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© NERC All rights reserved Task 4: Review of efficacy of current and planned offshore monitoring plans with respect to regulatory requirements. Jonathan Pearce, BGS Doug Connelly, NOC (20 mins)
© NERC All rights reserved Task 4: Review of efficacy of current and planned offshore monitoring plans with respect to regulatory requirements: (BGS, NOC, mid-June to mid-August) Review regulations, including emissions trading: UK/EU and other eg Japan, Australia. BGS Produce list of key monitoring requirements BGS Assess ability of monitoring plans from Sleipner, Snovit, K12-B, Goldeneye and ROAD to meet global regulatory and emissions trading requirements. BGS/NOC Audit vs IEAGHG monitoring selection webtool BGS
© NERC All rights reserved Regulations reviewed Global: London Convention and Protocol and the Guidelines for the assessment of carbon dioxide for disposal into sub-seabed geological formations Focus on composition of CO2 stream & incidental substances and their potential impacts on environment European: OSPAR and its FRAM Storage Directive & Annex II, and Guidance Doc 2 Emissions Trading scheme and Monitoring and Reporting Guidelines
© NERC All rights reserved Regulations reviewed National regulations Australia – Victoria offshore regulations Japan – METI Standard for Safe Operation of CCS Demonstrations US (Texas offshore)?
© NERC All rights reserved Monitoring objectives Risk-based The Directive recognises that monitoring is essential to assess whether: Injected CO 2 is behaving as expected. Any migration or leakage occurs. Any identified leakage is damaging the environment or human health.
© NERC All rights reserved Storage Directive: Article 13 Comparison between the actual and modelled behaviour of CO 2 and formation water, in the storage site. Detecting significant irregularities. Detecting migration of CO 2. Detecting leakage of CO 2. Detecting significant adverse effects for the surrounding environment, including in particular on drinking water, for human populations, or for users of the surrounding biosphere. Assessing the effectiveness of any corrective measures taken… [in case of leakage]. Updating the assessment of the safety and integrity of the storage complex in the short and long term, including the assessment of whether the stored CO 2 will be completely and permanently contained.
© NERC All rights reserved Review of projects Sleipner – no Storage Permit but we’ll assume it has Snohvit – no Storage Permit but we’ll assume it has Goldeneye – No Permit but a detailed MMV plan developed for FEED for Longannet ROAD – Permit obtained & supplement to storage permit application reviewed K12-B – no Storage Permit but we’ll assume it has
© NERC All rights reserved Monitoring techniques deployed at large offshore sites 8
© NERC All rights reserved Sleipner monitoring
© NERC All rights reserved K12-B monitoring ToolYearProject 1Multi-finger Imaging Tool2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 CASTOR/ORC, MONK, Co 2 ReMoVe 2Electromagnetic Imaging Tool 2009Co 2 ReMoVe 3Cement Bond Log2007 (Failed)MONK 4Down Hole Video2007MONK 5Pressure and Temperature Gradient Profiling 2004, 2005, 2007 ORC 6Chemical TracersFrom 2005 and onwards CASTOR/ORC, MONK, Co 2 ReMoVe, CATO2 7Production Gas AnalysisFrom 2005 and onwards CASTOR/ORC, MONK, Co 2 ReMoVe, CATO2 8Injection Gas Analysis2004, 2005, 2007 CASTOR/ORC, MONK 9Production Logging2005, 2007CASTOR/ORC, Co 2 ReMoVe 10Production Water Analyses 2005, 2007CASTOR/ORC, MONK 11Pressure Fall-Off Measurements 2004, 2005, 2007 CASTOR/ORC, CATO2
© NERC All rights reserved Project ROAD permit application Injection start date: 2015 (latest Jan 2018) Permit for: depleted gas reservoir area P18-4 CO 2 source: EOn coal plant, Maasvlakte area Duration: maximum 8 years Rate: maximum 1.5Mt /year (47.57 kg CO 2 /second) Amount: Maximum 8.1 Mt CO 2 Maximum pressure: bar (pre-production initial pressure). Note, intended pressure = 320bar
© NERC All rights reserved ROAD Plans versus reg requirements Draft permit submitted 16 Dec Changed following EC opinion regarding updates to studies of pressure barrier between P18-4 and P15-9. Permit given 19 July Risk management plan, monitoring plan, provision closure and corrective measures plans submitted and present “no gaps”, but “must be detailed further”. Monitoring plan updated at least 6 months before injection starts and this plan must be approved by the Minister. Monitoring plan will also be updated no later than 4 years and 9 months after injection starts, and every 5 years after. The interdependence between the updated plans and reports must be described to the Dutch State Supervision of the Mines.
© NERC All rights reserved ROAD Monitoring plan development To fit with Storage Directive – risk based Well leakage prime focus to date Local pressure build up due to low injectivity in P18-6 Minor risk of fault leakage as pressures increase towards end of project. Two aims: to ensure the safety and the integrity of the storage complex and provide the necessary information to allow transfer of responsibility. to monitor the effectiveness of the corrective measures plan.
© NERC All rights reserved Monitoring categories Mandatory: based on the storage directive. Required: evidence for containment and to demonstrate integrity of seal, fault and wells. Optional contingency: will only be installed if irregularities show up. Quantification of leakage to the seabed is considered part of the contingency monitoring for ETS purposes and is only needed when there is an indication of leakage.
© NERC All rights reserved Monitoring phases Pre-injection – baseline monitoring Injection (Operational phase). Post-injection monitoring (reservoir is still accessible) – monitoring continues until a stable end situation can be determined. Post-injection (post well plugging) – If the plug is shown to be of acceptable quality the well will be sealed. Post-injection (post well abandonment) – if the seal is shown to be of acceptable quality the wells will be permanently abandoned. Post-injection (post-transfer) – After a demonstrably stable situation is shown, the reservoir will be transferred to the competent authority, which will be responsible for monitoring for 30 years from the moment of transfer. Long-term – As CO 2 is expected to remain in the reservoir, ROAD imply that its location will still need to be known for future underground activities.
© NERC All rights reserved ROAD monitoring plan (“concept plan” 1 June 2011) Injection procesMeasurement equipment/ method 1Injection rateFlow meter 2Injection stream CO2 concentration Gas samples & analysis: online system 3Injection stream composition Gas samples & analysis: Additional samples for calibration 4Water measurementGas measurement 5Discontinous emissions through leakage, venting or incidents Combination of techniques Well 6Annular pressurePressure device 7Well integrityWireline Logging (selection of tool: CBL, PMIT, EMIT, USIT, WAF, optical) 8Well head pressurePressure device 9Well head temperatureTemperature device 10Plug integrityPressure test and inspection Reservoir integrity 11Reservoir pressure (FBHP) (see also line 8) pressure device 12Reservoir Temperature (FBHT) (see also line 9) Thermometer 13Stabilized pressure (CIBHP) (gradient) during shut-in period pressure device (wireline tool or memory gauge) combined with shut-in 14Stabilised temperature (CIBHT) (gradient) during shut-in period thermometer or DTS (wireline tool or memory gauge) combined with shut-in 15Suspected leakageSurface seismic survey Environmental monitoring 16Pockmarks at the seabottom Multi-beam echosounding 17Presence of shallow gas or gas chimneys in the subsurface Baseline seismic data 18Migration pathways for gas in the shallow subsurface Time-lapse seismic data acquisition (2D or 3D) 19CO2 in soil at pockmarksGas samples using vibrocore + lab analysis 20Bubble detection at wellhead Acoustic bubble detector 21Microseismic monitoringPermanent geophones in injection well 22 page document (in Dutch except for this table) Linked to corrective Measures plan (18 pages, in Dutch)
© NERC All rights reserved RAOD Well Integrity prior to plugging Prior to injectionDuring injectionPost-injection Minimum planned Multifinger caliper Sonic Ultrasonic Electromagnetic Annular pressure Multifinger caliper or electromagnetic Pressure Temperature Multifinger caliper Sonic Ultrasonic Electromagnet ic If issues arise Neutron Video Sonic Ultrasonic Neutron Video Sonic Ultrasonic Neutron Video
© NERC All rights reserved Progress Reviewed regulations in key jurisdictions Reviewing key projects Next analyse how projects meet regulations Audit against monitoring selection tool
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