Presentation on theme: "PITTSBURGH GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY www.pittsburghgeologicalsociety.org."— Presentation transcript:
PITTSBURGH GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
“So You Want to be a Geologist” Student Workshop Pittsburgh Geological Society March 28, 2015
Presenters - (in order of appearance) Judy Neelan – Environmental Cleanup Program, PaDEP (retired); PGS Secretary Ray Follador – President, ARK Resources, Inc.; PGS President Dr. Brian Greene - Senior engineering geologist with Gannett Fleming, Inc.; formerly with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ret.); Chair, Dams Committee (AEG) Frank Benacquista – Senior Project Manager; KU Resources, Inc.; PGS Past President
Presenters - (in order of appearance) Dr. Tamra Schiappa - Associate Professor, SRU; PGS Boardmember Dan Billman - President, Billman Geologic Consultants, Inc.; Pennsylvania Council of Professional Geologists Boardmember Steve McGuire - Steve McGuire Retired Earth Scientist; Chester Engineers; PGS Treasurer Dr. Ed Girard - VP Professional Services Bizet and Co. (retired); PGS past President
Introduction and overview of careers Professional sectors Academic preparation Licensing Career Building Basics for candidates Ethics Professional behavior Course Outline
Geoscience employers Petroleum Industry Mining Industry Geological/Environmental Consulting Federal Government National Laboratories State Agencies Academia
Types of work Consulting Government Education
Consulting Geological Geohazards Mapping Water resources Mineral exploration Environmental Regulatory Construction- e.g. streams Investigations
Government Federal USGS DOE Dept of Agriculture Forest Service NASA NOAA US Army Corps of Eng. EPA State and Local Geological Surveys Environmental Agencies Municipal Authorities
Academia K-12 University Research
Professional Sectors Oil and Gas Engineering Environmental
Professional Sectors Oil and Gas Ray Follador
PGS Student Workshop Pursuing a Geologic Career In A Changing Oil & Gas Industry
Conventional to Unconventional
So you want to be a petroleum geologist? Where do you fit in? You may have strong interest in single geologic discipline. Structural, Stratigraphy, Paleontology, Geophysical, Geochemical……. How do you break into a changing petroleum industry where large unconventional companies are the most active employers? Who replaces the smaller conventional employers? Service oriented companies may be the gateway to your future career. Where would you fit in? That all depends on your goals and what the industry has to offer right now.
Carolyn Wilson AGI 2014
AGI Carolyn Wilson
What Size Company Fits You? Major O & G Companies – Exxon/Mobil, BP, Conoco/Phillips, Chevron, Royal Dutch Shell etc… Major Independents – Range Resources, Atlas Resources, CONSOL Energy/CNX Gas Chief Oil & Gas, etc…. Small Local Independents, not an option as it once was. Consulting Firms MENTORS – you will need them in any scenario. Service Companies – Mud Logging, Geophysical Well Logging, Seismic Services, Environmental Services.
Getting Started – With a Consulting/Service Company A service company may be the springboard to your career in geosciences. Your client may be your next employer. Mudlogging Services Geophysics/Seismic Services Environmental Service Work dependent upon clients level of activity and the general health of the market.
Getting Started – With a Producer Oil & Gas companies offer great opportunities and training. Exploration or Development – The fork in the road. Staff size varies. Advancement ladders differ in different size companies. All are impacted by the commodity market. Be ready to make a geographic move. …and of course – compensation.
Where is your you springboard? Understand the industry and what makes your potential employer prosper. If a Producing Company; Prospect Generation, Field Development, Drilling Operations, Production Operations, Pipeline Operations, Reserve Replacement, etc. Service Industries offer a great opportunity to NETWORK with the Producing companies you want to work for. Economics and the Cycle of Employment. Higher commodity prices mean more job opportunities.
Professional Sectors Engineering Geology Brian Greene
PGS Geology Career Workshop Engineering Geology Salary Information Networking Advice
Engineering Geology Associated with Civil Engineering Geotechnical Drilling & Sampling Highway Design Work Dam Inspections Tunnel Mapping Slope Stability Work Instrumentation Laboratory Testing Construction Site Inspections
Not the highest paying jobs, but usually stable careers Advantage is that there can be a high level of variety of types of assignments Close camaraderie with colleagues in this field Careers in Engineering Geology
Salary Information Any real interest here????????
Salary Information According to the latest report of the American Geological Institute: 2011 Range of Starting Salaries for Geoscientists $36,000 to 69,000 2011 Median Salary for Geoscientists $31,500 to 145,000 Across the U.S.in 2011, median salaries for the majority of geoscience-related occupations were 30 percent higher than the median salary for all occupations within each state surveyed.
Pre-Job Training Very important to consider taking the 40-hour OSHA HAZWOPER Training Course. Employers see this as a BIG plus. They can use you at project environmental sites immediately and also not lose you to this initial required training for a week. Colleges like Slippery Rock and Univ. of Pitt offer the course.
“Managing Your Energy Career” by a Mobil Oil Corp. Geoscientist Key points: Job security is being well trained Communications and interpersonal skills Importance of being in Professional Societies Pursue advanced degrees and professional certification after being employed. Networking – “Don’t be an Island”
Key Websites for Job Search in Engineering Geology agiweb.org usajobs.com (All Federal agencies nationwide) dep.state.pa.us.dep/jobs (PA State) Professional societies including: Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists AEG) PGS GSA
Networking A well prepared, capable, and assertive student will find a job. Look for opportunities to build your resume (ie. Internships, co-ops, volunteer work) Networking is always in your best interest, whether job hunting, or in a job. Change is inevitable. Be prepared for it!
Key to Networking Attend local Professional Society dinner meetings – PGS, AEG, ASCE Geo-Institute. Introduce yourself and mention that you are job hunting. Join societies as a student member. (PGS $10 for student membership) Seek out alumni of your college who are now employed. Use society Directories of Geologists as a way to make links with employed geologists. Most professionals will try and help a student that went to their college, or is a member of their society. Start Building Your Network Now!
Professional Sectors Environmental Geology Frank Benacquista
AN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGIST… KNOWS HOW TO LOOK AT UNDERLYING SOIL AND ROCK UNDERSTANDS HOW GROUNDWATER MOVES FIGURES OUT WHERE CHEMICALS HAVE GONE HELPS FIND THE BEST WAY TO CLEANUP THE CONTAMINATIONCLEANUP
WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO DO AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGIST? 1 ST THING TO REMEMBER YOU WILL BE WORKING WITH AND AROUND HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS & PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO DO AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGIST? Communicate with diverse groups like developers, marketers, financial institutions, lawyers, regulatory personnel, etc. Generate data and visualizations such as soil analyses, groundwater modeling, maps, etc. Review, integrate, quality control and collect data for geologic, hydrologic and other databases. Investigate sites, take samples, and oversee delineation of land and active worksites.
JOB REQUIREMENTS According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, prospective environmental geologists typically need :
Degree Level A bachelor's degree is standard, but some employers prefer those with a master's degree Degree Field Environmental science, geology and related fields Licensure A professional geologist license is required in some states or by some employers Experience Experience requirements vary by employer but usually range from 0 to 5 years Key Skills Writing and critical thinking skills, laboratory experience and knowledge of state and federal environmental regulations Computer Skills Knowledge of CAD software, map creation software, photo imaging and analytical software
Detail-oriented Organized Methodical
SALARY RANGE (PITTSBURGH REGION) 10 TO 15 PERCENT LOWER IN ENVIRONMENTAL FIELD BUT MORE STABLE ENTRY LEVEL: $30,000 TO $40,000 5 – 10 YEARS: $40,000 TO $65, YEARS: $65,000 TO $85,000
TYPES OF PROJECTS TRY TO ANSWER… WHO PUT WHAT WHERE & WHEN? ---- WHERE DID THE STUFF GO? --- WHO IS LIABLE?
GENERALLY QUITE A BIT OF TRAVEL QUITE A BIT OF MATH "HELPING THE ENVIRONMENT" IS IN THE CONTEXT OF WORKING FOR MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATORS (I.E., ENERGY COMPANIES, INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURERS, ETC).
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY VS. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Academically -- Geology majors take more coursework in the subspecialties in geology Environmental science majors take more coursework in related disciplines of chemistry, biology, geography, and environmental planning and health. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A GEOLOGIST AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST MAY BE ONE/TWO COURSES
WHY IS THIS DIFFERENCE IMPORTANT TO YOUR CAREER? MANY STATES REQUIRE ENVIRONMENTALLY-RELATED WORK TO BE COMPLETED BY A GEOLOGIST FIELD WORK (DRILLING) WELL INSTALLATION INTERPRETATIONS SIGNING REPORTS “GEOLOGIST” IS OFTEN DEFINED AS A PERSON THAT IS LICENSED, CERTIFIED OR HAS THE CREDENTIALS TO BECOME EITHER
Academic Preparation Courses that are applied, in addition to the basic preparation courses. What would an employer would want to see on a resume. Marketable skills. Look for opportunities to take short courses.
Field Camps Your 1st five years working as a geologist you will be most likely be doing field work. Many colleges are phasing out field camps (liability, cost, etc.) Geology field camp directory: - camp.shtmlhttp://geology.com/field - camp.shtml Most will permit others to participate, space available Very Important to most employers.
Advanced Degrees U.S. News & World Report Rankings of Graduate Schools: graduate-schools/top-science-schools/earth-sciences- rankings?int=abc409 Geology graduate programs Best Global Universities for Geosciences universities/geosciences
Pros and Cons of Deciding to Attend Grad School Pros: Potential for higher starting salary. May be a tie-breaker at interview time. Often leads to higher long-term salary over total career. Cons: Delays your entering the workforce. Larger student loan debt. Potential of long drawn out thesis, thus completion. Thesis vs. non-thesis Master’s degrees.
Advanced Degrees If pursuing a Master’s degree, think applied! i.e. geophysics, engineering geology, hydro/environmental geology. If planning to teach - can specialize in any sub field but Ph.D. required at most colleges. If planning to work for consulting firms, Gov’t, or oil & gas – then B.S. is fine – but Masters sometimes preferred. Look for colleges offering $ assistantships.
Graduate Record Exam (GRE) Take exam in your senior year. There is no longer a separate Geology GRE, just a General GRE Cost is about $ Best to review practice questions on GRE website - Can take test locally, offered several times/yr. Register online -
Internships Internships are very important. Gives you a taste for the work, as well as experience on your resume. The experience gained for a resume is far more important than the amount you are paid. Must be proactive in seeking internships with firms and government agencies. Often internships lead to full time jobs. Even if not hired permanently, you now have important job references!
AGI Website American Geological Institute Workforce tab….then Geoscience Careers tab resources Employment Info on Careers in the Geosciences Career Profiles & Classified Job Ads - Oil & Gas Industry (mostly prof. jobs) - Academia Hydro / Environmental / Engineering Geology Federal Government State Gov’t including State Geological Surveys Mining & Mineral Industry
LICENSING Dan Billman
About the Pennsylvania Council of Professional Geologists (PCPG) PCPG is a non-profit organization founded in 1989 by geologists seeking licensure in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Today, having licensure, PCPG provides numerous services to its members
PCPG’s Many Benefits and Opportunities Advancement of Geology thru advocacy, education, and networking PG & GIT Exam Prep / Continuing Education Student Scholarships Dissemination of information regarding state and national news relevant to earth science professionals.
WHY LICENSE GEOLOGISTS? Geology As A Profession Geologists make use of their special knowledge for the benefit of others. "Civilization exists by geological consent, subject to change without notice." – William Durant, American writer, historian, and philosopher Why register geologists? The application of geologic data are integral parts of many actions involving public health, safety, and welfare (including the public's financial welfare). Professional geologists working with others can determine and apply sound geologic procedures that will serve to avoid endangerment of the public or the environment. How will the public be protected? First, no one may be represented as a geologist unless duly registered. Second, registration boards are typically endowed with the authority to monitor and enforce the registration law. Who can become registered as a geologist? While it will vary from state to state, typically individuals who have a college degree in geology and four more years of geological work experience can qualify for registration. In all states which have fully implemented their registration laws, two or more examinations are also required to demonstrate minimum competence in both the fundamentals and the practice of geology.
Why Become a Licensed Geologist? The economics of today demand that companies, investors, government and the public seek and identify the most qualified personnel available. Credibility Identification of personnel in whom industry and investors can have confidence. Recognition Increased recognition by peers, employers and governmental agencies. Responsibility Ensure credibility to the public by enforcing ethical standards.
Obtaining your PG License Starting the process……
Regulatory Changes On January 16, 2014 final form regulations updating 49 Pa Code Chapter 37, (which governs Licensure of Engineers, Land Surveyors and Geologists). Overall the updated regulations provide the following: Provision of requirements for obtaining “Geologist in Training” certification; Provisions for equivalency evaluation of geological degrees obtained from foreign universities; Quantification of required education experience to include field geology and structural geology; Enabling full-time university teaching in a geological curriculum as qualified experience enabling exam candidacy; and Additional requirements for candidate references.
Inclusion of Structural Geology and Field Geology (Field Camp)
Taking the Test Example Test Questions? (Candidate Handbook, Page 20)
Example Test Questions? Hopefully we have some time for a few questions. And a few sample test questions.
Other Useful Contact Information: Pennsylvania Department of State Bureau of Professional and Occupational Affairs https://www.mylicense.state.pa.us/Login.aspx Check the License status of Pennsylvania Professional Geologist P.G. Rules and Regulations CHAPTER 37. STATE REGISTRATION BOARD FOR PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS, LAND SURVEYORS AND GEOLOGISTS
Resume Development Education Professional organizations Work experience Non-work experience Field camp Certifications/ training
Credentials and experience Licenses Degrees Certifications Titles Permits Diplomas Trade affiliations Internships Apprenticeships Work experience Trainings Professional organizations Hobbies Personal history
The Blind Men and the Elephant LUNCH
CAREER BUILDING STEVE McGUIRE
Be Optimistic for a Future Geology Career Baby Boomer retirements Continuing need for professionals Demand for raw materials, water, and energy. Role in satisfying demands in an environmentally responsible way.
How Different Geologists Look at An Exposure What you see Depends on Your Career Discipline !!
Determine What You Want to Be and Do Being a Geologist vs working as a Geologist Determine what your interests are Evaluate your skill sets: Good at, Not good at Determine what you do not enjoy Approach career focus from two directions A Discipline defines a requisite skill set. Skill Sets help define disciplines you may be good at. Travel – Not a Trivial Consideration
HOT TOPICS IN PROFESSIONAL SECTORS Geologic input Finding it, Getting it out, Cleaning up Solving problems Regulating Hot Policy Topics Climate Change vs Global Warming Geology and Water Supply Carbon Sequestration Shale Oil & Gas Rare Earth Supply Crisis
Unique Perspective of Time and Climate Change
Understanding Your Employer Federal and State: Science vs Promote vs Regulate Geologic Surveys Regulatory Agencies Two Perspectives for Agency Policy and Staff By the Book Problem Solution Solvers Local Government: Visible public environment Public & Industry projects have different perspectives Non-Governmental Agencies, Non-profits, environmental activist organizations Industry – Objectives Make Money Maintain a positive Public Relations Image Stay out of Legal Entanglements
The Travel Conundrum Are you willing to travel and for how long Companies operate globally International travel, work, living abroad a major consideration for Industry and Consultants Travel requirements affect staffing profile Ability to Travel vs Level of Experience needed for the assignment Languages: Spanish, French, Arabic
Advanced Degree Senior Thesis Research Is a Advanced Degree helpful or required. Academic pathway. Regulatory credibility Working can focus career objectives and need for grad school. Availability of organizational support (time and money) for graduate studies while working.
Professional Activities as a Student Get involved with professional societies as a networking activity. Be familiar with the websites of professional organizations and regulatory agencies Research company websites to help find compatibility between your interests and what the company does. Get involved with your professors’ work or independent guided research Plan and deliver presentations
Presentations – Why and How Objective: Explain or Convince Internal: school or company External: clients, regulatory agencies, public A proposal to spend money Regulatory / Public approval Secrets for Presentations Presentations are more than reading slides Know your stuff Practice – talking in front of people may not be natural Be prepared to respond to controversy and challenging questions about your assumptions and conclusions
Geological Projects - Risks and Costs Applies to all professional sectors. Must be able to address public concerns and solutions. framed with respect to risks and costs. Public does not care about acceptable risks and costs What’s it worth to you?
Career Success and Satisfaction From Sarah Andrews: Geologist & Author Follow your interests Versatility vs Specialization vs employment cycles Know your strengths and how people think Earth Scientists different from engineers Engineer is Concrete –Sequential (needs ordered data) Geologist is Concrete-Random (Assimilates data as it comes) Formulate a Career Plan and Action List Legal State Registrations, (PG) State Certifications, Licensed Remediation Specialist Professional Organization Certifications (CPG, CHMM, QEP, etc)
Career Success and Satisfaction (continued) Differentiate yourself Field Camp Internships Participate in Professional Organizations Core competencies Learn to communicate Writing Speaking View employment as a partnership between you and your employer
The Blind Men and the Elephant LUNCH
THE CANDIDATE Ed Girard
Prepare for the market Resume References Two-minute drill
Decision model Type of work Geographic area preferred Type of company Back to school?
Interviewing Organization of the interview Types of interviews Questions
Closing Offer Negotiation
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS FRANK BENACQUISTA
ETHICAL VALUES HONESTY INTEGRITY TRANSPARENCY ACCOUNTABILITY CONFIDENTIALITY OBJECTIVITY RESPECTFULNESS OBEDIENCE TO THE LAW LOYALTY VALUING TIME
HOLD PARAMOUNT THE SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE OF THE PUBLIC PERFORM SERVICES ONLY IN AREAS OF THEIR COMPETENCE. ISSUE PUBLIC STATEMENTS ONLY IN AN OBJECTIVE AND TRUTHFUL MANNER. ACT IN PROFESSIONAL MATTERS FOR EACH EMPLOYER OR CLIENT AS FAITHFUL AGENTS OR TRUSTEES, AVOID CONFLICTS OF INTEREST. BUILD THEIR PROFESSIONAL REPUTATION ON THE MERIT OF THEIR SERVICES NOT COMPETE UNFAIRLY WITH OTHERS. ACT IN SUCH A MANNER AS TO UPHOLD AND ENHANCE THE HONOR, INTEGRITY, AND DIGNITY OF THE PROFESSION ZERO-TOLERANCE FOR BRIBERY, FRAUD, AND CORRUPTION. CONTINUE THEIR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGHOUT THEIR CAREERS, PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THOSE ENGINEERS UNDER THEIR SUPERVISION.
VERY VALUABLE ASSEST TAKES A LONG TIME TO BUILD EASILY DAMAGED BUILD YOUR REPUTATION
IT IS OFTEN ONE STRIKE AND YOU ARE OUT. WITH REGARDS TO ETHICS…
A PERSON’S OWN ETHICAL SENSE IS STIFLED BY CIRCUMSTANCE PSYCHOLOGY PRESSURE MOST FATAL ETHICAL MISTAKES HAPPEN BECAUSE…
Fines or other financial payments imposed by a state or federal agency for violation of laws or regulations. Examples include fines for late payment of taxes, or penalties for failing to obtain a building permit. CIVIL PENALTIES
Offering to practice geology in this Commonwealth by representing oneself as an geologist on sign, advertisement, letterhead or card 1ST OFFENSE—$1,000 2ND OFFENSE—FORMAL ACTION CIVIL PENALTIES con’t
PRACTICING WITHOUT A LICENSE FAILURE TO COMPLETE CONTINUING EDUCATION CAUSING DAMAGE DUE TO NEGLIGENCE CIVIL PENALTIES con’t.
Fines or other financial payments imposed by a state or federal agency for violation of laws or regulations. Examples include fines for late payment of taxes, or penalties for failing to obtain a building permit. CRIMINAL PENALTIES
YOU WILL BE LOOKED AT THE FOLLOWING WAYS… DEPENDING ON THE CLIENT
YOU DIDN’T PUT IT THERE (HOPEFULLY) YOU JUST FOUND IT REMEMBER…
EXAMPLE: STEAL A SALES LEAD FROM A CO-WORKER BY INTERCEPTING A CUSTOMER PHONE CALL INTENDED FOR THE CO-WORKER YOU MADE A FATAL ETHICS MISTAKE. ETHICAL PITFALLS
EXAMPLE: ALL WORK ON A PROJECT LEADS TO A FAVORABLE CONCLUSION. NEW DATA INDICATES OTHERWISE. YOU DON’T CHANGE REPORT OR TELL MANAGER/CLIENT. YOU MADE A FATAL ETHICS MISTAKE. ETHICAL PITFALLS
DON’T JUSTIFY WHAT YOU DO BY WHAT OTHERS WOULD DO IN THE SAME SITUATION. ETHICAL PITFALLS AVOIDANCE TIPS
ACT ON THE PRINCIPLE THAT NOTHING YOU DO IS PRIVATE. ETHICAL PITFALLS AVOIDANCE TIPS
RESPECT YOUR INNATE SENSE OF RIGHT AND WRONG. ETHICAL PITFALLS AVOIDANCE TIPS
DON’T USE PRESSURE TO JUSTIFY AN UNETHICAL ACTION. ETHICAL PITFALLS AVOIDANCE TIPS
IF YOU ARE NOT SURE OF AN ACTION, TRY EXPLAINING IT TO SOMEONE WHOSE JUDGMENT YOU TRUST. ETHICAL PITFALLS AVOIDANCE TIPS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST BRIBERYBRIBERY AND KICKBACKS, WHICH ALSO MAY INCLUDE:KICKBACKS GIFTS, MEALS, SERVICES, AND ENTERTAINMENT TREATMENT OF CONFIDENTIAL OR PROPRIETARY INFORMATIONCONFIDENTIALPROPRIETARY INFORMATION CONSIDERATION OF THE EMPLOYER’S ASSETS OUTSIDE EMPLOYMENT/ACTIVITIES (MOONLIGHTING)MOONLIGHTING ETHICAL PITFALLS AVOIDANCE TIPS
THE PROFESSIONAL Judy Neelan
IN THE WORKPLACE (Personal/professional behaviors)
(Career Limiting Moves)
Office etiquette/skills Handshakes Cell phones Meetings Phone conversations s Office space Commitments
Beware of office politics ?? ? You
Avoid office romances
Abide by the dress code
Lose any bad habits Noisy chewing or eating Nail clipping Incessant jiggling Singing/humming aloud Picking whatever Whining Gossiping Eavesdropping
Avoid: bad hygiene, potent perfume, sardine lunches
Don’t abuse drugs its illegal, it adversely affects your work performance, it is prohibited by workplace policy, Then don’t do it.
Don’t abuse privileges
Never harass Gender Race Disability Religion Politics Age Sexual orientation Personal traits
Don’t be a slob
Legal Awareness Professional seals Professional testimony Professional expertise Signatures Protect yourself! As a professional, you can be sued. As a professional, you can lose your license.
How to Win in the Workplace Be there Be on time Stay awake all day Show initiative Be indispensable Be responsible Be knowledgeable Be loyal Speak; don’t whine Accept criticism Have a good attitude Value quality Be organized Be courteous Share credit Be a problem solver
How to Lose in the Workplace Show up late Stand around talking “It’s not my job” Have a chip on your shoulder Require constant supervision Don’t expand your knowledge Badmouth your company Refuse to follow company policy Whine a lot Refuse constructive criticism Do sloppy work Be unable to find your work Lose or break equipment Be rude Alienate your coworkers Be a “slacker”
Communication Skills Written documents Letters, Reports Verbal presentations Interpersonal communications Group Individual
Verbal Presentations Preparation Content Point Interest Organization Time Audience Delivery Tools PowerPoint Overheads Slides Flipchart Handouts Personal skills/traits
Common Presentation Failures Ignore the nature of the audience S p e a k s l o w l y i n a m o n o t o n e cramtheslidewithasmuchinformationaspossible cramtheslidewithasmuchinformationaspossible Speak very softly to the screen “Overgimmick” Make sure the text is really really small D o n’tpre par e R e a d.... t h e.... s l i d e