3Gerald Ford 1913 – 2006 38th President (1974 – 77) Former Univ. of Michigan football player, WWII veteran, and 25 year CongressmanSelf-deprecatingly once described his abilities as president with, “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln”Only president to never be elected to the office of president or vice-president, since he was appointed Nixon’s vice-president after Spiro Agnew resigned due to scandal
4Jimmy Carter 39th President (1977-81) Issues: Oil Crisis Iran Hostage CrisisGraduate of the US Naval Academy, but took over his family’s peanut farm after the sudden death of his father
5Ronald Reagan Reaganomics Iran-Contra Affair 40th President (1981 – 89)Issues:ReaganomicsIran-Contra AffairActor before he became involved in politics, then Gov. of California
6George Bush Sr. 41st President (1989–93) Issues: Persian Gulf War- 1st war with IraqLast WWII vet to be presidentFormer head of the CIA,Only the second president in US history to have a son also serve as president
7Bill Clinton 42nd President (1993 – 2001) Issues: Election of Ross Perot (split Republican party)Whitewater- Monica Lewinsky- ImpeachmentWon election despite numerous reports of extramarital affairsPromised major health-care reform in his campaign, but was unable to gain approval
8George W. Bush 43rd President (2001 -09) Issues: Election of recoutn9/11- War on Terror-War with IraqFormer Governor of TexasSon of President George H.W. BushFormer part-owner of the MLB’s Texas Rangers
9Barack Obama Issues: War with Iraq Healthcare Economy 44th President (2009 – now)Issues:War with IraqHealthcareEconomyFirst black presidentFirst from HawaiiWon 2008 election by a wide margin, winning over 10 million more popular votes and nearly 100 more electoral votes than his opponent
10Stagflation Stagflation: when inflation and unemployment increase and the economy is stalled- causing a recession (1970s)
11Whip Inflation Now (WIN) Asked Americans to voluntarily reduce energy and fuel consumptionWhen that failed, he tried cutting government spending but that didn’t work either
12Reaganomics He cut taxes by 25% on the rich “Trickle-down” theory: by helping the rich, they will have more money to create jobs and the benefits will “trickle-down” to the poor(also called “supply-side” economics)
13Economic RecoveryReaganomics worked and the economy recovered and began to grow at a record rateThe average family income rose by 15% and 20 million new jobs were created
14NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Its purpose was to Open up trade between US, Mexico and Canada
15Economic BoomIn general, the stock markets boombed during the 1990s which promoted great economic growth
16Oil EmbargoIn anger over US support for Israel, most Arab states began to punish America, and the most effective way was restricting oil productionOil that was $3/barrel in 1973 climbed to $30/barrel by Increased fuel costs meant less money to spend on other things, which led to a recessionNo longer an issue because America and OPEC get along.
17OPEC Organizatio of Patroleum Exporting Countries OPEC stopped selling oil to the U.S. after we sent massive military aide to their enemy, Israel.When OPEC started selling oil back to the U.S. the price quadrupled.
18National Energy Act of 1978Placed higher taxes on cars that weren’t fuel efficientGave tax credits to homeowners who improved insulation or used solar energyProvided funding for research into alternative energy sources
19Three-Mile Island March 28, 1979 Nuclear plant- part of reactor melted- radiation released- caused improvements in nuclear plantsAlthough there were no deaths directly contributed to the accident, cancer and infant mortality rates in the areas downwind showed marked increases in the years immediately followingSince the accident, use of nuclear power has declined in the US
20Courts & Legal ChangesRonald Reagan was the first president to appoint a woman to the Supreme Court. Her name was Sandra Day O’Connor.President Bush (the 1st), appointed a controversial judge to the Supreme Court, Clarence Thomas.During his confirmation hearings he faced tough questions about views on civil rights and sexual harassment. This started a public debate on the matter.
21Title IX & Texas v. Johnson Part of the Education Amendments of the Civil Rights Act, this section prohibits discrimination in federally funded educational facilities based on sex. It has impacted equality in sports teams, recruiting, admissions, housing and scholarships among other things.This court case determined that flag burning was legal due to a person’s rights under the First Amendment
22Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): This act is a wide-ranging legislation intended to make American society more accessible to people with disabilities. It requires accommodations to be made in places of employment, public services, public accommodations and telecommunication services to allow access by those with disabilities.
23United States v. Microsoft (2000): This case looked at whether Microsoft had violated antitrustlaws (like those used against big business in the early 1900s- Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Laws)The court did not break up Microsoft, but came to an agreement whereby Microsoft has to give access to its systems to ensure compliance with court rulings.
24Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Why was this an important case? Busing could be used to achieve integration (voluntary integration not working)Integrated busses forced the school to become integrated.
25Affirmative Action What is it? Giving preference to women and minorities in employment and education (to increase diversity)
26Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978): Decision:Quotas can not be used to achieve diversity, but schools do have the right to use race “as a factor” in admissionsMore recent cases have said that affirmative action is illegal.
27No Child Left Behind Act Passed in 2001Increasing accountability of student performance, flexible funding, more info for parents, research how to improve schools and teachers.AKA:No Child Left Behind
28Bilingual Education Why was it an issue? Increased immigration= many know little English
29ImmigrationLarge number of people immigrating to the U.S. in the past 20 yearsComing from Asia and Latin AmericaMany settle in the “Sunbelt” and mostly in larger cities
30“Graying of America”“Graying of America”= huge population growth in older Americans (65+) as baby boomer generation agesEffects=A loss in money for the social security system.Growing expenses for Medicare.
311973: OIL CRISIS —OPEC conspires to sell less oil while massively increasing the price creating huge amounts of inflation.1979: Ayatollah Khomeini overthrows IRAN establishing a fundamental Islamic country.
32Saddam Hussein attacks Iran because the Ayatollah was asking Muslims worldwide to overthrow their governments leading to a 10 year war.1979: SOVIET UNION INVADES AFGHANISTAN: US gives money to the Taliban to help them fight the Communists.
331979: IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: Iran kidnaps 52 Americans from the US Embassy and holds them hostage for 444 days.1980s: IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR: The US sells weapons to Iranian terrorists and gives the money to Nicaraguan freedom fighters even though Congress said not to.
341991: IRAQ INVADES KUWAIT for its oil—George Bush leads U. N 1991: IRAQ INVADES KUWAIT for its oil—George Bush leads U.N. forces to invade Iraq (1st War on Iraq). Kuwait liberated but Saddam left in power.TERRORIST ATTACKS: World Trade Center 1993,U.S. Embassies Tanzania and Kenya bombed 1998, USS Cole attacked 2000.
359/11- 2001: Twin Towers and the Pentagon attacked by hijacked planes. The Taliban government of Afghanistan helped hide Osama bin Laden of Al-Qaeda.DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY created to coordinate government agencies.PATRIOT ACT passed to increase domestic surveillance to protect Americans.
36George W. Bush attacks AFGHANISTAN because it was helping Al-Qaeda making it a member of the “Axis of Evil”2002: 2nd WAR ON IRAQ: UN forces led by George W Bush invade Iraq to bring down Saddam Hussein because he may have Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)Saddam Hussein is captured, put on trial and executed.
37South Africa(1980s/1990s): US put embargos on goods from South African to try and help the end of apartheid. Under the leadership of Nelson Mandela and others, apartheid ended in Apartheid is the legalized segregation of people by race
38Somalia(early 1990s): Somalia experienced both widespread famine and a civil war. Clinton sent troops to help with food aid and to stabilize the country. After about a dozen American troops were killed, Clinton pulled them out of the country. Civil war continued.
39Ethiopia(1990s-present): Ethiopia has been hurt by political unrest and widespread poverty for many years. The US has given a lot of humanitarian aid (billions of dollars) to Ethiopia.
40Nixon’s PardonOnly a month into his presidency, Ford issued a presidential pardon to Nixon, ending the Watergate scandalFord explained his actions as helping to heal the nation, but many suspected that Nixon had negotiated the pardon out of Ford in return for making Ford president with his resignation
41Helsinki Accords 1975 meeting of NATO and Warsaw Pact leaders Soviets promised to uphold basic human rights, but when they did not keep that promise, American enthusiasm for détente began to fade and the Cold War began to deepen once again
42Mayaguez IncidentMay 1975Cambodia seized an American cargo ship off its shore that they claimed was spyingFord ordered the ship retaken by the Marines, but the rescue attempt (which proved unnecessary since the ship’s crew had already been released) proved costly, with 41 Marines killedStill, rescue attempt was seen as a success and helped Ford’s reputation both at home and abroad
43Election of 1976 Republicans nominated Ford Democrats nominated former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter – a Washington outsider who promised to restore morality and honesty to the government, as well as major reforms to US energy, welfare, and economic policiesCarter won in a close election
44Economic FailureTried to fix the faltering economy by increasing government spending and cutting taxes – it didn’t workReversed course and killed his own hard-won programs and tax cuts – that didn’t work either
45DeregulationCarter approved removing government regulations on several industries:Oil industry – to encourage increased domestic productionAirlines – to open up free market competition and reduce prices for consumers
46Amnesty to Draft-dodgers Carter issued a blanket amnesty for anyone who had fled the US to avoid being drafted during the Vietnam WarThis cost him the support of the hundreds of thousands of Vietnam veterans who had done their duty as American citizens
47Returning the Panama Canal Carter convinced the Senate to agree to a treaty which would transfer control of the Panama Canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999Intended to help repair US image in Latin America
48Camp David Accords1978Carter brokered a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt, creating hope for a stabilized Middle EastMenachem Begin (Israel) and Anwar Sadat (Egypt) shared the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts, but Sadat was assassinated 2 years later, largely due to his willingness to negotiate with Israel
49Iranian Revolution January 1979 Iran’s pro-US Shah (king) was forced to flee due to civil unrest, leaving Iran in the control of Muslim fundamentalists under the Ayatollah KhomeiniWhen the US allowed the fugitive Shah to receive cancer treatments in the US, tensions boiled over
50Iranian Hostage Crisis Nov. 4, 1979Angry college students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran and seized 66 members of the embassy staff as hostagesUltimately, 52 hostages were held for 444 days, released only once Ronald Reagan was sworn in as president (female and black hostages had been released almost immediately after the embassy was taken)
51Failed Rescue Attempt Operation Eagle Claw April 1980 Daring plan was to rescue the hostages using helicopters, but one of the helicopters crashed en route and the mission was abortedThe failure of the mission, and of Carter’s diplomatic attempts to gain the hostages’ release, badly damaged his already shaky reputation
52Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan In December 1979, Soviet troops entered Afghanistan to help the communist government put down a rebellionUS responded to this “invasion” with a grain embargo against the Soviet Union, by boycotting the 1980 Olympic Games which were being held in Moscow, and by refusing to ratify the recently agreed to SALT II treatyDétente completely collapsed
53The Religious RightThe “sex, drugs, and rock and roll” culture of the late 1960s and 1970s prompted a backlash that led many Americans to embrace religious conservatism during the 1980sMany were greatly concerned by such things as the Roe v Wade and Engel v Vitale decisions, and the feminist and gay rights movements, which they saw as eroding to the moral fabric of America
54The Moral Majority Powerful lobbying group Founded by Jerry Falwell in 1979, dissolved after the 1988 electionDesigned to promote the interests of evangelical Christian groupsTheir support of Republican candidate Ronald Reagan was a major factor in his win in the 1980 presidential race
551980 ElectionDemocrats nominated Carter despite his growing unpopularity; many Democrats would have preferred to nominate Ted Kennedy, but an old scandal cost him the nominationRepublicans nominated conservative Ronald Reagan, while a more moderate Republican, John Anderson, chose to run as an independentReagan won in a landslide, carrying all but 5 states
57Ronald Reagan 1911 – 2004 40th President (1981 – 89) Former actor Former Gov. of CaliforniaReagan promised to rebuild the US’ military strength and to fix the economy, all while creating a balanced budget and cutting taxes"A recession is when your neighbor loses his job. A depression is when you lose yours. And recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his."
58Assassination Attempt March 30, 1981John Hinckley fired six shots at Reagan, seriously injuring both the President and White House Press Secretary Jim BradyHinckley was only seeking publicity, had no political agendaReagan fully recovered, but Brady was paralyzed and would become a gun control advocate for whom the 1993 Brady Bill, which required federal background checks on persons purchasing handguns, was named
59Yuppies Young Urban Professionals Ambitious, hardworking “white collar” workers who spent heavily on luxury goods as a symbol of their statusHelped drive the economic recovery through their consumerist spending on luxury cars, high-end electronics, and designer clothes
60New TechnologiesSony Walkman: mobile cassette player, precursor to the iPodVCR: Video Cassette Recorder, precursor to the DVD player and TiVoCable TV: Most viewers had only 4 stations (ABC, CBS, NBC, PBS) before the late 1970sVideo Games: Atari 2600 home system, public video arcades with games like PacMan, Asteroids, Missile Command, Donkey Kong, & Space Invaders
61Crime & Drug Use RiseCrack cocaine became a serious problem in US cities due to its highly addictive nature and its side effect of increasing aggressiveness in its usersCrime rates rose as users began to steal or prostitute themselves to fund their drug habitFirst Lady Nancy Reagan responded with the “Just Say No” and D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) programs aimed at kids and teenagers
62HomelessnessFunding cuts under Reagan to government housing projects for low-income families and to mental health programs led to a surge in the homeless population, especially among Vietnam veterans
63AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Mysterious disease which had first been noticed among young homosexual men in the late 1970sBetween 1981 and 1988, over 100,000 cases were reported in the US, triggering a panic and causing many to abandon the promiscuity of the 1960s and 70s
64Gay Rights MovementAIDS helped increase the visibility of the homosexual community in the USAt first the attention was negative, since AIDS was misunderstood as a “gay” disease and was even called a punishment of the gay community from God by many religious conservativesOver time, however, many Americans took a sympathetic stance towards AIDS victims and began to be more tolerant of the gay community
65Sandra Day O’Connor 1930 – Present Supreme Court Justice (1981 – 2006) First woman appointed to the Supreme Court, fulfilled one of Reagan’s campaign promisesReagan preferred Justices who were strict interpreters of the Constitution, but O’Connor turned out to be fairly moderate
661984 ElectionDemocrats nominated former vice-president Walter Mondale for president and NY Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro (the first woman on a presidential ballot) as his running mate, but they took only one state in the election as Reagan won re-election in a landslide
67EnvironmentalismReagan encouraged greater exploitation of natural resources and deregulating industry, both of which were opposed by environmentalistsThe 1980s saw a surge in scientific research into how pollutants and deforestation were damaging the ozone layer and creating global warmingMany American communities also began recycling programs during the decade
68TerrorismReagan was the first US president to deal with foreign terror attacks on AmericansBeirut (Oct. 23, 1983): US Marines on a peace-keeping mission in Lebanon had their barracks attacked by truck bombs, killing 241 AmericansLibya (Apr. 15, 1986): After Libyan sponsored terror attacks in Germany, the US retaliated with an air strike aimed at taking out Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and terrorist training facilities
69Reagan & The Cold WarReagan abandoned all efforts at détente and negotiation with the Soviets, declaring them an “evil empire” and set out to win the Cold War by forcing the Soviets to deplete their economy through military spending
70Military BuildupReagan spent $1.5 trillion on defense, forcing the Soviets to match with their own military buildup or run the risk of losing global influenceThe idea was to break the Soviet economy and thereby win the Cold War – it worked, but it would not be until after Reagan had left office that the Soviet economy failed
71“Star Wars” Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Reagan called for the development of a space-mounted weapons platform which could be used to destroy Soviet nuclear missiles before they could reach the USThe US spent about $100 billion trying to develop such a system (with no success), forcing the Soviets to spend money on how to counter such a system
72The Reagan DoctrineReagan believed that that the US had a moral obligation to show support for guerrilla groups who were fighting communist or pro-Soviet governmentsThis policy would lead to US intervention in several conflicts
73AfghanistanReagan provided over $570 million in military aid to the mujahadeen rebels fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan, allowing them to drag the fight out for 9 bloody yearsIn 1988, the Soviets withdrew after losing nearly 15,000 men
74NicaraguaReagan began to secretly fund the “Contra” rebels in Nicaragua who were fighting the socialist Sandinista governmentCongress banned any further US aid to the Contras, due to not wanting to damage US-Latin relations and because the Contras trafficked in drugs to help fund their cause
75Iran-Contra ScandalIn 1986, it was exposed that Reagan’s administration had not cut off aid to the Contras in Nicaragua as directed by Congress but had instead been funding them with the proceeds from the illegal sale of weapons to IranReagan claimed to have no knowledge of the operation, placing blame on his Security Council and the CIA14 men were indicted, including Col. Oliver North who had run the entire operation, but none ever did any prison time
76GrenadaIn 1983, Reagan sent US troops to the island nation of Grenada after a communist regime took power there; US forces overthrew the new government and restored the old to powerReagan was concerned that Cuban and Soviet military forces could use the island to help destabilize the region
77Mikhail Gorbachev 1931 – Present Became new leader of the Soviet Union in 1985Believed that economic and political reform was necessary to the survival of the USSR and pursued an arms reduction agreement with the USSigned an agreement with Reagan in 1987 to reduce the number of nuclear weapons, leading to a new détente
78The Space ShuttleBy 1981, NASA was ready to begin a new chapter in space exploration with its reusable space shuttleUS has spent over $170 billion on the shuttle program since its inception, building 6 shuttles (2 of which have been destroyed in accidents) and funding 135 missions through the final flight scheduled for next year
79The Challenger Disaster January 28, 1986Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after takeoff due to a mechanical failure, killing all 7 astronauts aboard, including Christa McAuliffe, a social studies teacher who had been selected to be the first teacher in space
801988 ElectionRepublicans nominated vice-president George Bush who made the famous campaign promise: “Read my lips - No new taxes!”Democrats nominated Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis over civil rights activist Jesse JacksonBush won easily. Thanks largely to Reagan’s success as president
81Perestroika & Glasnost Gorbachev instituted new programs to try to save the Soviet economyPerestroika (“restructuring”): allowed some small private businesses to operate outside of government controlGlasnost (“openness”): allowed Soviet citizens new freedoms of religion and speech and to have a voice in Soviet politics
82The Wall Comes DownNov. 9, 1989East Germans guards opened the gates in the Berlin Wall, removing the barrier between East and West; within days the wall was completely dismantledThe next year, East and West Germany reunited into one country for the first time since 1945
83Collapse of CommunismThe Soviet’s inability to financially support communist states in Eastern Europe led to mostly peaceful overthrows of their unpopular governmentsIn 1989, the old communist bloc collapsed as communist regimes fell one after anotherIn late 1991, the Soviet Union itself collapsed after an attempted coup by communist hardliners failed to unseat Gorbachev and the communist party was banned in Russia – the Cold War was over and the US had won
84Tiananmen SquareJune 1989Inspired by the collapse of communism in Europe, Chinese students began a massive demonstration in Tiananmen Square in China’s capital of BeijingThe Chinese government ordered a military crackdown which led to the deaths and arrests of unknown numbers of dissidentsThe US objected strongly and took economic sanctions against the Chinese government
85Invasion of Panama December 1989 Operation Just Cause US military invaded Panama to oust dictator Manuel NoriegaUS was concerned because Noriega was encouraging drug trafficking and threatening US interests in Panama, especially the Panama Canal23 Americans died in the operationNoriega was eventually captured and sent to prison in the US on drug charges
86Iraq Invades Kuwait August 1990 Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein sent his forces to invade Kuwait and secure that nation’s rich oil reserves, thereby eliminating competitionThe UN objected to Iraq’s aggression, taking economic sanctions and setting a deadline for Iraq to withdraw from KuwaitIraq refused
87Operation Desert Storm Jan. 16, 1991US-led forces attacked Iraq, launching six-weeks of air and missile attacks before beginning a ground invasion of Kuwait and southern Iraq
88Gulf War IJan. 16 – Feb. 28, 1991149 Americans were killed in combat, 458 woundedIraq suffered between 20,000 and 35,000 military casualtiesBush elected not to fully conquer Iraq because the UN-approved mission had been to simply liberate Kuwait and the political consequences of removing Saddam Hussein from power would have been too steep
89Economy FaltersThe end of the Cold War led to decreased US military spending and a down-sizing of US military forces as the nation tried to pay down some of its debtAs the economy slowed, many “Yuppies” began to focus on paying off their debts as well and reduced their consumerism, deepening the recessionIn an attempt to jumpstart the economy, Bush was forced to break his campaign promise and raise taxes
90Americans With Disabilities Act 1990Forbids discrimination in workplaces and in public facilities against those with mental or physical disabilitiesForced businesses to become wheelchair accessible, provide signage in Braille, and offer closed captioned television
911992 Election Republicans nominated Bush for re-election Democrats nominated Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, who promised widespread reformsBillionaire H. Ross Perot ran as an independent, promising to run America like a business by cutting the federal deficit and balancing the budgetClinton won in a hotly contested election
92William J. Clinton 1946 – Present 42nd President (1993 – 2001) Won election despite numerous reports of extramarital affairs and having no national-level political experiencePromised major health-care reform in his campaign, but was unable to gain approval from a Republican controlled Congress
94The InternetDuring the mid-1990s, localized computer networks began to become interconnected as part of the “World Wide Web,” forever changing how we communicateBetween 1997 and 2000, internet use soared 300%The internet also sparked a boom in “dot.com” companies, briefly driving economic prosperity in the late 1990s
95The Deficit and TaxesClinton had campaigned on a platform of economic recovery through reduction of the federal deficitTo do this, he was forced to increase taxes on the middle-class and on fuels
96Health Care FailureClinton had also promised health care reform to provide health insurance to the 40 million Americans without itClinton lacked enough political support in Congress for his reforms and was not able to fulfill this campaign promise
97Family Medical Leave Act Bill passed in 1993Provides workers up to 12 weeks per year of unpaid family leave for the birth or adoption of a child, or for dealing with a serious illness of themselves or a close family member
98AmeriCorpsCreated in 1993 to put people to work improving low-income housing, tutoring students in reading, or in cleaning up the environmentWhile in AmeriCorps, you earn a small salary and scholarship money for continuing your educationExpanded by Pres. BushOver 500,000 Americans have participated in the program
99Crime & Gun ControlBrady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993: requires federal background check before the purchase of a handgun, disallows handgun ownership for convicted felons, illegal aliens, the mentally ill, drug addicts, and domestic abusersClinton also won funding for building new prisons and putting over 100,000 more police officers on the streets
100Gingrich’s Contract With America Rep. Newt Gingrich of Georgia, a Republican, put forward a plan in 1994 calling for lower taxes, welfare reform, tougher anti-crime laws, term limits, and a balanced budget amendment, which resulted in Republicans winning control of Congress and Gingrich becoming Speaker of the HouseDemocratic president + Republican Congress = stalemate for two years until the two sides learned to work together in 1996
101Balancing the BudgetClinton allowed the federal government to shut down in 1995 rather than accept a Republican-backed budget which cut into social program spendingEventually the two sides compromised and produced a balanced budget bill that was acceptable to all parties
102Welfare Reform Act Passed in 1996 Limited recipients to no more than 2 consecutive years on welfare and no more than 5 years totalRequired those receiving welfare to workGave tax breaks to any company hiring a person on welfare
1031996 Election Democrats nominated Clinton for a 2nd term Republicans nominated Sen. Bob Dole of KansasBillionaire H. Ross Perot ran once again as an independentClinton won, but in a fairly close race
107Children’s ProgramsBanned tobacco advertising aimed at children or teenagersChildren’s Health Insurance Program: provides health insurance for children whose families can not afford itExpanded federal loans for college tuitionExpanded funding for Head Start
108ScandalsTravelgate: scandal over the questionable dismissal of White House Travel Office staffTroopergate: scandal over Clinton’s use of state troopers to cover-up his extramarital affairs while Governor of ArkansasWhitewater: scandal over Clinton’s alleged arranging of illegal loans to a real estate developer while Governor
109The Monica Lewinsky Scandal In 1998, Clinton was accused of having an affair with White House intern Monica LewinskyWhen questioned under oath, Clinton lied about his relationship, committing the crime of perjuryClinton later admitted to the affair and apologized
110ImpeachmentIn Dec. 1998, Clinton became only the second president to be impeachedThe House of Representatives passed articles of impeachment for perjury and obstruction of justice related to the Lewinsky scandalIn Feb. 1999, Clinton was acquitted by the Senate in a narrow vote
111Somalia Battle of Mogadishu: Oct. 3-4, 1993 US forces on a peace-keeping mission in Somalia were ambushed while attempting to rescue the crews of two helicopters which had been shot down19 Americans were killed and 73 woundedPopularized in the movie Black Hawk DownUS forces left Somalia
112HaitiAfter a military coup overthrew the democratically elected government of Haiti, the UN put a trade embargo in placeTo end the violence in Haiti, Clinton ordered US troops to invade and restore order, but Haiti’s new rulers were convinced to step down by former Pres. Carter before the invasion took placeUS troops still took up position in Haiti for many weeks to ensure a peaceful transition
113BosniaCivil war between Orthodox Christian Serbs, Catholic Croatians, and Bosnian Muslims broke out between 1991 and 1995US-led NATO forces were used to end the fighting and to enforce the 1996 Dayton Accords peace plan
114KosovoCivil war broke out in 1998 between Serbs and Albanians in KosovoAgain, US-led NATO forces were used to bring an end to the fighting and to enforce a peace plan
115Middle Eastern Peace?Clinton orchestrated an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in which the two sides agreed to negotiate over Palestinian rights in IsraelUnfortunately, no lasting peace agreement was ever struck
116NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Passed in 1994 Canada, Mexico, and the US joined into a “free trade zone”Increased US trade with its neighbors, but shifted many manufacturing jobs to Mexico while the US became a service and technology based economy
117European Union Formed in 1993 Created to promote economic and political cooperation amongst European statesMembers share a common currency (the Euro)Weakened US political and economic influence in Europe, as EU members began to cut back on US imports
118Kyoto ProtocolInternational environmental conference, held in Japan in 199738 nations plus the EU agreed to reduce greenhouse emissions, but the US never approved the plan and pulled out of the talks in 2001
119Oklahoma City Bombing April 19, 1995 Terror attack carried out by American Timothy McVeigh, an anti-government militiamanTruck bomb detonated in front of the federal building, killing 168McVeigh was later executed for his role in the attack
120Terror AttacksWorld Trade Center bombing: Feb. 26, 1993, Islamic terrorists detonated a truck bomb under the WTC in an attempt to bring down the North Tower, killing 6 and injuring over 1000US Embassy bombings: US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were attacked by terror bombers in Aug. 1998USS Cole: US warship which was attacked in Oct by al Qaeda suicide bomber, killing 17
122Election of 2000 Democrats nominated Vice-President Al Gore Republicans nominated Texas Governor George W. BushEnvironmentalist and reformer Ralph Nader ran as an independent
123ControversyIn one of the closest elections in US history, Bush won by only 6 electoral votes, thanks largely to his victory in FloridaThe votes in Florida were so close that a recount was called, but due to problems with the ballots, recounting was difficult and required too much interpretation of voter intent
124Bush v Gore When Bush was declared the winner in Florida, Gore sued The US Supreme Court was forced to rule on the validity of the election results and found that a hand recount of ballots, requiring interpretation of voter intent, was unfair, thereby allowing the election results to stand
125George W. Bush 1946 – Present 43rd President (2001 -09) Former Governor of TexasSon of President George H.W. BushFormer part-owner of the MLB’s Texas RangersOnly US President to have an MBA
1269/11Sept. 11, 2001Terrorists seized control of 4 airliners, crashing 2 into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, 1 into the Pentagon, and 1 into a field in Pennsylvania, killing nearly 3000 Americans, more than died at Pearl Harbor or on D-Day
127Reasons for AttacksAl Qaeda cited increased Western influence in the Muslim world, the presence of US military bases in Saudi Arabia, US sanctions against Iraq, and the US’ support for Israel as reasons for the attacks
128Osama bin Laden 1957 – Present? Billionaire member of a high-ranking Saudi familyReported leader of al Qaeda terrorist groupBelieved to have orchestrated or been involved with multiple attacks, including the USS Cole bombing, US embassy bombings, and attacks in London and Madrid in Europe
129The War on TerrorAfter the 9/11 attacks, Bush declared a “War on Terror” aimed at destroying terrorist organizations anywhere in the world and stated that any nation which did not support the US in this effort would be viewed as hostile to our interestsBush also vowed to engage in “preventive war” against nations which actively support terror groups
130Dept. of Homeland Security Created in 2002 to coordinate all federal agencies in the fight against terrorismOversees the Border Patrol, Coast Guard, Customs, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Transportation Security Agency (TSA), and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
131The Patriot Act Passed in Oct. 2001 Allowed secret searches in terror casesAllowed wire-tapping, tracking of voic andCriticized by many as a violation of 4th Amendment protections against unreasonable search and seizure
132Afghanistan & the Taliban Oct – PresentUS began campaign against Taliban forces in Afghanistan due to their support of al Qaeda operationsBy Dec. 2001, Taliban had been ousted from leadership in the Afghan government, but continued to mount a resistance campaignOver 1400 US soldiers have died in the campaign
133The Axis of EvilBush also focused US attention on North Korea, Iran, and Iraq as major threats to world peace and to US securityHe collectively called these states an “axis of evil” in a speech in early 2002
134Iraq & WMDsIraq was identified by the Bush administration as the greatest threat due to suspicions that they possesses chemical, biological, and possibly nuclear “weapons of mass destruction” (WMD)
135Invading Iraq March 20, 1993 – Present After UN sanctions failed to satisfy US suspicions of Iraqi possession of WMDs, Bush authorized invasionUS quickly toppled Saddam Hussein’s government, but no WMDs were ever foundOver 4500 US soldiers have died in Iraq since
1362004 Election Republicans nominated Bush for a 2nd term Democrats nominated Sen. John Kerry of MassachusettsBush won by a narrow margin, largely due to support for his handling of the 9/11 attacks
137Hurricane Katrina August 2005 Killed over 1800 along the Gulf coast, heavily damaged city of New OrleansBush endured harsh criticism, including charges of racism, over the slow federal response to the disaster
138The Great RecessionAs federal deficits climbed in the mid-2000s, the US economy became unstableOver-extension of credit led to a collapse in the housing marketSharp declines in consumer spending led to business failures and a sharp rise in unemployment
1392008 ElectionRepublicans nominated Sen. John McCain of Arizona for President and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin for Vice President, only the 2nd woman to ever appear on a presidential ticketDemocrats nominated Sen. Barack Obama of Illinois, the first black candidate for president in US history
140Barack Obama 1961 – Present 44th President (2009 – Present) First president from Hawai’IWon 2008 election by a wide margin, winning over 10 million more popular votes and nearly 100 more electoral votes than his opponent