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I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Air Force Research Laboratories Automated Aerial Refueling: Extending the Effectiveness of Unmanned.

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Presentation on theme: "I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Air Force Research Laboratories Automated Aerial Refueling: Extending the Effectiveness of Unmanned."— Presentation transcript:

1 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Air Force Research Laboratories Automated Aerial Refueling: Extending the Effectiveness of Unmanned Air Vehicles Jacob Hinchman Program Manager Automated Aerial Refueling Distribution A: Cleared For Public Release

2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2  Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – Extends Range – Shortens Response for Time-Critical Targets – Maintains In-Theater Presence Using Fewer Assets – Deployment with Manned Fighters and Attack Without the Need of Forward Staging Areas Significance to Air Force  Manned Aircraft – Provides Adverse Weather Operations – Improves Fueling Efficiency – Reduces Pilot Workload AAR Will Assist UAVs in Reaching Their Full Potential and Greatly Enhance Manned Refueling “We will leverage long-range and stealthy assets to ensure we can access any target and quickly defeat enemy defenses to allow other forces to operate.” Global Strike Vision PA #: AFRL/WS

3 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 3 AAR Program Key Aspects Automating the Receiver - Demonstrate an Operationally Feasible UAV Refueling Capability Near-Term Focus – Boom/Receptacle Refueling - Target was Air Force UAVs - Near-Term Refueling Requirement - Challenge Technology Base Future Application to Probe Drogue Refueling - Leverage Tech Base Developed in B/R - More Challenging “End-Game” Crawl, Walk, Run Spiral Approach to Provide Timely Technology Transition PA #: AFRL/WS

4 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 4 Boom/Receptacle Refueling From the Receiver’s Perspective - Close Formation Flight - Follow Tanker’s Lead Around Refueling Track - Can Take up to 30min for Heavy’s From the Tanker’s Perspective - Tanker Flies in a Predictable Manner - Boom Operator Flies Boom into Receptacle - Tanker Control Fuel Offload and Rate PA #: AFRL-WS

5 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 5 Probe/Drogue Refueling From the Receiver's Perspective - Fly Formation with Tanker - Capture the Drogue/Basket - Push Basket Forward for Fuel to Flow From the Tanker’s Perspective - Fly in a Predictable Manner PA #: AFRL-WS

6 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 6 National AAR Team ACC AMC ASC Corporation SynGenics © Navy PA #: AFRL/WS

7 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 7 Key Technology Challenges See Near Determine Relative Position with Tanker - Using Position/Velocities to Close Control Loop - High Confidence in Position Accuracy - Avoid Aircraft in AAR Area Collision Avoidance AAR Brings Many Aircraft into Same Airspace - Moving from ARIP to ARCP Command and Control Assure UAV Accurately Responds to Boomer Break- Away Commands - Commands are Flight Critical Real World Considerations Fitting Solutions into a Low Probability of Detect/Intercept Environment - Latency, Drop-Outs, Re-Encryption, and Limit Power Settings PA #: AFRL/WS

8 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 8 Key Challenges: Integration of Technologies Refueling Affects Most Aircraft Systems - Fuel, Navigation, Flight Controls, Sensing, Comm, and Ground Station Pilot in Command Issues - Ground Station has Limited Situational Awareness - Data Latencies due to Datalink Delays Autonomy of Vehicle Increases - Fault Detection and Safety need to be On-Board Technologies Needed - Formation Flight - Automated Collision Avoidance - Precision Positioning - Tanker to UAV Comm - Ground Station SA Dist A: Public Released

9 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 9 Mission Profile Dist A: Public Released

10 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 10 The CONOPS Working with ACC & AMC to Develop CONOPS Used F-16 Procedures As Baseline Refueling 4-Ship UCAS Packages Manned Refueling Procedures Extensive use of simulation to validate and demonstrate CONOPS to warfighter Based AAR Procedures On Current Manned Aircraft Procedure Ensuring Seamless Integration, Ease Transition Ensuring Seamless Integration, Ease Transition Public Release #: ASC

11 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 11 Example CONOPS: Contact Position Authorized UCAS Stabilizes in Pre- Contact Position Boomer Authorizes UCAS to Contact Position Authorized UCAS Stabilizes in Contact Position Boomer Plugs UCAS UCAS Acknowledges Contact to MCS Operator Confirmation of Contact Is Provided to Tanker UCAS Maintains Contact Position UCAS Takes Fuel Dist A: Public Released

12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 12 AAR Conceptual Design Families Sensor-Based Advantages: Most Affordable Conceptual Design Sensor May Enable Additional UCAS Capabilities Disadvantages: UCAS Vehicle Integration Sensor Development Risk Navigation-Based Advantages: Lowest Technical Risk For Initial Capability All Weather Capability Compatible With Navy Ops Simple Vehicle Integration Disadvantages: Requires Tanker Modifications Susceptible to GPS Degradation Public Release # : ASC

13 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 13 An Equivalent Model for UAV Automated Aerial Refueling Research Dist A: Public Released

14 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 14 Equivalent Model Clamshell (Yaw & Speed Brake) Aileron (Roll) Flap (Pitch) Planform & Control Surfaces ICE 101 Spoiler Slot Deflector Leading Edge Flaps All Moving Tip Deflector Pitch Flap Elevon Clamshell Leading Edge Sweep 65 deg Wing Span 37.5 ft Body Length ft AR 1.74 Wing Area sq ft Leading Edge Sweep 42.8 deg Wing Span 54.7 ft Body Length 29.6 ft AR 3.7 Wing Area sq ft Dist A: Public Released

15 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 15 Equivalent Model Initial Agreement The ICE aspect ratio will be modified to a value of 3.7 Model will be non-proprietary To properly model gust sensitivity in the pitch axis, wing loading will be adjusted to 50 lb/ft 2 Control power will be modeled as required to meet acceleration requirements and provide a predictable, linear, inner-loop response Control surface effectiveness and interactions will be simplified since control allocation is not the focus of this effort Dist A: Public Released

16 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 16 Altitude: 20K to 30K Airspeed: 225 KCAS to Mach 0.8 Angle of Attack: -5° to +10° Side Slip Angle: +/- 5° Flight Envelope Pitch time to double - neutral Roll - stable Yaw time to double - neutral Pitch 5.52 rad/sec 2 (independent use of full pitch flaps) Roll 7.84 rad/sec 2 (independent use of full elevons) Yaw 1.17 rad/sed 2 (independent use of one clamshell) Deceleration ft/sec 2 (independent use of both clamshells- assumes no yaw input) Flight Limits and Airframe Response Acceleration Response Short Period, Roll, and Dutch Roll Mode Response Total Fuel Weight = 17,500 lbs Total Gross Weight = 40,430 lbs Dist A: Public Released

17 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 17 Longitudinal Axis Short Period Frequency 4.5 rad/sec Short Period Damping 0.8 Roll Axis Bank Frequency 2.2 rad/sec Bank Damping 0.9 Directional Axis Dutch Roll Frequency 1.5 rad/sec Dutch Roll Damping 0.8 Speed Control Speed control requirements will be developed as part of the AAR contract. Use of modulated speed brakes will only be pursued if it is determined adequate control can not be achieved through use of engine control alone Note: Stability margins of 6 db and 45° to be maintained with guidance loops closed Target Closed Loop Dynamics Dist A: Public Released

18 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 18 Integrated Aerial Refueling R&D Simulation Being Developed  Boomer Station  UAV Operator Station  Tanker Pilot Cube  Other Receiver Stations Provides Test Bed for AAR System Development  Allows Rapid Prototyping and Early Operator Interactions  Helps Develop and Visualize Correct Story Boards PC Based Simulation Facilitate Early Operator Interaction with the AAR System Role of Flight Simulation Infinity Cube Simulation Dist A: Public Released

19 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 19 Simulation Structure Simulation consists of five main components - Simulation control console - KC-135 boom operator station - KC-135 pilot station - UAV operator station - Observer-Referee station D-Six stations - Windows-based, real-time simulation environment - Includes four UAVs, KC-135 tanker, and boom model Dist A: Public Released

20 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 20 Simulation Stations KC-135 pilot station - Uses the Infinity Cube - Allows pilot to observe and participate - Provides use of autopilot or “hands-on” flying KC-135 boom operator station - Designed specifically for AAR - Allows boomer to evaluate technologies and “concepts of employment” - Need boomers to support the AAR process Dist A: Public Released

21 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 21 Precontact Command

22 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 22 Right Monitor During Rendezvous

23 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 23 AAR Auto ACAS Simulation (Summer 2004) UAV Position and Pathway Validation Study (Fall 2004) Turbulence Evaluations (Winter 2004) Recent Simulation Events Wingtip Vortex Inboard and Outboard Engine Exhaust Inboard Intermediate Inboard Observation Dist A: Public Released

24 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 24 Rendezvous Algorithm Development (Spring 2006) Storyboard Evaluation (Through 2007 and Beyond) Flight Test Support (Summer 2005 – Fall 2007) Future Simulation Events ARIP ARCP En RouteRendezvous Air-to-Air Refueling Tanker Orbit 275 KIAS J-UCASs Exit Refueling Track EAR Dist A: Public Released

25 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 25 Capstone Simulation Objective - Demonstrate complete set of AAR system designs with high fidelity models - Full concept of operations (CONOPS) development for multiple UAVs Purpose - Transition AAR four ship CONOPS to production Test Details - Man in-the loop simulation - Boom, manned control station, tanker pilot - Equivalency model - PGPS effected model - Data link model - Turbulence model Dist A: Public Released Improve Simulation Capability for four ship CONOPS Development

26 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 26 Flight Test Objectives - Mature Precision GPS (PGPS) technology throughout flight test - Reduce technology development risk - Refine simulation models - Gain confidence in system architectures and designs - Enable technology transition to future UAV systems Dist A: Public Released

27 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 27 Phase I Open-Loop Data Collection Flight Test Objectives - Qualify Lear Jet for flying around KC Validate PGPS models and assumptions Body masking Gather real-time GPS and INS data - Gather Electro-Optical sensor data - Validate tanker downwash predictions Flight Test Purpose - Improve PGPS simulation models for AAR system development - Augment hybrid system development Test Details th ANG Tanker - Calspan Lear Jet Critical to Determine Design Feasibility Dist A: Public Released

28 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 28 Precision Positioning System Accuracy Requirements at Contact Boom Air-to-Air Refueling Envelope One of Several Positioning System Requirements

29 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 29 TTNT Data Collection Flight Test Objectives - Evaluate real-time performance of PGPS algorithm with data link - Evaluate TTNT data link performance under real-world conditions - Validate analytical models TTNT data link GPS Receiver Embedded GPS and INS Flight Test Purpose - Characterize PGPS sensors and data link in real-time - Critical step for ensuring system integrity Test Details - NAVAIR E-2 or T-39 - Calspan Lear Jet Real World Constraints are Critical to AAR Design Dist A: Public Released

30 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 30 PGPS Closed-Loop Station Keeping Flight Test Objectives - Evaluate: The performance of updated PGPS models The interface between guidance navigation system and flight control system The PGPS integrity system The station keeping flight control laws - Update TTNT data link performance Flight Test Purpose - Demonstrate PGPS accuracy and integrity - Validate Lear Jet analytical model - Verify performance of inner and outer loop control laws Test Details th ANG KC Calspan Lear Jet 25 Critical integration of PGPS and Flight Control Laws Dist A: Public Released

31 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 31 AAR Graduation Flight Demo Flight Test Objectives - Demonstrate full AAR closed-loop precision navigation system on a Lear Jet moving around a KC-135 from Observation->Pre- Contact -> Contact -> Pre-Contact Including Breakaway - Validate PGPS performance - Collect data from candidate EO/IR sensor for Hybrid system development Flight Test Purpose - Prove AAR system design on Lear Jet - Provide key metrics for simulation demonstration - Ensure AAR technology transition to UAVs Demonstration Ensures AAR Technology Transition to UAVs Dist A: Public Released

32 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 32 Summary Air Force Research Laboratory is the World Leader in AAR Operationally Relevant Meet future refueling requirements Synergy between flight test and flight simulation The AAR Team is Poised to Meet the Automated Refueling Challenge Dist A: Public Released


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