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Next Generation Assessment

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Presentation on theme: "Next Generation Assessment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Next Generation Assessment
College Ready Career National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Next Generation Assessment Presenters Bonnie Goonen - Susan Pittman-Shetler - [The text provided within the notes pages is designed to include all major talking points to be covered within this training session. The notes in each slide include Key Points, which should be covered during the training to ensure that participants have complete and accurate information. Due to differences in audiences, additional information may need to be added for further clarification/understanding.] 04/29-05/01/2013

2 Focus of the Train-the-Trainer Session – Part 1
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Focus of the Train-the-Trainer Session – Part 1 Rationale underlying new assessment tools Key points for discussion during training sessions Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) and related tasks Insight into how you can begin to apply the information to build on instructional approaches Resources for trainer use during future sessions Key Points Review the objectives of the session. 04/29-05/01/2013

3 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
A new test in 2014: Why? Changes occurring in the landscape of education and the workforce require a new kind of test All to ensure that the adult education high school credential remains meaningful for adult learners, employers, and institutions Key Points Why a new test? There are many different reasons. First, the life cycle of most assessments is approximately ten years – similar to the current GED® test. However, more importantly is that there are changes occurring in the landscape of education and the workforce. This change requires a new kind of assessment: to better measure adults’ preparedness for career and college to provide better information to users of the test to provide a more systematic and integrated approach for learners A high school test credential must remain meaningful for not only the adult learner, but also for employers and institutions. 04/29-05/01/2013

4 2014 The Task Ahead New Standards New Assessment
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative The Task Ahead Steps I Can Take New Standards New Assessment 2014 Key Points Identify concerns regarding the transition to a new test. Group discussion at tables regarding concerns and steps to take. 04/29-05/01/2013

5 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
What are you doing to prepare for the implementation of college and career readiness standards? How are you preparing instructors for the increased rigor of the new assessment? What are your programmatic goals for change in 2013? 2014? What do you need to help you move forward? How will you make the difference? Key Points As you proceed through this session, think about the questions. Remember, change can be difficult. However, as an instructional leader, you make the difference. 04/29-05/01/2013

6 It’s All in the Planning!
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative It’s All in the Planning! Time Frame Objective to Meet Concern Activities Completed Additional Information April – June 2013  Plan for professional development system for transitioning instructors to college and career ready standards-based instruction    July – December 2013 January – June 2014 July – December 2014 Key Points It’s all in the planning – whether it’s professional development or in the classroom. Later in this institute, you will have the opportunity to identify the goals and objectives for your professional development program and how you will implement the multitude of resources available. There is no one “right” way. There is no one “right” plan. The important thing is to plan and implement, using your professional skills and knowledge of your environment. 04/29-05/01/2013

7 New Reality #1 Our World Has Changed
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Reality #1 Our World Has Changed Key Points Let’s look at some new realities in the world of adult education. 04/29-05/01/2013

8 More Important in the 21st Century
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative More Important in the 21st Century Postsecondary education and training Academic knowledge and skills Practical literacies: The ability to use and apply the knowledge of math, language arts, science, civics etc. to meet real-world challenges. Broader competencies: Critical thinking and problem solving, communications and collaboration, creativity, self-sufficiency etc. Key Points We know that there is a fundamental knowledge base in English language arts and mathematics that all graduates must know to be prepared for non-remedial college courses, postsecondary training, and the workplace. The Common Core State Standards Initiative was led by The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) in partnership with Achieve, ACT and the College Board. These standards are research and evidence-based, internationally benchmarked, aligned with college and work expectations and include rigorous content and skills. Assessments that provide a high school credential must ensure that the assessment is aligned to national/state standards and provides the complexity, rigor, and coherence necessary for success. 04/29-05/01/2013

9 63% of all jobs will require some college or better by 2018
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative 63% of all jobs will require some college or better by 2018 Key Points It’s a new world. Review the information on the chart. Labor force Labor force Labor force Labor force 91 million million million million Projections of Jobs and Education Requirements Through Center on Education and the Workforce (June 2010) 04/29-05/01/2013

10 What does the workplace need?
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative What does the workplace need? Education, Job Openings, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America. (2012). Brookings Institute Further evidence to support the need to educate adults so that they are well prepared for postsecondary education so that they can succeed in today’s workplace. Key Points Discuss the information from the Brookings Institute and how it can be used to go forward in the development of curriculum that meets the criteria of being college and career ready. Note: You will want to insert information on your own state/region when presenting. 04/29-05/01/2013

11 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
Time Out for a Video Key Notes Debrief the video with the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

12 Our Goal: Preparing Students
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Our Goal: Preparing Students For the workplace by connecting skills required for entry-level positions in the 21st century workplace to our curriculum For postsecondary education by connecting concepts learned to concepts necessary for successful entrance For real-world situations by actively engaging students in contextualized reading, mathematics, problem-solving, and communication activities Key Points What is the goal for our adult education programs? As we look at today’s global economy, our goal should be to get our students ready. Ready for the workplace by connecting the curriculum that we use to the skills that are absolutely necessary for entry-level and beyond positions for our students – both in today’s and in tomorrow’s workplace. Our goal is also to actively engage our students as they develop skills in reading, math, problem solving, and communication skills. These are real-world skills for each of our students, not just a select few. 04/29-05/01/2013

13 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
Are Students Prepared? 60% of enrollees at community colleges need remediation (70% of those need math remediation) National studies have shown that two-thirds of students who take remedial classes never graduate Students needing one or more remedial math classes have a 90% drop-out rate Employers estimate that 39% of high school graduates who have no further education are not prepared for their current job and that 45% are under prepared for advancement. Michael Kirst, Stanford University Study “Rising to the Challenge: Are high school graduates prepared for college and work?” Achieve, Inc., 2005 Key Points We all know the answer. 04/29-05/01/2013

14 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
Connections There is a strong correlation between education, training, career success, satisfaction in life, Key Points We know that there is a strong correlation between education, training, career success, satisfaction in life, and personal income. . . . and personal income. 04/29-05/01/2013

15 Purposes of the new GED® test
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Purposes of the new GED® test Improved To provide results leading to the award of a high school equivalency credential To provide evidence of readiness to enter workforce training programs or postsecondary education To provide actionable information about a candidate’s academic strengths and weaknesses Key Points As we look at any new assessment, it’s important to remember that the purposes of the GED® assessment (and other assessments) are 1) to provide a high school credential, 2) to provide evidence of readiness to enter workforce training programs or postsecondary education, and 3) to provide information about a candidate’s strengths and areas of developmental need. To provide a high school credential. By measuring whether a candidate has acquired the foundational academic skills and knowledge deemed necessary for high school exit, the GED® assessment will provide an alternate pathway for adults who have not earned a high school diploma. To provide evidence of readiness to enter workforce training programs or postsecondary education. The GED® assessment will measure whether a candidate is ready to enter a workforce training program or a typical entry-level, credit bearing 2- or 4-year college course without needing remediation. To provide information about a candidate’s strengths and areas of developmental need. By providing more information about candidate proficiency on career and college readiness standards, potential employers, postsecondary advisors, and educators can help candidates strengthen those areas of developmental need so that the candidates are ready for the next level of lifelong education and training. 04/29-05/01/2013

16 Next Steps - Different Roles
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Next Steps - Different Roles What is the role of state staff in determining career and workplace needs? What is the role of the program manager in determining how the needs of the workplace will be met through instruction? What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the student? Key Points Have participants discuss next steps, incorporating the different roles present in the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

17 New Reality #2 Technology is Essential
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Reality #2 Technology is Essential Key Points Ok, let’s look at some other realities of as we transition to The first is that in today’s world, technology is essential. 04/29-05/01/2013

18 New Realities How many gadgets do you have? mp3 or iPod E-book reader
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Realities How many gadgets do you have? mp3 or iPod E-book reader Tablet, such as an iPad Laptop computer Smart phone Cell phone Key Points Quick activity to check the technology of the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

19 Would you really want to go back?
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Would you really want to go back? Key Points Today’s technology enables faster, easier, and greater levels of communication. Display each of the photos to demonstrate “new technology” of the past. 04/29-05/01/2013

20 Today’s Realities Technology is EVERYWHERE! Today…
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Today’s Realities Technology is EVERYWHERE! Today… Most job postings are exclusively online Most job applications are completed online Most job responsibilities have a technology component built in In the next decade… Career opportunities will be created by technological advances Key Points It is indeed today’s reality. Technology is everywhere – it’s a part of the workplace; it’s a part of our future; it’s a part of our adult education world. You walk into Wal-Mart, Target, McDonalds, Burger King – the first thing you need to do to apply for a job is to complete an online application. Even orientation and training programs now use distance learning. Then of course, there is postsecondary education and training. Taking advantage of post-secondary opportunities—whether career or education—will require technology skills. Some of our students don’t currently possess these skills. Technology is indeed a necessary skill for today’s world – in the workplace, in postsecondary education, and in one’s daily life. 04/29-05/01/2013

21 Earning differentials of workers who use computers
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Earning differentials of workers who use computers Key Points But there’s more. According to a recent Pew study, individuals with basic computer skills also see an increase in the amount earned compared to those who do not have the skills to use computers in the workplace. Integrating the teaching of basic computer skills into our programs is about more than taking a test; it’s about our students/ future in the workplace and in transitioning to postsecondary education. [Information from the following resources: Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., Strokl, J., Help wanted: Projections through education 2018 requirements. Georgetown University on Education and the Workplace. Rainie, L. Digital differences and money. Pew Research Center (2012)] Source: Rainie, L. Digital differences and money. Pew Research Center (2012) 04/29-05/01/2013

22 Computer-based assessment . . .
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Computer-based assessment . . . Enables measurement of concepts and/or skills that cannot be fully or appropriately captured by paper based tests (Bennett 2002; Parshall, Harmes, Davey, & Pashley, 2010) Improves measurement by increasing the precision or efficiency of the measurement process (Parshall, Spray, Kalohn, & Davey, 2001; van der Linden & Glas, 2000; Wainer, 1990) Key Points It’s also important that we are aware that computer-based assessment is being used throughout our educational system – from preschool through postsecondary education. It not only enables the measurement of concepts that cannot be captured by paper-based tests, but also increases the precision and efficiency of the assessment process. The GED Testing Service® is taking advantage of the positives that computer-based testing and the use of technology-enhanced items provide as the 2014 GED® test is developed. 04/29-05/01/2013

23 New Realities: Question Types
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Realities: Question Types GED® test HiSET™ TASC Constructed Response Extended Response Short Answer Multiple choice Technology-Enhanced Items Fill-in-the-blank items Hot-spot items Drag-and-drop items Drop-down selection items Essay Persuasive Writing Prompt Informative/explanatory Gridded response items Key Points Briefly review the item types included on the different assessment tools. The 2014 GED® test uses a variety of item types to provide an improved assessment process. From extended response and short answers to multiple choice to technology-enhanced items such as fill-in-the-blank, hot-spots, drag-and-drop, and drop-downs, the use of a computer-based platform provides test-takers with the tools necessary to answer these various question types. There is a myth circulating that multiple choice will no longer be used on the GED® test. Inform participants that approximately 50% of the items will continue to be multiple-choice. Explain that item types for the GED® test will be shown using the Item Samplers to give participants a clearer understanding of each type. The HiSET™ will provide an essay and a multiple-choice format test. Sample practice tests are available to show the different types of questions. The TASC will provide an informative/explanatory writing prompt plus multiple choice and gridded response items. 04/29-05/01/2013

24 Word Processing Skills
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Computer Skills Word Processing Skills Other Tools Basic keyboarding Cut Copy Paste Undo/Redo Insert Enter – hard return Spacing Backspace Highlight Directional Tools Previous/Next Close Minimize Page tabs Resource Tools Virtual Calculator Calculator Reference Page Formula Page AE Symbol Item Review/Flagging Key Points So what types of computer skills are necessary for our students to understand before taking a computer-based test? 04/29-05/01/2013

25 Why Integrate Technology?
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Why Integrate Technology? Helps motivate students, especially Millennials and Gen Xers Builds collaboration skills for students Requires higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills Develops skills for postsecondary education and the workplace Assists students in being successful on the high school completion assessment Key Points So, why should we integrate technology into our adult education programs? First, it’s a great motivator for students, especially those who have grown up with technology. Technology also builds collaboration skills, as well as integrates higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills into the classroom. As we know from looking at the jobs that surround us, basic technology skills are necessary for our students to be successful in today’s global economy. The 2014 GED® test uses technology to create a more comprehensive assessment tool. Question types that are not possible on a paper and pencil type of test can be used when basic computer skills are integrated. 04/29-05/01/2013

26 Technology in Today’s Classroom
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Technology in Today’s Classroom Teaching technology is no more optional than teaching students how to use a pencil. Key Points Of course, some teachers feel that integrating technology is optional. Integrating technology is no more optional than teaching students how to use a pencil. And while many may find that extreme, we cannot equip our students with the skills they need to be successful learners and workers without teaching them to use technology properly. How to use computers effectively is now a life-skill and it is our job as adult educators to equip students with these skills. We don’t “have a choice” when teaching math or reading or writing. We shouldn’t have a choice about integrating technology. 04/29-05/01/2013

27 In order to teach it, we have to do it!
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative “If a teacher today is not technologically literate - and is unwilling to make the effort to learn more - it's equivalent to a teacher 30 years ago who didn't know how to read and write.” Karl Fisch (2007) In order to teach it, we have to do it! Key Points Review the quote from Karl Fisch. 04/29-05/01/2013

28 A Few Strategies to Get Started
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative A Few Strategies to Get Started Teach mouse and keyboarding skills Integrate technology as a “normal” part of the curriculum Look at technology as more than just an ability to use a computer E-readers Tablets Smart phones Incorporate different question types using the technology of the 2014 GED® test and other computer-based assessment tools Key Points To get started, begin teaching mouse and keyboarding skills in your adult education program. Integrate the use of technology as a “normal” part of the curriculum. Remember, technology is more than just the ability to use a computer. Many of your students already use today’s technology, such as a smart phone. Don’t forget to incorporate different question types using the computer skills that are an integral part of the 2014 GED® test. 04/29-05/01/2013

29 Next Steps - Different Roles
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Next Steps - Different Roles What is the role of state staff in supporting the integration of technology state-wide? What is the role of the program manager in integrating technology into the adult education program? What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the student? Key Points Have participants discuss the next steps, integrating different roles within the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

30 New Reality #3 Diverse Generations
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Reality #3 Diverse Generations Key Points Picture for a moment the students in your classrooms. What ages do you see? What cultural/ethnic backgrounds do you see? How are your students similar? Different? 04/29-05/01/2013

31 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
The Power of Four! Key Points There has been much written about the four active generations in today’s workplace, as well as in our classrooms. Often referred to as the “Power of Four,” it has never been more evident that the world is changing. All we have to do is look at how each of us learn and work in today’s world – dependent often on our generation. Let’s talk a bit about “our generation.” 04/29-05/01/2013

32 Our current GED® test candidates
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Our current GED® test candidates Millennials (16-30) 75% Gen Xers (30-47) 21% Others (47+) 4% Key Points Many of us may express concerns about moving towards a computer-based test. However, it is important to realize that our students have changed. Today’s students are no longer the individuals that many of us encountered 10, 20, or 30 years ago. When we look at the statistics, approximately 96% of our GED test candidates are either Millennials or Gen Xers. This means that they have grown up with some type of technology. Almost 75%, Millennials, are termed digital natives. More and more of our GED students are computer savvy. Many have grown up with computers and feel comfortable with them. Many have never known a world without 24/7 technology. 2011 GED Testing Program® Statistical Report 04/29-05/01/2013

33 What is a generation? Generation Z G. I.’s Generation X Millennial
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative What is a generation? Generation Z between mid 2000s – 2020? G. I.’s between 1901 & 1926 Generation X between & 1982 Millennial Key Points We keep talking about different generations. Why is it important to those of us in adult education programs? What does it mean? Note: Provide a short review of the different generations. Traditionalists between 1982 & mid 2000s Baby Boomer between 1927 & 1945 between 1945 & 1964 04/29-05/01/2013

34 Coming to a Center Near You!
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Coming to a Center Near You! ~40% of the population under 25 95% of year olds use the Internet 81% of teens play games online 76% of online teens get news online 53% have made purchases online 41% use the web to get health information Pew Research Center (2009) Key Points Review the statistics from the Pew Research Center report. 04/29-05/01/2013

35 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
New Realities Key Points Our new reality is that individuals growing up in today’s world are more tech savvy than ever. Many have grown up with computers and feel comfortable with them. Computers are everywhere - in offices, medical facilities, manufacturing companies, stores, elevators, etc. The plumber installing your new water heater carries a laptop along with his tools. The server in your favorite restaurant enters your order into a point-of-sale terminal. The computer has become a central part of the workplace, so jobseekers should have basic keyboarding skills, know how to use a word-processor and a spreadsheet, and be able to use and the internet. Job seekers with word-processing skills are able to put together good-looking résumés and cover letters. Those who are Internet savvy can access online resources like job postings and company information. In addition, many employers now require people to complete online applications. But it’s not just computers, it’s all of the various types of digital devices that connect individuals to the world around them. Source: Zickuhr, K. & Smith, A. Digital differences Pew Research Center (2012) 04/29-05/01/2013

36 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
New Realities Key Points What’s the first thing that you do when you need to find the answer to a question? Do you get out the encyclopedia? Do you go to the nearest library and search the microfiche archives? Do you “google” it and quickly learn what you need to know? It is a new reality as information is accessible with just a few clicks. Source: Zickuhr, K. & Smith, A. Digital differences. Pew Research Center (2012) 04/29-05/01/2013

37 What We Know Teachers tend to teach in their personal learning style
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative What We Know Teachers tend to teach in their personal learning style by the methods by which they were taught by the generation in which they were born Students prefer teachers who teach the way they (the students) learn by the techniques of the generation in which they were born Key Points Why are the generations so important? Because we know that teachers tend to teach by the methods used in the generation in which they were born and students learn best by the techniques of the generation in which they were born. Think about your favorite teacher. How did he/she teach? Did it match the way you prefer to learn? 04/29-05/01/2013

38 Next Steps - Different Roles
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Next Steps - Different Roles What is the role of state staff in supporting the integration of differentiated instructional methods state-wide? What is the role of the program manager in determining what differentiated curriculum/ strategies/methods are most effective for different generations? What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the student? Key Points Have participants discuss the next steps, integrating different roles within the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

39 New Reality #4 Students Must Have Higher-Order Thinking skills
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Reality #4 Students Must Have Higher-Order Thinking skills Key Points In order to be career- and college-ready, our students need higher-order thinking (reasoning) skills. 04/29-05/01/2013

40 From Bloom to Webb – Cognitive Rigor
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative From Bloom to Webb – Cognitive Rigor Cognitive Rigor: Blending the Strengths of Bloom's Taxonomy and Webb's Depth of Knowledge to Enhance Classroom-level Processes Key Points Most of us remember Bloom. In fact, we probably wrote lots of lesson plans based on the “verbs” of Bloom’s taxonomy. Cognitive rigor is a term often used in today’s world of education. As you reviewed the Common Core State Standards and the 2014 GED® test, you probably noticed another name – that of Norman Webb. Let’s take a look at this alignment model called Webb’s Depth of Knowledge. Note: Chart is provided in trainer guide, as well as a pdf file. 04/29-05/01/2013

41 What is Depth of Knowledge (DOK)?
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative What is Depth of Knowledge (DOK)? Adapted from the model used by Norman Webb to align standards with assessment Focuses on content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment item/task Descriptive, not a taxonomy Not the same as ability levels Key Points In 1997, Norman Webb, from the Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed a process and criteria for systematically analyzing the alignment between standards and standardized assessments. This alignment model was called “Depth of Knowledge” or shortened to DOK. What do we mean by the word alignment? Alignment is the degree with which expectations for student performance, such as standards and instructional design, and assessments are in agreement. To meet the demand of teaching students higher-level thinking skills, Webb’s Depth of Knowledge model is currently used extensively in the P-12 system as well as for the 2014 GED® test. Webb’s Depth of Knowledge describes the complexity of mental processing that must occur in order to answer a question, perform a task, or generate a product. It’s important to remember that DOK is not a taxonomy, such as Bloom’s Taxonomy, nor does it refer to “ability” levels. Instead, DOK focuses on content standards and what is needed to successfully complete an assessment item/task. 04/29-05/01/2013

42 Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Model
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Level 1: Recall A. Focus is on specific facts, definitions, details, or using routine procedures (measure, divide, follow recipe, etc.) B. Explaining “that…” C. Can be “difficult” without requiring “deep” content knowledge to respond to item (memorize a complex theory without being able to explain its meaning or apply it to a real work situation) D. Combination of level ones does NOT = level 2. E. One right answer Level 2: Skill Concept A. Focus is on applying skills and concepts (in a familiar/typical situation), relationships (compare, cause-effect), main ideas. B. Requires deeper knowledge than definition C. Explaining how or why D. Making decisions E. Estimating, interpreting in order to respond F. One right answer Level 3: Strategic Reasoning A. Focus is on reasoning & planning in order to respond (e.g., write an essay or constructed response, apply in new/novel situation). B. Complex and abstract thinking is required. C. Often need to provide support for reasoning or conclusions drawn. D. More than one “correct” response or approach is often possible. Level 4: Extended Reasoning A. Requires complex reasoning, planning, and thinking (generally over extended periods of time) for the investigation. B. Assessment activities have multiple steps with extended time provided. C. Students may be asked to relate concepts within the content area and among other content areas. D. Students make real-world applications in new situations. Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Model Level 1: Recall Level 2: Skills and Concepts Level 3: Strategic Thinking Level 4: Extended Thinking Depth of Knowledge Key Points Webb’s Depth of Knowledge is composed of four levels of cognitive demand that reflect the complexity of activities necessary for successful performance. The four DOK levels are Recall, Basic Application of Skill/Concept, Strategic Thinking, and Extended Thinking. Let’s take a few moments to look at what this means for our adult education programs. [The following is a brief overview of each level. Additional information will be provided in the next slides.] Level 1: Recall. This level requires the recall or recognition of skills, behaviors, or a sequence of behaviors. These skills are learned through practice and are easily performed. Level 2: Skill/Concept. At this level, there is engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling. At this level, students use information or conceptual knowledge and make decisions regarding how to approach a question or problem. Level 3: Strategic Thinking requires more sophisticated reasoning and analysis and a deep understanding of the material. This level requires the skills of solving problems and drawing conclusions. Level 4: Extended Thinking requires integration of knowledge from multiple sources and the ability to represent knowledge in a variety of ways. This level of complexity usually requires work over an extended period of time. 04/29-05/01/2013

43 DOK is not about difficulty
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative DOK is not about difficulty Difficulty is a reference to how many students answer a question correctly. How many of you know the definition of exaggerate? DOK 1 – recall If all the students know the answer, then it is easy. How many of you know the definition of pellucid? DOK 1 – recall If most do not know the definition, this question is difficult, but that alone does not change the DOK level. Key Points As you work with Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, it is important to remember that DOK is not about difficulty. When assessing students, difficulty refers to how many students can answer a question correctly. Recalling a definition is an example of a DOK level 1 question. A person either knows the answer or does not. However, as you look at each of the definitions, it is clear to see that the word “exaggerate” would be easier for students to define than the word “pellucid” (easily intelligible or clear). Both are DOK 1 questions and require the same type of skill. However, the word “pellucid” would be more difficult for most students to answer correctly. 04/29-05/01/2013

44 DOK is about complexity
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative DOK is about complexity The intended student learning outcome determines the DOK level. Instruction and classroom assessments must reflect the DOK level of the intended learning outcome. Key Points Instead, DOK is about the cognitive complexity of an item. This level of complexity is identified in the assessment targets for the 2014 GED® test. However, our students must first be instructed before they are assessed. If students are to master a standard which requires a specific cognitive demand, then it is important that instruction is provided in our classrooms that reflects specific types of learning outcomes. 04/29-05/01/2013

45 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
Recall: DOK Level 1 DOK 1 requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure. Answering a Level 1 item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula. Key Points Let’s look at each of the DOK levels and what it means in the classroom, as well as in the assessment process. Level 1 involves the recall of information with an automatic type of response. The test-taker either knows the answer or not. Level 1 activities can involve following a set of procedures, performing simple calculations, or recalling information. The subject matter content at this level usually involves working with terms and/or properties of objects, as well as the use of simple procedures and/or formulas. 04/29-05/01/2013

46 DOK Level 1 Examples Recall facts Apply a formula
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative DOK Level 1 Examples Recall facts Apply a formula Describe features or characteristics Perform a process or set of procedures Key Points In the classroom, DOK Level 1 activities would include: Locating or recalling facts, such as those found in a text Determining the perimeter or area of rectangles given a drawing or applying a well-known formula Describing physical features of places or common characteristics Performing a simple science process or set of procedures Key words that often denote this particular level include such words as: list, identify, define, and describe. 04/29-05/01/2013

47 Sample Level 1 GED® Question
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Sample Level 1 GED® Question Recall List Key Points Twenty percent of the questions on the 2014 GED® test will be DOK Level 1 types of items. In this item, based on an excerpt from Anne of Green Gables, test-takers must recall the sequence of events presented in the excerpt. The test-taker then must demonstrate comprehension skills by arranging selected events in order in a chart. Because the excerpt is presented chronologically, test-takers are required to demonstrate only a surface understanding of the text by recalling the information and listing it chronologically. Those are the basic reasons that this is an example of a Level 1 DOK item. 04/29-05/01/2013

48 Skills/Concepts: Level 2
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Skills/Concepts: Level 2 DOK 2 includes mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response. Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem. These actions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/step. Key Points DOK 2 is referred to as the Basic Application of Skills and Concepts. This level of question requires that the test-taker make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem. Level 2 questions involve more than one mental or cognitive process or step. Level 2 generally requires students to contrast or compare people, places, events, and concepts; convert information from one form to another; classify or sort items into meaningful categories, describe or explain issues and problems, patterns, cause and effect, relationships, process, or points of view. 04/29-05/01/2013

49 DOK Level 2 Examples Identify and summarize information from a text
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative DOK Level 2 Examples Identify and summarize information from a text Compare and contrast Explain cause-effect Predict a logical outcome Classify geometrical figures Retrieve information from a graphic and use it to solve a problem requiring multiple steps Key Points In the classroom, DOK Level 2 types of questions or activities would include: Identifying and summarizing the major events, problem, solution, or conflicts in a text Comparing and contrasting items, such as communism and democracy or desert and tropical environments Identifying and summarizing the major events, problem, solution, or conflicts in literary text Explaining the cause-effect of historical events Predicting a logical outcome based on information in a reading selection Classifying plane and three dimensional figures Retrieving information from a graphic and using it to solve a problem requiring multiple steps Level 2 questions on the GED® test require test-takers to go beyond a description or explanation of recalled information to instead describe or explain a result or “how” or “why.” 04/29-05/01/2013

50 Sample Level 2 GED® Question
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Sample Level 2 GED® Question Comprehend Synthesize Describe (why) Key Points Let’s look at another question based on the excerpt from Anne of Green Gables. This item requires test-takers to synthesize information given throughout the excerpt (all of Anne’s actions and dialogue) in order to identify three adjectives that accurately describe her character. Because the question requires comprehension and synthesis of multiple details about Anne’s character, it is a Level 2 DOK item. Eighty percent of the questions on the 2014 GED® test will be either DOK Level 2 or 3 types of items. 04/29-05/01/2013

51 Strategic Thinking: Level 3
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Strategic Thinking: Level 3 DOK 3 requires deep understanding as exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more demanding cognitive reasoning. The cognitive demands at Level 3 are complex and abstract. An assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response they give would most likely be a Level 3. Key Points DOK Level 3 requires deep understanding as exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more demanding cognitive reasoning. At this level, the cognitive demands are complex and abstract. An assessment item at Level 3 often has more than one possible answer and requires test-takers to justify the response that they provide. Due to the complexity of Level 3 questions, multiple steps are required. 04/29-05/01/2013

52 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
DOK Level 3 Examples Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements Solve a multiple-step problem and provide support Compare actions and analyze their impact Develop a model for a complex idea Propose and evaluate solutions Explain, generalize, or connect ideas, using supporting evidence Key Points Examples of DOK Level 3 types of questions would include: Analyzing or evaluating the effectiveness of literary elements (e.g. characterization, setting, point of view, conflict and resolution, plot structures) Solving a multiple-step problem and providing support with a mathematical explanation that justifies the answer Comparing consumer actions and analyzing how these actions impact the environment Developing a scientific model for a complex idea Proposing and evaluating solutions for an economic problem Explaining, generalizing, or connecting ideas, using supporting evidence from a text(s) or other sources Level 3 questions require test-takers to use higher-order thinking processes such as analysis and evaluation, in order to solve real-world types of problems. Key words at this level include: analyze, explain and support with evidence, generalize, and create. 04/29-05/01/2013

53 Sample level 3 GED® test question
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Sample level 3 GED® test question Synthesize Evaluate Reason Key Points Using an excerpt from the Science Item Sampler, this sample short answer provides an example of a DOK Level 3 question. Test-takers are asked to cite specific textual evidence and then to develop a logical argument. The test-taker must select evidence from the stimulus, as well as use their understanding of ecosystems and life cycles. To answer this type of question, test-takers must use, produce, and justify an argument. It is important to remember that Level 3 questions do not have to be in the form of an extended response or a short answer. However, DOK 3 does require multiple steps in order to complete the process. Support 04/29-05/01/2013

54 Extended Thinking: Level 4
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Extended Thinking: Level 4 DOK 4 requires high cognitive demand and is very complex. Students are expected to make connections - restate ideas with the content or among content areas- and have to select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can be solved. Due to the complexity of cognitive demand, DOK 4 often requires an extended period of time. Key Points Although DOK Level 4 questions are not included on the 2014 GED® test, HiSET™, or TASC, it is important that this level of complexity be integrated in the adult education classroom. DOK 4, Extended Thinking, requires high cognitive demand. At this level of complexity, students are expected to make non-routine types of manipulations or connections across disciplines/content areas/multiple sources. Extended thinking, through an investigation or application, requires time to research information and process the myriad conditions of a problem. However, extended time alone is not the distinguishing factor of a Level 4 question. 04/29-05/01/2013

55 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
DOK Level 4 Examples Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple sources to draft a reasoned report Analyze author’s craft (e.g., literary techniques, point of view, etc.) Analyze and explain multiple perspectives or issues within or across time periods, events, or cultures Specify a problem, identify solution paths, solve the problem, and report the results Write and produce an original work Key Points Examples of DOK Level 4 items should look familiar to each of us. Regardless of our career choice, each of us encounters situations where we must gather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple sources in order to complete some type of a report or to solve a problem. These same types of skills are necessary for each of our students to be successful in transitioning to postsecondary education and today’s workplace, as well in their daily lives. 04/29-05/01/2013

56 DOK Levels Can Be Cumulative
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative DOK Levels Can Be Cumulative Standard DOK Assessed DOK Needed Analyze text(s) in order to identify, understand, infer or synthesize information DOK 3 DOK 1 (read) DOK 2 (understand) DOK 3 (apply information) Apply knowledge of sentence structure in composing or editing DOK 2 DOK 1 (know parts) DOK 2 (write sentence/edit sentence) Predict trends based on graphical representation DOK 1 (determine how many) DOK 2 (compare) DOK 3 (make decisions) Simplify and evaluate numerical and algebraic expressions DOK 1 DOK 1 (solve) Key Points In the classroom, it’s important to realize that Depth of Knowledge items can be cumulative. For example, an item/standard written to DOK 3 often contains DOK 1 and DOK 2 level demands. Embedded skills are an important part of cognitive complexity. Take a look at the different standards in the chart. Although the DOK that is assessed is at one level, the types of DOK skills necessary to be successful include other DOK levels as well. For example, in order to predict trends using a graphic, students need to determine how many (DOK 1), compare information (DOK 2), and then make an accurate prediction/decision (DOK 3). 04/29-05/01/2013

57 Remember DOK is . . . …a scale of cognitive demand …descriptive
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Remember DOK is . . . …a scale of cognitive demand …descriptive …NOT the same as difficulty …NOT the same as Bloom’s Taxonomy Key Points Remember, DOK is: a scale of cognitive demand – focusing on how deeply a student has to know the content in order to respond descriptive – it focuses on the assessment item/standard – not the student work – in order to determine the level Not the same as difficulty Not the same as Bloom’s Taxonomy - the context of the assessment item/standards must be considered to determine the DOK – not just a look at what verb was chosen 04/29-05/01/2013

58 Check Your Webb Knowledge
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Check Your Webb Knowledge Can you identify the complexity of each of the following tasks? Key Points Ok, it’s time to check your Webb knowledge. 04/29-05/01/2013

59 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
What’s the DOK Level? At what level would you be assessing students knowledge, if you had them . . . Identify and summarize the major events, problem, solution, conflicts in a literary text. Determine the area of a triangle given a drawing or labels. Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret data from multiple sources to draft a reasoned report. Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements (plot, setting, conflict, point-of-view). 2 1 4 Key Point Provide ample time for participants to review the statement and identify the DOK level. It’s time to check your Webb knowledge. Your task is to select whether the item is representative of DOK Level 1, 2, 3 or 4. Identify and summarize the major events, problem, solution, conflicts in a literary text. (Level 2) Locate or recall facts found in text (Level 1) Determine the area of a triangle given a drawing or labels (Level 1) Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret data from multiple sources to draft a reasoned report (Level 4) Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements (plot, setting, conflict, point-of-view) (Level 3) Compare desert and tropical areas (Level 2) 3 04/29-05/01/2013

60 A Few Strategies to Get Started
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative A Few Strategies to Get Started Use questions that require students to explain their answers Have students apply reading, writing, and mathematical skills using challenging content from all subject areas Use open-ended question formats Use and develop questions for class discussion and tests that are of the same cognitive rigor as the 2014 GED® test Key Points As you get started integrating higher-thinking skills and a more demanding level of cognitive rigor into your GED® program, you will want to start with a few basic strategies. It is important to ask the right question when determining whether or not your students are providing the correct answer. Use questions that require students to explain their answers, rather than just having them “answer the question.” Integrate challenging content across the various content areas and have students apply reading, writing, and mathematical skills rather than teaching each area individually. Just like in our workplaces and daily lives, sometimes there is not just “one answer.” Use open-ended questions within the classroom and have students share the evidence or rationale that was used to develop a reasonable answer. 04/29-05/01/2013

61 Next Steps - Different Roles
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Next Steps - Different Roles What is the role of state staff in supporting the integration of DOK in both assessments and instruction? What is the role of the program manager in determining how DOK will be implemented in the classroom? What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the student? Key Points Have participants discuss the next steps, integrating different roles within the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

62 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
New Reality #5 More Rigorous Content That Mirrors the Real-World Needs of Students Key Points The next reality is the need for more rigorous content in our adult education programs – content that mirrors the real-world needs of our students. 04/29-05/01/2013

63 College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Realities Assessments Curriculum Design Lesson Planning Instruction Student Learning College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education Key Points As we implement the college and career readiness standards, it is more than just transitioning to It’s about curriculum design, lesson planning, instruction, student learning, and assessments – summative and cumulative. 04/29-05/01/2013

64 2014 GED® test Overview Module 2002 Test Testing Time
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative 2014 GED® test Overview Module 2002 Test Testing Time 2014 Test Testing Time Reasoning Through Language Arts 185 minutes 150 minutes in 3 sections: [25 min + 45 min ER] + [10 min. break] + [70 min] ~51 items – 65 raw score points Mathematics 90 minutes 90 minutes in 2 sections: [~12 min non-calc] + [~78 min] ~46 items – 49 raw score points Science 80 minutes 90 minutes in 1 section ~34 items – 40 raw score points Social Studies 70 minutes [65 min + 25 min ER] ~35 items – 44 raw score points Total Battery ~ 7 hours ~ 7 hours Key Points First let’s look at the 2002 GED® test compared to the 2014 GED® test. Review the information on the chart. 04/29-05/01/2013

65 HiSET™ Overview 2002 Series GED® test Test Time Number of Questions
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative HiSET™ Overview Test Time Number of Questions Language Arts – Reading 65 minutes 40 questions Language Arts – Writing Part 1 – 75 minutes Part 2 – 45 minutes 51 questions Essay question Mathematics 90 minutes 50 questions Science 80 minutes Social Studies 70 minutes 2002 Series GED® test Key Points The HiSET™ has a different model. Review the information on the chart. 04/29-05/01/2013

66 Shifts in CCR ELA/Literacy Standards
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Shifts in CCR ELA/Literacy Standards Shift 1: Complexity Regular practice with complex text and its academic language Shift 2: Evidence Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Shift 3: Knowledge Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Key Notes But it’s more than just the length or number of questions on a test. Let’s look at the key shifts in the college and career readiness standards for adult education. Note: Review the key shifts for CCR ELA/Literacy Standards. 04/29-05/01/2013

67 Shifts in CCR Mathematics Standards
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Shifts in CCR Mathematics Standards Shift 1: Focus Focusing strongly where the standards focus Shift 2: Coherence Designing learning around coherent progressions level to level Shift 3: Rigor Pursuing conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application – all with equal intensity Key Notes Let’s look at the key shifts in the college and career readiness standards for adult education. Note: Review the key shifts for CCR Mathematics Standards. 04/29-05/01/2013

68 Let’s Take a Closer Look
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Let’s Take a Closer Look Key Points Complete a compare and contrast activity using the GED® Test Content Comparison. Have participants identify a skill/concept that they currently teach in each module and a skill/concept that they do not currently teach. Debrief by discussing similarities and differences. Support the need to build new curriculum for the more rigorous assessment targets based on the Common Core State Standards (as well as college and career ready standards from such states as Texas and Virginia). 04/29-05/01/2013

69 Creating a Master Curriculum Framework
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Creating a Master Curriculum Framework Evidence of Learning Content Areas and Topics Essential Skills Alignment Instructional Plan Delivery Method(s) Materials Content Areas/Topics Key Points But assessment targets and standards are not curriculum. An effective curriculum requires a lot of hard work. However, it’s worth it because the end result is an effective learning environment. 04/29-05/01/2013

70 KYAE Common Core State Standards Unpacking Chart for Standards
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Unpack the Standards KYAE Common Core State Standards Unpacking Chart for Standards Standards-in-Action: Innovations for Standards-Based Education, Unit 1, MPR Associates, Inc., Prepared for U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, 2009 1 Standards 2 Skills Included in Standard 3 Concepts Included in Standard 4 Through a Particular Context 5 Cognitive Demand/ Levels of Thinking 6 Sample Activity Standard: Key Points Unpacking the standards is an excellent first step in better understanding the skills, concepts, context, and cognitive demand of the standard. 04/29-05/01/2013

71 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
Developing Lessons Key Points Then of course, there is the development of lessons – lessons that teach the rigorous concepts necessary for success. However, there’s more to discuss before we begin working with our curriculum framework. 04/29-05/01/2013

72 Next Steps - Different Roles
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Next Steps - Different Roles What is the role of state staff in supporting the more rigorous College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education? What is the role of the program manager in determining how the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education will be implemented in the classroom? What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the student? Key Points Have participants discuss the next steps, integrating different roles within the group. 04/29-05/01/2013

73 New Reality #6 Resources provide support for the classroom
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative New Reality #6 Resources provide support for the classroom Key Points Now that you have the basics, let’s look at some of the resources available to you and how to ensure that you have the latest, greatest information. 04/29-05/01/2013

74 GEDTS - www.GEDtestingservice.com
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative GEDTS - Key Points [Review url and how to access information.] 04/29-05/01/2013

75 Resources, Resources, Resources
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Resources, Resources, Resources Key Points Review resources from GED Testing Service®, including marketing materials, videos, tutorials, and state and student stories about computer-based testing. And don’t forget the calculator app and tutorials. [Review the additional types of information available on the GED Testing Service® website.] 04/29-05/01/2013

76 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
Additional Resources Online tutorials and training Test-taker resources One-stop shop for practice materials Multimedia outreach Video profiles of success Brand resources for local programs Research on adult learners Key Points Review resources from GED Testing Service®. 04/29-05/01/2013

77 HiSET™ - http://hiset.ets.org/
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative HiSET™ - Key Points Review resources from HiSET™. 04/29-05/01/2013

78 HiSET™ - http://hiset.ets.org
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative HiSET™ - Key Points Review resources from HiSET™. 04/29-05/01/2013

79 National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative
TASC Key Points Review resources from TASC. 04/29-05/01/2013

80 “High achievement always occurs in the framework of high expectation.”
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative “High achievement always occurs in the framework of high expectation.” Charles F. Kettering ( ) 04/29-05/01/2013

81 Remember, it’s all about our students . . .
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Remember, it’s all about our students . . . Our students need and deserve A college and career ready credential An educational environment where learning is accelerated; contextualized; results-oriented; and leads students toward a career! 04/29-05/01/2013

82 Questions, insights, suggestions
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Questions, insights, suggestions Now that you have an introduction to the 2014 GED® test, any questions, insights, or suggestions? [Provide Q and A time period.] 04/29-05/01/2013

83 Presenters Bonnie Goonen Trainer/Consultant bv73008@aol.com
National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Presenters Bonnie Goonen Trainer/Consultant Susan Pittman-Shetler This workshop developed courtesy of GED Testing Service®. 04/29-05/01/2013


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