5 OK – so maybe a little more technical and specific: What exactly is Web 2.0 / social computing? “Web 2.0” or social computing can be best described as: A paradigm shift to user-generated content Extending the control and flow of information to the users and communities that consume it Trusting users as both participants and co-developers of the features and content we interact with Embracing collaboration and “the wisdom of the crowd” for collective value Web 1.0 “Interrupt the mass audience” Structured Siloed One size fits all Passive audience Top-down, one-directional Web 2.0 “Engage the individual” Flexible Collaborative Communities Engaged users Top-down, bottom-up, and lateral Power lies with: institutions, platforms, and technology Power lies with: users, communities, and experiences Mass audience Company Push Provide Company Push Pull Targeted, participative audience
6 Basic Web 2.0 Concepts “Wisdom of Crowds”: the process of taking into account the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than a single expert to answer a question. Wisdom of crowds forms the foundation of “crowdsourcing” – a process whereby problems are broadcasted to an unknown group of solvers in the form of an open call for solutions. Examples of this include Wikipedia, Yahoo! Answers and vark.com. “The Long Tail”: a concept which describes the ability for social media and online services to sell a large number of unique items, each in relatively small quantities. Examples of this include Amazon and TradeMe. “Peer to Peer”: a relational dynamic organized through the free cooperation of equals in view of the performance of a common task, for the creation of a common good. Within such a network, with forms of decision-making and autonomy are widely distributed. Peer to Peer (“P2P”) forms the foundation of a “social network”.
8 Examples of social computing tools Chances are, you’re probably already using (or at least familiar with) one or more social tools or sites. When you hear...Think of...Here’s what it is... Social networks Technology that allows users to leverage personal connections to link to and communicate with friends, family, colleagues or others with shared interests Blogs Simple online journal entries or update messages which support text, photos or video Wikis Collaborative Web sites that allows users to easily create and edit the content, leveraging the expertise of its users RSS (or “Real Simple Syndication”) Technology that lets users subscribe to, collect, and read regularly updated content feeds such as blogs, sound files, news, weather, and other information Social tagging & bookmarking (or “Folksonomies”) Allows users to store bookmarks they wish to remember / share publicly and tag the bookmarks to facilitate searching and sharing with others
9 Examples of social computing tools (cont’d) When you hear...Think of...Here’s what it is... Media sharing sites Websites that allow users to easily view, share, rate, and/or respond to media such as photos, video, and documents without the need to install any special software Presence (or “Microblogging”) Very lightweight and portable software which allows users to share their status by publishing brief text updates, typically via the web, text messaging, IM, or email Podcasts Online audio or video that users can download to a device for offline consumption Social review sites Websites that allow users to search for peer reviews on a product or service, as well as to contribute their own ratings & comments Mashups A web service that allows users to easily aggregate content from multiple sources, creating additional value Virtual worlds Virtual simulated environments which users inhabit and visually interact in through avatars and other media
12 Our employees are changing We now have four generations of employees in the workforce, each with their own communications perspectives and preferences. 1 VETERAN Born before 1946 BOOMER 1946 - 1964 GEN X ER 1965 - 1981 GEN Y ER 1982 - 2000 Style FormalSemiformalNot so serious; irreverentEye-catching; fun Content Detail; prose-style writing Chunk it down but give me everything Get to the point; what do I need to know? If and when I need it, I’ll find it online Context Relevance to my security; historical perspective Relevance to the bottom line and my rewards Relevance to what matters to me Relevance to now, today and my role Attitude Accepting and trusting of authority and hierarchy Accept the “rules” as created by the Veterans Openly question authority; often branded as cynics and skeptics OK with authority that earns their respect Tactics Print Conventional mail Face-to-face dialogue Phone Some online information Print Conventional mail Face-to-face dialogue Phone Online tools & resources Online Instant messaging Conference calls Some face-to-face (if they’re really needed) Always online Wired through multiple devices seamlessly Communicate with the world Speed Attainable within reasonable time frame Available; handy; easy to get to Immediate; when I need it; I’ll ping you Five minutes ago Frequency In digestible amountsAs neededWheneverConstant
13 Expectations of employees are changing We can expect an ‘expectation wave’ for usage and adoption of social media as our incoming workforce brings their social computing habits with them. Generation Y characteristics: Matches the Baby Boomer generation in size and will be entirely integrated into the global workplace within the next ten years Responds best to more networked, less hierarchical organizations; and places a high sense of importance on their workplace relationships Consumes information differently from their Gen X or Baby Boomer colleagues The upcoming “crew change” will make it increasingly important for employers to attract Generation Y with the tools and information they need to be successful.
More than three-fourths of workers age 20-29 believe that the “social” aspects of work (e.g., connectedness, collaboration) are very important to their overall sense of job satisfaction. However, about two-thirds of employees from all generations believe that their organization’s leaders do not have a clear understanding of Gen Y’s communication preferences and perspectives.
15 Social networking plays a big part in talent retention and the way knowledge workers ‘get the job done’ One of the top reasons employees leave their companies within their first three years of employment is a lack of connectedness & sense of belonging to the organization In fact, 90% of employees make the decision to stay at a company (or not) within the first six months of their tenure, underscoring the need for robust on-boarding and assimilation Even entry-level employees are required to digest vast amounts of information, collaborate across geographical & hierarchical boundaries, and continuously multi-task & make quick decisions, all amid a flurry of distractions Percentage of Employees Who Have Left Their Job Because They Felt Disconnected from the Organization Many employees find themselves at odds with their work environment and require solutions which will help facilitate communications, connectivity, information sharing, and productivity. Participate 70% I Feel Most Productive at Work When I Am Surrounded by Colleagues with Whom I Have a Good Working Relationship / Rapport
16 Online content usage by adult internet users in the U.S. 1 45% of adults visit social networking sites on a weekly basis 29% of adults visit user generated content (e.g., YouTube, Photobucket) sites weekly U.S. IT professionals who actively participate in work- related online communities 2 Many employees are forming online social networks of their own with their work colleagues There is evidence that social computing has been gaining significant traction outside of its most youthful base of users. Do not participate 30% Participate 70% Employee perspectives
20 Enterprise social computing benefits Staff Engagement: Gain and maintain employee trust and respect for both the organisation and with each other, especially important in the current tough economic conditions, through staff engagement (both employer to employee and employee to employee); collaboration and more streamlined communication Turn that trust and respect into productive, profit driven activities through collaboration and more streamlined communication. Trust & Respect for the Organisation Productivity + Increased Profits
21 Enterprise social computing benefits – Enterprise 2.0
Staff Engagement Case Studies Best Buy uses its employee- only social networking site - Blue Shirt Nation as a window into employee opinions and viewpoints. On one occasion, executives got an inside view of just how important the employee discount was to employee engagement and decided that it was better for business to keep the program in its original form. The U.S. intelligence community dispelled the perception that web 2.0 only engages with the younger generation by creating an internal wiki, Intellipedia, to bolster information sharing across 16 U.S. spy agencies in a post-September 11th world by combining human intelligence feeds-- Intellipedia’s top contributor is a 69-year old analyst. The Home Depot enabled colleagues or bosses to recognise, praise, or write quick notes of appreciation to other employees on its internal social network -- a feature which helped motivate Gen Y workers Dow taps into the company’s global retiree & alumni base through DowConnect, its corporate social network for potential contract opportunities when there is a talent shortage The State of Missouri established their own Second Life island, “Eduisland3,” to nullify the perception of the public sector as technology laggards and attract tech-savvy twenty- to thirty- somethings. Its virtual job fairs were so successful that Eduisland3 now has nearly 10M residents.
Staff Engagement Case Studies Sony’s PlayStation team uses an internal wiki as a way to minimize emails and documentation about unreleased products from leaking to outsiders. Dresdner Kleinwort a large investment bank in Germany found wikis to be an efficient way to get projects up and running quickly between globally dispersed teams in Frankfurt, London, New York, and Tokyo. In fact, the efficiency and ease-of-use benefits were so compelling that just six months after experimenting with an internal wiki, its traffic exceeded that of the company’s entire intranet. The use of wikis and other web 2.0 tools such as Microblogging reduced email volume by up to 75% per employee and cut the company’s meeting time in half Using web 2.0 technologies, Cisco allowed its employees and select partners to create and vote on TV and Internet ad content as part of the creative process. We need to decide if we want to tell more than one story in each example Shell realised approximately $250K in cost savings by conducting its spring 2007 conference virtually and through social media and is exploring opportunities to conduct future conferences in Second Life. Morgan Stanley created a system to convert email groups into online forums so that access and dissemination of the information can be better controlled. Deloitte Australia and New Zealand found internal micro-blog as an effective collaboration and communication tool, with over 25% of its employees voluntarily signing up and contributing to its within the first few months. As part of designing its campaign slogans, Deloitte Australia used microblogging to engage its staff to brainstorm the best ideas. The Chief Marketing Officer was extremely impressed with the results – “it’s like having 4,500 chief marketing officers working at the same problem”. The end result: a campaign that has 100% employee buy-in and is highly effective in communicating Deloitte’s messages.
28 Potential barriers There are three types of challenges we must address in order to ensure the success of social media in organisations: Cultural factors Behaviors, values, and attributes by which we live & operate as an organization Personal biases & perceptions Attitudes and preferences of individual employees and their resulting behaviors Social computing-specific risks Challenges attributed specifically to social computing tools & technology 1 2 3
29 Organizational: Possible cultural factors Social media needs to be made consistent with our corporate values, promoting a culture that aligns social media more closely with “The way we do things around here”. Current state (established order) Risk aversion and fear of failure Consensus-driven decisions Conflict avoidance Traditional organization hierarchies Formal roll-outs, scaled growth Future scenario (with social computing) Value in experimenting and testing ideas Collaborative decision-making Open challenge to opinion Democratized, flattened structure Organic adoption and growth The CLIENT Way Values Integrity Trust Diversity Ingenuity Protecting people & the environment High performance is transformed into... in alignment with...
30 Individual: Personal biases & behaviors In addition to our company’s cultural factors, common individual biases and behaviors could hinder adoption of social computing tools. Bias / Perception Challenges Although social computing software have a reputation for their flexibility and ease of use, some employees simply will not contribute, no matter what Initial interest could trail off with fading enthusiasm and less frequent usage of the tools Social computing is incorrectly perceived as trivial or “fun” by some -- and not necessarily as business productivity and collaboration tools Lack of trust that information in the tools are accurate and up-to-date Users may be unclear on the business uses of social computing Mitigating Tactics Allow some users to consume content without being forced into having to actively create or contribute Focus on user pull, viral and peer word- of-mouth promotion & dissemination of the tools Management support and example- setting of social computing as value- driven work tools Create exceptional user experiences for the social computing tools Ongoing education & awareness of social computing tools and their benefits Tie social computing to the business process -- make these tools unavoidable to get employees’ jobs done
31 Technology: Social computing-specific risks Employees may post and distribute defamatory, harassing, abusive, misleading, or inappropriate content using social software Security & data protection concerns, as information could make its way into the hands of the wrong person(s) Mitigation: Leverage existing corporate information risk standards and business conduct policies to provide proper guidance to employees. Avoid ability to contribute anonymously. The introduction of social computing raises a number of potential risks to the organization, specific to the technology. Fortunately, many of these risks are easily mitigated by existing policies and controls. Social computing provides an avenue to violate existing policies (e.g., copyright, professional conduct) instituted by HR, Legal, IT, and other groups Employees’ activities and content on social computing platforms could expose the company to legal liability Mitigation: Review and modify existing policies, as needed, to ensure coverage specifically for social computing. Employees could become distracted and spend inordinate amounts of time with social software, to the detriment of other critical tasks and responsibilities Mitigation: Remind employees not to forget their job duties. Also, let employees know that they are encouraged to take some time out of the day for social computing, the same way we normally reserve time for emails daily. Legal & Compliance Risks Productivity Risks
32 Technology: Social computing-specific risks (cont’d) Corporate & Hierarchical Risks Authority may be challenged as the playing field is leveled for employees, regardless of their position in the corporate hierarchy Some loss of control of top-down messaging as well as the flow of information within the organization Like-minded, disgruntled employees will have an easier way to find one another and take organized action against the company Mitigation: Educate management about the paradigm shift that social computing brings and that the business value it produces far outweighs the potentially negative consequences. At this point, it is difficult to foresee the long-term costs and capabilities required to support and scale social computing on an enterprise-wide basis Mitigation: Approach social computing in a predictable and controllable environment by starting small and course-correcting as needed. Technology Risks Social computing software may not fit into the company’s enterprise architecture, resulting in security, integration or operational challenges The market for social computing software is highly fragmented, with a bevy of products & services coming from small startups Mitigation: Leverage Microsoft SharePoint as our core social computing platform, in- line with IT’s infrastructure strategy; build or buy additional capabilities to layer on SharePoint. Leverage MSFT partners.