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U.S. History III Chapter 21-1

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1 U.S. History III Chapter 21-1
“An Era of Protest and Change: ” “The Counterculture”

2 Which Statement do you agree with:
A) The United States is strengthened by its popular culture and diversity of values. B) Popular culture and diversity of personal values have led to moral decay in the United States.

3 Chapter 21. Introduction Hippies & Boomers 1960’s
Describe the rise of the counterculture. List the major characteristics of the counterculture. Evaluate the impact of the counterculture on American values and society.

the Vietnam antiwar movement, which introduced the idea of social and political the civil rights movement, prompted people to question traditional boundaries the Beat movement of the 1950s, which rejected materialism

5 generation gap The baby boomer generation distrusted tradition and authority. In the mid-1960s, more than a third of the U.S. population was under 17. They became a force for social change.

6 Defining the Counterculture: Music and Art Shape Youth Culture
The Beatles, a British rock group, changed the look and lifestyles of the baby boomer generation. Folk singers such as Bob Dylan wrote protest songs to highlight the civil rights and peace movements. Andy Warhol: Changed “Pop Art” – Used paintings of “normal” things to criticize media

7 In the 1960s, youths rebelled against long-standing customs in dress, music, and personal behavior.
The counterculture both challenged traditional values and unleashed a movement to reassert basic values.

8 The SEXUAL REVOLUTION The Lovings returned to Virginia, but, sadly, they enjoyed only a few years together before Richard was killed in a car accident in 1975. Mildred survived the crash and lived an additional 33 years. 1953: Playboy makes its debut : The FDA approves the birth control pill : Griswold v. Connecticut legalizes contraception for married couples : Loving v. Virginia makes interracial marriage legal in all states : The first issue of MS. Magazine hits the stand : Eisenstadt v. Baird legalizes contraception for unmarried people : Roe v. Wade makes abortion legal in the U.S : The AIDS Quilt goes on display at Washington D.C

9 Revolution: The sexual revolution called for the separation of sex from traditional family life. Some people lived together in communes: small communities of “hippies” who shared common interests and resources. Many hippies believed that drugs could free the mind. Many hippies sought religious experiences outside Judeo-Christian traditions. They explored Eastern religions, such as Buddhism, or sought harmony with nature.

10 Life in Haight-Asbury Haight-Ashbury: San Francisco, CA: 1967, 2,000 people go to this district and attempt to create their own “society” (Drugs, Sexual Promiscuity, Unconventional Dress/Language/Music, and Concept of “Shared” Resources) In other words, the hippies defied every middle class value and replaced it with their own. Timothy O’Leary: One Time Harvard Researcher Urged teens to use drugs to “free the mind” and “drop out” of mainstream society O’Leary began selling LSD (Acid)

11 Exploring Different Routes to Spirituality
The Counterculture rejected “traditional” religions (Christianity…etc) and began to focus on “Eastern Philosophies” (Buddhism) The focus of the new spirituality was on “harmony with nature” (Similar to Native Americans) Many hippies formed rural communes and attempted to live off of the land

12 The Counterculture Ends
“Peace and Love” descended into “Paranoia and Violence” Many become “disillusioned” with the excesses of the movement and return to the American “middle class” Drug overdoses/addiction rates skyrocket Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin: Died of Drug Overdoses Opportunistic criminals start to prey on naïve young people (Charles Manson) 1969: Altamont, California: During a “peace concert”, a black man was stabbed to death by members of the Hell’s Angels Motorcycle Gang (Gang had been hired for ‘security’) =OdvCqUguIh8&tracker=False

13 Effects of the COUNTERCULTURE on American Society:
Positive Rejected materialism Women & physically disabled fought for equality Colleges: multicultural classes Negative Drug addiction & overdose deaths Violence at Rolling Stones concert Movement became shallow and self-centered

14 Woodstock: 1999 "It was dangerous to be around. The whole scene was scary. There were just waves of hatred bouncing around the place, (...) It was clear we had to get out of there.... It was like a concentration camp. To get in, you get frisked to make sure you're not bringing in any water or food that would prevent you from buying from their outrageously priced booths. You wallow around in garbage and human waste. There was a palpable mood of anger."[14] – Kurt Loder MTV

15 Chapter 21-2 “The Women’s Rights Movement”
“A Women’s Movement Arises”

16 Objectives Analyze how a movement for women’s rights arose in the 1960s. Explain the goals and tactics of the women’s movement. Assess the impact of the women’s movement on American society.

17 What led to the rise of the women’s movement, and what impact did it have on American society?
After World War II, women gave up their jobs and returned to their homes to raise families. In the 1960s and 1970s, however, the women’s movement worked to attain equality for women and change American life.

18 Terms and People feminism − the theory of the political, social, and economic equality of men and women Betty Friedan − author of the groundbreaking book The Feminine Mystique NOW − the National Organization for Women, which worked for “true equality for all women” ERA − the Equal Rights Amendment, a proposed Constitutional amendment to guarantee gender equality under the law

19 In 1963, journalist and housewife Betty Friedan, wrote The Feminine Mystique, a book that helped to launch the feminist movement. Friedan helped to establish NOW, the National Organization for Women. 19

20 NOW attacked stereotypes and identified two main priorities.
Passage of the ERA, the Equal Rights Amendment Protecting women’s reproductive rights NOW’s goal was to achieve “true equality for all women.” 20

21 Terms and People (continued)
Gloria Steinem − a feminist leader and writer who sought to raise the public’s awareness of gender issues Phyllis Schlafly − a conservative political activist who opposed the women’s movement Roe v. Wade − the controversial Supreme Court case that legalized abortion

22 The Equal Rights Amendment was a proposed Constitutional amendment to guarantee equality between men and women. Political conservatives such as Phyllis Schlafly opposed the ERA, arguing it would hurt families and allow the military to draft women. In the end, the ERA narrowly failed to become part of the Constitution. 22

23 In 1973, the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v
In 1973, the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade granted women the right to legal abortions. Before this decision, most states outlawed or restricted abortion. Roe remains a controversial and divisive decision today.

24 The long history of struggle for
women’s rights The struggle for women’s rights began with the Declaration of Sentiments at Seneca Falls in the 1840s. Women won the right to vote in the 1920s, culminating the first wave of feminism. However, women made little legal or social headway in the decades that followed. 24

25 They rejected the stereotypical view of women as housewives.
The civil rights struggles of the 1960s prompted women to examine their roles and rights in American society. They rejected the stereotypical view of women as housewives. They analyzed how society discriminated against women. They sought equality in jobs and job training. This gave rise to the second wave of feminism.

26 The women’s rights movement made legal progress in the 1960s and 1970s.
NOW filed many lawsuits with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to stop workplace discrimination. Title IX of the 1972 Higher Education Act banned discrimination in education. In 1974, the Equal Opportunity Credit act made it illegal to deny a woman credit because of her gender. 26

27 However, for the same jobs, women still earn less than men.
Women play a larger role in today’s workforce. Over 60% of women now work. Medicine, law, accounting, and other traditionally male fields now routinely accept women. However, for the same jobs, women still earn less than men. 27

28 Chapter 21-3 “The Right’s Revolution Expands”
“The Latino Population Grows”

29 A Spanish Speaking Population
: Mexican-American War (U.S. Acquired Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Parts of Nevada, Utah, California) * Many “Mexican” citizens living in these areas become American citizens Late 1800’s and Early 1900’s (Land rights for Latinos are being threatened) 1942: 4,000,000 Mexican Migrant Workers come to United States under the bracero program 1950’s: U.S. Government deported Bra ceros and other illegal immigrants 1960’s: 400,000 Mexican Immigrants Arrived 1970’s: 630,000 1980: 1,500,000

30 Emerging Latino Communities on the East Coast
Post WWII: Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Cubans began immigrating to the United States Puerto Ricans came legally while Cubans and Dominicans usually risked their lives on small boats Tended to settle in NYC and Miami

31 Pressing for Equal Right Cesar Chavez Organizes Farm Workers
Cesar Chavez: Chavez fought for the rights of farm laborers who were being exploited for profit Migrant Farmers: Farmers who moved from state to state (with the seasons). Usually faced low wages, and work conditions, and no benefits while the companies that hired them made millions of dollars United Farm Workers: Chavez merged Mexican farmers from Delano, CA with Filipino farm laborers to form a union *The union implemented a strike and grape boycott 1975- California passed a law collective bargaining between growers and union representatives Delores Huerta 

32 The Chicano Movement Grows
Chicano Movement- The name given to the Mexican-American political/social effort that grew out of the boycott “brown-power” Jose Angel Gutierrez: La Raza Unida: Fought for better housing, jobs, “American” opportunities 1980: 6 Hispanic members sat in Congress 2011: 30 Hispanic members sit in Congress

33 Native Americans and Asian Americans Battle Discrimination
American Indian Movement- Chippewa Activists started to help Native Americans in urban ghettos. Later, AIM addressed reservation issues, land rights, and self- government issues 1969: Alcatraz Standoff: Members of the Sioux tribe asserted that the land belonged to them because of a treaty that allowed Native Americans to have any “abandoned” federal land 1972: Long March: AIM supporters marched from San Francisco to Washington, D.C. and took control of the Indian Affairs building 1973: Wounded Knee II: Members of AIM took over the village of Wounded Knee and a shootout killed 2 members *The government agreed to investigate reservation conditions and treaty rights

34 Native Gains The Sioux Nation v. United States: The Supreme Court ruled that the U.S. Government violated the Ft. Laramie Treaty of 1868 Government ordered to pay Sioux for land taken Sioux have refused to accept the est. $570,000,000 because they want the Black Hills Land-not money 8 of the 10 poorest counties in America are on Indian Reservations

35 Asian Americans Fight Discrimination
Japanese American Citizen’s League- 1929: Founded to protect Japanese American Rights 1800’s Chinese Exclusion Act 1900’s Immigration Quota laws limited Asian immigration 1940’s Japanese families interred while many of their relatives fought for the U.S. Army

36 New Rights for Consumers and the Disabled
Ralph Nader: Unsafe at Any Speed – criticized auto safety issues- led to the passage of vehicle safety laws (Seat-belts) Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA: established by Nixon to mandate safe workplace conditions *Americans tended to still discriminate against people with physical/mental disabilities FDR hid that fact that his legs were paralyzed Eunice Shriver (JFK’s Sister)- Started an athletic camp for kids with disabilities that eventually became the Special Olympics Americans with Disabilities Act: Passed to ensure physical, social, and economic opportunities were available for those that were disabled. (This echoes the basic American Principle that everyone deserves OPPORTUNITY)

37 Chapter 21-4 “The Environmental Movement”
Environmental Activists Speak Out

38 Silent Spring Sparks a Movement
Toxic Waste- poisonous by- product of human consumption Ex. Coal Smog, Acid Rain, Air Pollution, Water Pollution 1962 Rachel Carson Silent Spring; discussed the deadly impact pesticides (DDT) were having on birds and other animals 1969: Cuyahoga River, Cleveland Ohio; Caught fire because of industrial waste

39 Inaugurating Earth Day
Earth Day- Nationwide protest of environmental pollution Gaylord Nelson- Wisconsin Senator wanted to “shake up the establishment…national issue…” April 22nd, 1970: 20,000,000 Americans took part in Earth Day events across the nation. Sierra Club: Founded by John Muir in 1892 Wilderness Society: Founded in 1935 *wanted Conservation and stricter pollution laws (regulations) for companies

40 A President Turns Environmentalist
Nixon: about the 1970’s: “must be the years when America pays its debts to the past by reclaiming the purity of its air, its water, and our living environment.” -1969 Environmental Protection Agency: Created in 1970. Formed to protect the “entire ecological chain” Clean Air Act: 1970: limit factory/automobile emissions Clean Water Act: 1973: limited industrial/agricultural “dumping” Endangered Species Act: 1973: protected endangered animals/plants Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Ford: 1974: Investigated the dangers of Nuclear Power

41 Environmental Setbacks
Love Canal- New York Community had extremely high rate of birth defects Toxic chemicals that had been buried in metal drums were leaking into the ground water “…children would return from play with burns on their hands and faces.” Town was abandoned in and Congress set up “SUPERFUND” taxes oil and other polluters to clean up “dangerous” areas Love Canal was considered “safe” in 2004 Three Mile Island- Pennsylvania A overheated nuclear reactor almost “melted down” released radiation Town was evacuated Building of new nuclear plants was banned

42 Questioning Environmental Regulations
Conservatives Stripped individual property rights People would better care of their own land than government could Destroy business and jobs would be lost to other countries because of the cost of “regulations” Liberals Property rights does not take priority over public health Business owners did not live in same neighborhoods as factories Business should pay for damage done to environment

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