30

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QuickCheck 7.5 Boxes A and B are being pulled to the right on a frictionless surface. Box A has a larger mass than B. How do the two tension forces compare? T1 > T2 T1 = T2 T1 < T2 Not enough information to tell. Slide 7-62 31

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**Pulleys Block B drags block A across a frictionless table as it falls.**

The string and the pulley are both massless. There is no friction where the pulley turns on its axle. Therefore, TA on S = TB on S. Slide 7-69

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Pulleys Since TA on B = TB on A, we can draw the simplified free-body diagram on the right, below. Forces and act as if they are in an action/reaction pair, even though they are not opposite in direction because the tension force gets “turned” by the pulley. Slide 7-70

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QuickCheck 7.7 All three 50-kg blocks are at rest. The tension in rope 2 is greater than the tension in rope 1. equal to the tension in rope 1. less than the tension in rope 1. Slide 7-71 34

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QuickCheck 7.7 All three 50-kg blocks are at rest. The tension in rope 2 is greater than the tension in rope 1. equal to the tension in rope 1. less than the tension in rope 1. Each block is in static equilibrium, with Slide 7-72 35

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**QuickCheck 7.9 The acceleration constraint here is aAy = aBy.**

C. aAy = –aBy. D. aBy = –aAy. E. Either C or D. Slide 7-75 36

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**QuickCheck 7.9 The acceleration constraint here is aAy = aBy.**

C. aAy = –aBy. D. aBy = –aAy. E. Either C or D. Either says that the acceleration vectors point in opposite directions. Slide 7-76 37

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