Presentation on theme: "Ch. 1 - Principles of Government Government: The institution through which a society makes and enforces its policies Essential to the existence of civilized."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 1 - Principles of Government Government: The institution through which a society makes and enforces its policies Essential to the existence of civilized society and has an extraordinary impact on the lives of people. What would you be like if you never had any oversight?
What do we expect from our Gov’t? Protect us from criminals and terrorists Protect the environment, our property, health and education Pave streets, regulate traffic Punish criminals Respond to natural disasters Protect our civil rights Care for elderly and poor That is a lot!
The State Dominant political unit in the world. Characteristics: – Population – Territory – Sovereignty – power within its own borders – Government Body of people living together in a defined area, tied together politically Nation=ethnic term, country=geographic term
Politics Politics – The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders produce. Politics – The process by which government is conducted, policies determined and leaders chosen.
Politics is NOT a Dirty Word People disagree on politics because they disagree about: – Government Priorities – The Role of Government – Specific Governmental Policies – The Direction of the Nation – Personal Values – Etc. Politics and Government are inseparable
Purpose of Government From the Preamble to the Constitution: 1.Form a more perfect union – link together people and states
Purpose of Government From the Preamble to the Constitution: 2.Establish Justice – equal rights and laws 3. Insure Domestic Tranquility – Peace at home 4. Provide for the common defense – military, foreign policy
Purpose of Government From the Preamble to the Constitution: 5.Promote the general welfare – well being 6. Secure blessings of liberty–rights & freedoms
Forms of Government Dictatorship – Rule by 1 person or small group – The most common form of goverment – Authoritarian, Oligarchy, etc. – Totalitarian Control all aspects of life – political, social, economic Hitler, Stalin, Kim Jong-Il – Theocracy – Control by force and the FEAR of force
Forms of Government Democracy – “Government of the people, by the people, for the people” – “We the People” – Direct Democracy – NE town halls – Representative Democracy – Republic Fastest growing form of government Most difficult form of government
Democracy Presidential System – Branches chosen independently – Separation of Powers – Checks and Balances – Strong Executive – independent of Legislature – United States system
Democracy Parliamentary System – Executive (Prime Minister) is a member of legislature (Parliament) – Legislative majority chooses Executive – Legislative branch is superior to Executive and Judicial branches – No checks and balances – System used in UK, Canada, Israel, most of Europe
Foundations of Democracy Worth and dignity of every individual – Sometimes the welfare of some is subordinated for the welfare of the group Equality of all persons – conditions, opportunities, laws Majority rule with minority rights Necessity of compromise=most ideas have more than two sides Individual freedom
“No government demands so much from the citizen as Democracy, and none gives so much back.”
Conditions Favorable to Democracy Economic conditions – Best when there aren’t extremes of wealth and poverty – Free enterprise – capitalism or socialism Education – The higher the literacy rate the better – You need educated voters Social Consensus – Shared values: Freedom, Equality, Peace, etc.
Democracy and the Free Enterprise System (Capitalism) Gov’t doesn’t make the decisions, the market does through the laws of supply and demand – Private ownership, profit, competition America has a mixed economy because the government does get involved – Regulations, laws – Building codes – Education – Post office