Presentation on theme: "Westward Expansion. In 1780, 2.7 million people lived in the original 13 states By 1830, 12 million people lived in 24 states –The average family had."— Presentation transcript:
In 1780, 2.7 million people lived in the original 13 states By 1830, 12 million people lived in 24 states –The average family had five children !! 50 Years Later…
Push Factors “THE MOTIVATION” What causes people to leave?
Push Factors to the West Overcrowding (you need a new place to live) Need for jobs (displaced workers) Ethnic/Religious repression Refuge for outlaws
Push Factors Think about... What “pushed” you out of bed today?
Pull Factors “THE INSPIRATION” What leads people to a particular area?
Land (cheap and plentiful) (you want a new place to live) Riches (gold, silver, later oil) Freedom of religion/beliefs Family connections Jobs and new opportunities
Or maybe to find love ??
Pull Factors Think about this... What “pulled” you to SS today?
Why did the government encourage so many Americans to go west? A belief in the philosophy of Manifest Destiny, which stated that …..
…. God, …, clearly wanted hard– working American(s) to occupy North America. It was inevitable and good that the United States occupy the continent “from sea to shining sea.”
It is, he wrote, “our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” John L. O’Sullivan gave these ideas a name: Manifest Destiny.
As a result of the American Revolution, Britain cedes its territory east of the Mississippi
What a Deal!
In 1803, the Louisiana Purchase nearly doubles the size of the young nation
– 1819, Spain cedes Florida to the US in return for nullification of a Five Million Dollar debt
Soon after, Mexico Wins Independence from Spain
Texas Texans Rebel against Mexico (remember the Alamo) Texans gain independence but seek admission to the US as a state
War with Mexico After nearly 10 years, the United States decides the time is right to annex Texas. Mexico protests – war is declared
New Land! War ends with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo The US obtains land in what is now California, New Mexico, Arizona and Texas (1.2 million square miles) The Gadsden Purchase completes our southwest territory
Results of the Mexican War
Incentives to go west included: The Pacific Railways Act –granted railroad company’s 10 square miles on either side of each track laid west Morrill-Land Grants –land grants from states to educational facilities with curriculum tied to agriculture and mechanical arts –(Texas A&M, Oklahoma A&M etc..)
Incentives to go west included: Homestead Act – for approximately $10, settlers could have 160 acres of western land, if they met certain criteria: American citizens who were 21 years or older, or the head of a household Built a home on their lot, and lived in it at least 6 mos. of the year Farmed the land for 5 years or more
Once we’ve decided to go west, how did we get there?
on steam powered boats
Most often – WALKING!!!
Transcontinental Railroad Connected the East Coast w/ the West Coast 2 Companies 1.Central Pacific Railroad 2.Union Pacific Railroad
Central Pacific Railroad Moved east out of Sacramento, CA Used Chinese Immigrants to lay track
Union Pacific Railroad Moved west out of Omaha, NB Used Irish Immigrants to lay track
Transcontinental Railroad Took 7yrs to complete May 10, Promontory Point Pres. Grant connected two lines w/ a golden spike Time Zone were then created to keep trains on time.
Exodusters Groups of African Am. moved west. Led by Benjamin “Pap” Singleton Get away from harsh treatment
Exodusters Where did they get their name? BIBLE – Book of Exodus
Farming Harsh Conditions Dry Farming – crops that don’t need much water Bonanza Farms – farm controlled by large businesses – grew single crop
Mining Gold & Silver strikes all over the west Mining towns scattered all over west – mostly men
Mining Placer Mining – shovel loose dirt into boxes/ pans then run water over it. Once metals gone towns became ghost towns
Cattle Industry Growing pop. = demand for more beef Problem: How to get cattle from TX ranches to railway centers in the north?
Cattle Industry Long Drive – transporting cattle from ranges to cow towns/ railway centers Cowboys helped move cattle
Cattle Industry Farmers against cattle drives Barbed Wire – invented by Joseph Glidden ended the Long Drive
Populist Party Created by Farm and Labor Leaders
Populist Party Increase circulation of $ Unlimited printing of silver Progressive Income Tax – % of taxes owed increases w/ income
Populist Party Gov’t control of communication & transportation 8 hour work day
What were some of the issues making expansion difficult? Financially Expensive Long Journey Uncharted Territory Fear of the Unknown Climate and Geography Native Americans Foreign Claims to the Land
Problems for Western Settlers Drinking Water – collected rain water –“Prairie Fever” or Typhoid Solution: Dig Wells –DANGEROUS!
Problems for Western Settlers Squatters – people who moved onto land that doesn’t belong to them Women find ways to preserve food, make clothing, soap, & candles
Native American Wars Indian Removal Act 1830’s Pres. Andrew Jackson removed all major Nat. Am. Tribes to the west of the MS River (Oklahoma) Trail of Tears Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, & Seminole
Native American Wars Many Tribes signed land treaties They were then put on reservations – federal land set aside for Nat. Am. Tribes
Native American Wars Apache Wars – began during the Civil War in 1861; lasted 25 years Apache were forced onto reservations Geronimo – famous Apache leader
Native American Wars Sand Creek Massacre – US troops led by Col. John Chivington raided a Cheyenne camp 450 men, women, & children were killed in the raid Cheyenne tribe will surrender a yr later
Native American Wars First Sioux War – started in 1866 when gov’t started building a road through their land Sioux attacked the men killing 80.
Native American Wars Sioux agreed to live on a reservation in the Dakota Territory 1875 US gov’t violated the treaty Allowed gold miners on the land
Native American Wars Second Sioux War – Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse led a small band off reservation. Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer- leader of 7 th Cavalry; was set after Sioux
Native American Wars Battle of Little Big Horn – the Sioux had joined forces w/ other tribes Col. Custer & 200 of his men died in the battle
Native American Wars In response – gov’t floods region w/ troops Eventually Sioux returned to res.
Native American Wars Massacre at Wounded Knee – after Sitting Bull’s death; followers left res. to perform Ghost Dance 7 th Cav. sent – killed 200 unarmed Sioux
Extinction of the Buffalo Railroad – killed to feed workers Settlers – killed for hides/fun Gov’t – killed them to starve out Native Am. Population rebounded
Dawes Act Gave plots of land to Native Am families Land not good for farming Not interested in farming Assimilation of Native Americans to white culture.
Indian Territory Present Day Oklahoma Gov’t gave away 2 million acres of Indian land to whites in a race April 22, 1889 – Great Race – over 10,000 settlers raced for claims
Indian Territory Boomer – settler who rushed into the land legally Sooner – settler who marked land before the race illegally