Decline of empire Economy in trouble: trade down, debt up, unemployment, protective tariffs Welfare state Allowed independence of some colonies Statute of Westminster 1931 declared Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa to be “autonomous communities within the British Empire.”
Heavy losses in WWI Greater economic recovery: New factories, added territory, less unrest among workers Political instability: 40 prime ministers in 20 years between 1920 and 1940 Socialist and Communist parties gained support. Formed more defensive alliances to protect against Germany. Construction of the Maginot Line
Along French/German border 560 miles long Underground chambers with power stations, ammo supplies, hospitals, theaters, living quarters. Confident that the Line would stop any German advance.
Offered government solutions to economic problems. Works Progress Administration (WPA) Agricultural Adjustment Administration Securities and Exchange Commission Civilian Conservation Corps. Helpful or Harmful? Increased the power of the federal bureaucracy.
What reason does the Bible give for the continued existence of the Jews despite the many attempts to destroy them? Romans 11:1,5, 26-29
Use of propaganda Use of secret police to eliminate opposition Emphasizes the state rather than the individual State control of every aspect of life Maintains government by force One-party political system with dictator
Russia/Soviet Union – Lenin & Stalin Italy - Mussolini Germany - Hitler Japan- Tojo
Romanov czars were oppressive Poverty Censorship Persecution of national groups (Poles, Finns, Jews) Forced “Russianization” of peoples Other countries were becoming open, free, democratic, but not Russia.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) – unpopular with the people, brought Russian discontent to the surface. The Russians were somewhat humiliated and lost territory to the Japanese.
Bloody Sunday 1905 – a peaceful protest turns violent when government soldiers open fire on the protesters. This event further erodes support for the Czar. Peasant uprisings, strikes, mutiny in the military. Workers organize a soviet (council).
Russia’s participation in WWI also stirred unrest. Russians were dying in large numbers fighting the Germans. They were unprepared to fight a war. Food was in short supply in the cities because it was being sent to the soldiers. When people are hungry, they get mad.
A strange Russian Orthodox monk who believed and taught that the only way to reach God was by sinning and then gaining forgiveness. See Romans 6:1-2. Rasputin influenced the Czarina Alexandra. His corruption and influence on the Czar weakened support for the Czar even more. He was murdered by Russian nobles.
March 8, 1917 – workers overthrow local authorities in St. Petersburg. Czar tries to disband the Duma (national assembly) March 15, 1917 – Czar Nicholas II abdicates, ending 300 years of Romanov rule. Portrait of the Czar slashed in a riot at the beginning of WWI
Alexander Kerensky, a Menshevik, tries to restore order.
Sought to get Russia out of WWI immediately. Wanted to implement radical social reforms. Germans sent exiled Bolsheviks back to Russia to make trouble for the Mensheviks.
Vladimir Lenin – leader of the Bolsheviks Believed in absolute necessity of violent revolution. Believed that communism would spread when workers rose up everywhere under strong leadership. “Dictatorship of the proletariat” In reality – only a dedicated few would wield great power.
Nov. 7, 1917 the Bolsheviks seize the government in St. Petersburg. Government officials are arrested. Lenin is the dictator.
People wanted an immediate end to WWI, which the Bolsheviks supported. Discipline among the military was low; no troop support for officers People expected immediate solutions to Russia’s economic problems. When the provisional government (after the czar abdicated) couldn’t deliver, people supported Lenin & the Bolsheviks.
Leon Trotsky organized the Red Army, the military of the Bolsheviks. Opponents of the Bolsheviks were called the “Whites.” They had the support of the Allies including the U.S. Communists won. Trotsky
Capital moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Lenin died in 1924. Country renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Central government controlled the 10 republics in the federation. People still have no voice.
Nationalized Russian industry Demanded peasants give surplus crops to the government People were forced to work No incentives to produce The economy went into steep decline.
The government abandons “war communism” in favor of the New Economic Policy. Retreat from communism so people wouldn’t overthrow the communist government. Allowed some capitalism Economy recovers somewhat.
Power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Jozef Stalin. Stalin won out, established as dictator 1927.
Government production goals. Turn back to socialism. Shortages Inefficient Mismanagement Resistance from the people. Stalin cracks down. Secret police Abuse p. 554. Famine
Some Western countries turned to planned economies in the wake of the Great Depression The state tightened its grip over the Russian people. No liberty.
Stalin’s purges – 800,000 Communist party members murdered. Attempt to wipe out Christianity. Read Lenin quote page 555. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIj9BdkS 46E&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIj9BdkS 46E&feature=related From a documentary on Stalin’s Purges.
The goal of the Soviets was to spread communism to the rest of the world. Comintern – Communist International stirred up discontent in other countries to foment revolutions.
Fascism (German fascism is called nazism.) The fascists feared communism and promised stability & security. People’s lives are restricted and controlled by the government in almost all aspects in both communist and fascist countries.
CommunismFascism Industry owned by government Seeks a classless, international society “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” Ideally, the state will wither away and become unnecessary Business privately owned, controlled by government Nationalistic society Governed by a military dictatorship Glorifies the state
After WWI: Italy wanted to dominate the Adriatic Sea. Italy wanted control of Albania Italy wanted some of Germany’s former colonies. (Britain & France took them.) Italians feared communist agitators. Socialists paralyzed the government. Little land was available to the poor. Strikes by labor unions brought industry to a standstill.
Italy had lost 500,000 men in WWI and gained little in return. Economy was in trouble: strikes, inflation, unemployment, debt. Benito Mussolini
Son of a blacksmith Young socialist Jailed because of violent newspaper articles Supported Italy’s involvement in WWI.
Took its name from the fasces the symbol of power and authority in the ancient Roman empire. A fascist fez with the symbol of the fasces, worn by the Black Shirts
October 1922, the fascists marched on Rome and demanded King Victor Emmanuel II to appoint Mussolini as premier (ruler) of Italy. The king acquiesced.
Turned Italy into totalitarian state. Appointed fascists to government positions. Maintained “appearance” of a representative government.
The Party was the real source of power. Fascist Grand Council (20 people and Il Duce (Mussolini, the “Leader”) Goal: Make italy economically self- sufficient.
No clearly defined political program. Suppressed freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and opposition. “The fascist spirit is will, not intellect.”
Mussolini negotiated a truce with the Roman Catholic Church. The pope agreed to recognize the Italian government and relinquish claims on former papal lands in Italy. Mussolini gave the pope $$$ and established an independent state known as Vatican City. The pope rules Vatican City, and it is a separate country to this day.
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated at the end of WWI. Weimar Republic established with a constitution. Elections held for representatives and a president. The president appointed a chancellor from the party with the most members in the legislature.
The legislature was called the Reichstag. The chancellor appointed a cabinet. Weimar constitution granted freedom of speech, press, & religion. Flag of Weimar Republic
Germans were apathetic and didn’t support the government. The people had no experience in self- government. They had no attachment to republican ideals. Numerous political parties meant none had a majority, so they had to share power.
The weaknesses helped pave the way for Adolf Hitler to rise to power.
Rejected as an artist Deemed unfit to fight for Austria in WWI Volunteered for service in Bavarian Reserve Wounded, promoted, 2 Iron Crosses
Joined the National Socialists (Nazis) in 1920 Became the leader of the Nazi party Party formed the SA (storm troopers, brown shirts) to “preserve order” at their rallies.
Hitler felt threatened by the SA and had it purged, killing some of the leaders. He created the elite guard, the SS, to protect Hitler and later to function as a secret police (Gestapo) to root out opposition and to manage the system of concentration camps. The leader of the SS was Heinrich Himmler.
1923 Hitler was arrested after leading an insurrection (Beer Hall Putsch) to overthrow the Weimar Republic. While in prison he wrote Mein Kampf, outlining his plans for Germany. Blamed Jews for Germany’s problems Demanded the renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles Claimed the German people were a master race.
Made speeches and gained public support. Propaganda campaign to gain support. Symbolism was important to the Nazis.
Weakness of the Weimar Republic “War Guilt” Clause of the Treaty of Versailles Inflation & Unemployment Anti-communist sentiments Hitler’s charisma, personal leadership, and use of propaganda techniques
By 1932, the Nazi Party had the largest number of members in the Reichstag. President Paul von Hindenburg asked Hitler, as leader of the largest party, to join a coalition government as vice-chancellor. Hitler refused, so the Germans were unable to form a government. New elections were held in November; Nazis gained FEWER votes than in July elections. Nevertheless, Hitler demanded to be named chancellor.
President Hindenburg felt he had no choice and appointed Hitler chancellor on Jan. 30, 1933.
Hitler called for new elections in March. A mysterious fire broke out in the Reichstag. Hitler blamed Communists to whip up fear. Nazis failed to get a majority, but managed to pass the Enabling Act, making Hitler dictator and suspending the republic. Third Reich
Hitler blamed the Jews for the defeat in WWI. Accused the Jews of corrupting the pure Aryan race. He called them “wretched” and “the enemy of the human race.”
(3) Elchanan Elkes, letter to his son and daughter living in London (19th October, 1943) I am writing these lines, my dear children, in the vale of tears of Vilijampole, Kovno Ghetto, where we have been for over two years. We have now heard that in a few days our fate is to be sealed. The ghetto is to be crushed and torn asunder. Whether we are all to perish or whether a few of us are to survive, is in God's hands. We fear that only those capable of slave labor will live; the rest, probably, are sentenced to death.London We are left, a few out of many. Out of the thirty-five thousand Jews of Kovno, approximately seventeen thousand remain; out of a quarter of a million Jews in Lithuania (including the Vilna district), only twenty-five thousand live plus five thousand who, during the last two days, were deported to hard labor in Latvia, stripped of all their belongings. The rest were put to death in terrible ways by the followers of the greatest Haman of all times and of all generations. Some of those dear and close to us, too, are no longer with us. Your Aunt Hannah and Uncle Arich were killed with 1,500 souls of the ghetto on October 4,1941. Uncle Zvi, who was lying in the hospital suffering from a broken leg, was saved by a miracle. All the patients, doctors, nurses, relatives, and visitors who happened to be there were burned to death, after soldiers had blocked all the doors and windows of the hospital and set fire to it. In the provinces, apart from Siauliai, no single Jew survives. Your Uncle Dov and his son Shmuel were taken out and killed with the rest of the Kalvaria community during the first months of the war, that is, about two years ago.
Due to outer forces and inner circumstance, only our own ghetto has managed to survive and live out its diaspora life for the past two years, in slavery, hard labor, hunger, and deprivation. (Almost all our clothing, belongings, and books were taken from us by the authorities.) The last massacre, when ten thousand victims were killed at one time, took place on October 28, 1941. Our total community had to go through the "selection" by our rulers: life or death. I am the man who, with my own eyes, saw those about to die. I was there early on the morning of October 29, in the camp that led to the slaughter at the Ninth Fort. With my own ears I heard the awe-inspiring and terrible symphony, the weeping and screaming of ten thousand people, old and young-a scream that tore at the heart of heaven. No ear had heard such cries through the ages and the generations. With many of our martyrs, I challenged my creator; and with them, from a heart torn in agony, I cried: "Who is like you in the universe, my Lord!" In my effort to save people here and there, I was beaten by soldiers. Wounded and bleeding, I fainted, and was carried in the arms of friends to a place outside the camp. There, a small group of about thirty or forty survived to witnesses to the fire.
Sadly, some German Protestants supported Hitler. “The swastika on our breasts, the Cross in our hearts.” Some discarded the Bible because it was written by Jews. Only Aryans could be church members. Said Jesus wasn’t really a Jew. Hitler was seen as the “second messiah.”
Romans 1:25 They exchanged the truth about God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator—who is forever praised. Amen. Romans 1:25
End unemployment through rearmament (build the military) Create public works projects – autobahnen Make Germany economically self-sufficient (strikes illegal, set wages & settle labor disputes) Indoctrinate young people – Hitler Youth Result: a very strong totalitarian state
Artists reacted against the industrialization of society. Rejected conventional art forms. Embraced new, experimental techniques. Reflected the death and destruction of the war period. Expressed feelings of despair. Portrayed a pessimistic and disjointed view of man, his world, and the future.
Expressionism – paint how one feels Henri Matisse Color is the real subject. Expresses emotion “Vase of Sunflowers”--Matisse
Figures reduced to various geometric shapes. Portray several perspectives at once. Deliberately tried to shock the viewer. Pablo Picasso “Femme”- Picasso
New building materials (concrete, glass, steel) Skyscrapers Sense of openness
Louis Sullivan – developer of the skyscraper. Design of a building should match its purpose. Wainwright Skyscraper in St. Louis By Louis Sullivan
Kaufmann House, “Falling Water” Guggenheim Museum in NYC By Frank Lloyd Wright
Igor Stravinsky – father of modern music, polytonality The Rite of Spring http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=1 anfbfOHozk&featu re=related http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=1 anfbfOHozk&featu re=related Jazz – dissonance http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=I TbuFIG4Xvc http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=I TbuFIG4Xvc
T.S. Eliot – “The Waste Land,” portrays desolation and meaninglessness of modern life. James Joyce – Irish Stream of consciousness William Faulkner
Here is no water but only rock Rock and no water and the sandy road The road winding above among the mountains Which are mountains of rock without water If there were water we should stop and drink Amongst the rock one cannot stop or think Sweat is dry and feet are in the sand If there were only water amongst the rock Dead mountain mouth of carious teeth that cannot spit Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit There is not even silence in the mountains But dry sterile thunder without rain There is not even solitude in the mountains But red sullen faces sneer and snarl From doors of mudcracked houses…
Why were people disillusioned? What ideals had they believed in previously that were destroyed by World War I, the world wide economic depression, and the rise of totalitarian governments? What is the Biblical view of the reason bad things happen? (Genesis 3)