2The Power of Supply and Demand Changes in supply and demand will change equilibrium price and quantity.A shift in demand that moves the demand curve to the right causes equilibrium price and quantity to rise.A shift in supply that moves the supply curve to the left causes equilibrium price to rise and equilibrium quantity to fall.
3A Shift in Demand D1 S0 B Excess demand $2.50 A Price (per cassette) 2.25D08910Quantity of cassettes (per week)
4A Shift in Supply S1 S0 C $2.50 Excess demand Price (per cassette) B 2.25AD08910Quantity of cassettes (per week)
5Real World Examples of Supply and Demand Supply and demand can shed light on a variety of real-world events:Florida freeze.Financial assets and the baby boomers.Ten percent excise tax.
6Florida FreezeThe crop-damaging freeze shifted the supply curve to the left.At the original price, quantity demanded exceeded quantity supplied.Price rose until the quantity demanded equaled the quantity supplied.
8Financial Assets and the Baby Boomers Demographic changes among baby boomers moved the demand curve for financial assets to the right.At the original price, quantity demanded exceeded quantity supplied.Price rose until the quantity demanded equaled the quantity supplied.
9Financial Assets and the Baby Boomers P1Q1Q0P0QDD0(f)
10Financial Assets and the Baby Boomers The same phenomenon occurred in the surging demand for housing among this group during the 180s.
11Excise TaxesCongress imposed a 10 percent surtax on luxury boats.
12Excise TaxesA 10 percent surtax on luxury boats levied on suppliers shifts the supply curve to the left.After the tax is imposed, the quantity of boats demanded drops.
15Government Interferences Buyers look to government for ways to hold prices down. Sellers look to government for ways to hold prices up.
16Price CeilingsA price ceiling is a government-imposed limit on how high a price can be charged.
17Rent ControlsRent control is a price ceiling on rents set by government.An example is rent control in Paris following World War I and World War II.
18Rent ControlsThe following were the consequences of rent control in Paris:A huge shortage of living quarters.New housing construction stopped.Existing housing was allowed to deteriorate.
19Rent ControlsThe following were the consequences of rent control in Paris:For many, the only way to get living quarters was to offer a huge bribe to the landlord.Many families had to double up with other family members.
21Minimum WageA price floor is a government-imposed limit on how low a price can be charged.The minimum wage is an example of a price floor.A minimum wage is set by government specifying the lowest wage a firm can legally pay an employee.
22Minimum WageThe effect of the minimum wage depends on whether it is higher, lower, or the same as the market wage rate.If it is higher than the market wage then the minimum wage creates winners and losers:Those who can find work earn a higher wage.Others become unemployed.Production costs increase.Consumers pay higher prices.
23Minimum Wage The minimum wage is a price floor Minimum Wage The minimum wage is a price floor. The MW law does not prohibit paying more for labor…it only prohibits paying less than the minimum wage. In this example the market wage is higher than the minimum wage. Consequently, the minimum wage is not binding here.LaborSupplyQSQDLaborDemandWage (per hour)Quantity of apartments5.50$7.00
24Minimum Wage In this example the market wage is lower than the minimum wage. Consequently, the minimum wage is binding here. More people want to work than employers are willing to hire at this wage, consequently we have unemployment.LaborSupply$7.005.50Wage (per hour)LaborDemandQDQSQuantity of apartments
25The Limitations Of Supply And Demand Analysis Other things don't remain constant.Sometimes supply and demand are interconnected.Supply/demand analysis is the first step to analysis, not the complete analysis.Deciding whether the effects are significant to consider requires a knowledge of the structure of the economy because all actions have ripple or feedback effects.
26The Roles of Government Provide a stable institutional framework.Promote effective and workable competition.Correct for externalities.Ensure economic stability and growth.Provide for public goods.Adjust for undesired market results.
27Provide a Stable Set of Institutions and Rules Only the government can create a stable environment and enforce contracts through its legal system.
28Provide a Stable Set of Institutions and Rules When governments do not provide a stable environment, as is now happening in Russia, economic growth is difficult - usually such economies are stagnant.
29Promote Effective and Workable Competition Government promotes competition and protect against monopolies.Monopoly power is the ability of individuals or firms currently in business to prevent other individuals or firms from entering the same kind of business
30Promote Effective and Workable Competition Monopoly power gives existing firms or individuals the power to raise prices.
31Promote Effective and Workable Competition Many players in the market insist on open competition except when it comes to themselves:Farmers like competition but still want price supports.Lawyers and architects like competition but still want licensing to prevent others from entering the market.
32Correct for Externalities Unless they are required to do so, parties to any exchange are unlikely to take into account any externality.
33Correct for Externalities An externality is the effect that an action may have on a third party that the person who undertook that action did not take into account.
34Correct for Externalities The externality may be positive in which case society benefits even more than the two parties – an example is education.
35Correct for Externalities The externality may be negative in which case society as a whole benefits less than the two parties – an example is pollution.
36Correct for Externalities When there are externalities, government has the potential role to change the rules so that the parties must take into account the effect of their actions on others.
37Ensure Economic Stability and Growth Most Americans agree that government should:Prevent large fluctuations in economic activity.Maintain a relatively constant price level.Provide an economic environment conducive to economic growth.
38Ensure Economic Stability and Growth Most economists support these goals since they involve macroeconomic externalities.Macroeconomic externalities are externalities that affect the levels of unemployment, inflation, and growth in the economy as a whole.
39Provide for Public Goods Public goods are those whose consumption by one individual does not prevent their consumption by other individuals – an example is a public park.
40Provide for Public Goods In contrast, a private good is one that, when consumed by one individual, cannot be consumed by other individuals – an example is an apple.
41Provide for Public Goods A free rider is a person who participates in something without having to pay for it.
42Provide for Public Goods Since most everyone would enjoy having public parks without having to pay for them, government requires that the public be taxed to pay for public parks, thereby eliminating free riders.
43Adjust for Undesired Market Results In an attempt to make the market fairer, the government, through taxes and expenditures, redistributes income among households.The result is controversy.
44Adjust for Undesired Market Results For example, in trying to be fair, which type of tax should the government use?
45Adjust for Undesired Market Results A progressive tax, such as the U.S. income tax is one whose rates increase as a person's income increases.
46Adjust for Undesired Market Results A regressive tax such as a sales tax is one whose effect decrease as income rises.
47Adjust for Undesired Market Results A proportional tax, such as the Social Security tax, is one whose rates are constant at all income levels, regardless of the taxpayer's total annual income.
48Adjust for Undesired Market Results Another controversial role for government involves deciding what is best for people independently of their desires.
49Adjust for Undesired Market Results Should government prohibit demerit goods and activities?
50Adjust for Undesired Market Results Demerit goods and activities are things government believes are bad for you, although you may like them.Addictive drugs are a demerit good; using addictive drugs is a demerit activity.
51Adjust for Undesired Market Results Merit goods and activities are things the government believes are good for you, although you may not like them.Motorcycle helmets are a merit good; using helmets while driving a motorcycle is a merit activity.
52Market Failures and Government Failures Market failures are situations where the market does not lead to a desired result.The government sometimes intervenes in markets when market occurs.Government intervention, however, may make matters worse.Government failures are situations where the government intervenes and makes the situation worse
53Market Failures and Government Failures Real-world policy makers must choose the option which is least bad -- market failure or government failure – by weighing the costs and benefits of each.