Presentation on theme: "The History of American Music. Intro Questions: What is culture? What is cultural history? What do we mean by “popular” culture? How has music both impacted."— Presentation transcript:
The History of American Music
Intro Questions: What is culture? What is cultural history? What do we mean by “popular” culture? How has music both impacted and been shaped by history? What is the difference between “commercial” and “artistic” success? Which is more important?
African-American History Forced transportation and enslavement across Atlantic (1600s-1800s) Conversion to Christianity Abolition of Slavery (1865) Reconstruction & Lynching Segregation Migration from country to city and South to North
The Great Migration African-Americans move North
From the “Old” World... American music created out of mix of traditions from Europe and Africa Legacy of ballads and classical music from Europe Chanting, drumming, rhythms, and oral history from Africa Influence of “Griot” from West Africa “Folk” music as representation of ordinary people and their histories and cultures
Into the “New” World Enslaved Africans and European Immigrants bring their cultures to America (Melting Pot) Influence of West Indies culture, New Orleans and “Creole” (mixed race) Work songs, song leaders, “call and response” “If the trees are to be cut, you must sing. Without song the bush knife is dull.” (Nigerian proverb) Early kind of protest music Religious influence, spirituals (Baptist)
Hint! Test Question #1 What historical factors lead to the creation of American music? How did both Europeans and Africans influence this?
Blues Simple form: 3 chords, usually in12 bar sequences AAB Rhyme Pattern Solo performance, Personal/Emotional/Spiritual BUT ALSO: Communal, Oral History and Stories Improvisation Percussive Rhythm
Blues Themes Work/Labor Religion The Devil Travel and the Crossroads Sin and Vice (Drinking, Gambling, Fighting, Sex) Love and Death Freedom
Early Blues Music Individual performance (Solo) Acoustic guitar Harmonica Vocal changes: shouts, moans, falsetto Use of slides
Early Blues Greats Robert Johnson Son House Blind Lemon Jefferson Charley Patton Lightnin’ Hopkins “Ma” Rainey
Expansion of the Blues Early recordings bring the Blues out of the South Blues records become popular Impact of the electric guitar Blues music influences Jazz, Gospel, and Rock ‘n’ Roll The “roux” or base for all forms of American popular music
Blues Icons Bessie Smith Muddy Waters Howlin’ Wolf B.B. King John Lee Hooker Stevie Ray Vaughn
Hint! Test Question #2 What themes did blues musicians focus on? How did the lyrics of blues songs reflect the life of black Americans? Explain how the blues captured the experience of African-Americans in the period after emancipation.
Born in New Orleans Created from Ragtime and Blues Larger groups than blues, usually bands or orchestras Variety of instruments: Trumpet, Piano, Trombone, Saxophone, Rhythm section (guitar, drums, bass), Vocalist Close connection to dancing and live performances Improvisation and soloing Syncopation (Playing off the beat)
Jazz (continued) Major Jazz cities: Chicago New York City Kansas City White and black musicians not allowed to perform together But in late night jam sessions whites and blacks shared music Jazz slang words: “Cat,” “chick,” “cool,” “dig,” “funky,” “hip”
The “Jazz” Age Important Events of Early : World War I Prohibition The Roaring Twenties The Great Migration Harlem Renaissance
Big Band and “Swing” 1930s-1940s
Major Events of 1930s Great Depression The Dust Bowl World War II Continued problems with segregation and civil rights
Bebop (1940s-1950s) Experimental Chaotic Smaller Groups (3-5) Extensive solos Problems with Drug Use Created big division in jazz
Jazz Icons Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Billie Holiday Ella Fitzgerald Charlie Parker Thelonious Monk Miles Davis
Hint! Test Question #3 What major events influenced jazz music during the twentieth century? How did jazz change from the late nineteenth century to the 1950s?
Rock ‘n’ Roll 1950s and 1960s
Origins of Rock ‘n’ Roll White musicians incorporating elements of the Blues But also influenced by Country, Folk, and Jazz Invention of Electric Guitar (1936) and Amplification Television (Huge impact from 1950s onward) Cold War and American Prosperity “Baby Boomer” Generation, Teenage Rebellion
Early Rock ‘n’ Roll Chuck Berry Elvis Bo Diddley Jerry Lee Lewis Little Richard
British Invasion The Beatles, The Who, The Yardbirds, The Rolling Stones
Bob Dylan Brought new sound to “popular” music Combined folk, blues, rock, country, and other genres Lyrical genius Unconventional voice “Like a Rolling Stone”
Psychedelic Rock San Francisco Closely connected to Hippies, Communes, and Drug Culture Major bands: Grateful Dead Jefferson Airplane The Doors
Hint! Test Question #4 What technological advances were significant for the popularity and success of Rock ‘n’ Roll? How did Rock develop from earlier forms of music?
Why do we protest? What does this term mean? What issues cause people to protest? Has this changed? How have songs become important to protest movements? Do music and politics mix? How? Introductory Questions
Folk tradition-Woody Guthrie Work Songs Blues and Jazz Music in the 1960s Punk and Reggae Hip hop and Rap Examples of Protest Songs
Protest Song against Lynching Billie Holiday- “Strange Fruit”
Bob Dylan Greatly influenced by Woody Guthrie Songs about civil rights and anti-war Dubbed “Poet of his Generation” Turned against folk and “protest” music when he went “electric”
Hip Hop Created in black inner-city neighborhoods Themes: Racism, Poverty, Police Brutality, Inequality Examples: Public Enemy Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five Run-DMC Jurassic Five
Hint! Test Question #5 What is “protest” music? How has music been an important form of political expression? What issues or problems have artists raised in their songs?
Music Today 1970s-2010s
Major Genres of the Last 50 Years Punk Heavy Metal Funk Hip Hop Disco Pop (Popular) Rap Grunge Electronic Dance Music (EDM) Indie (Independent)
Impact of New Technologies New Recording Formats MTV Digital Storage The Internet Napster