Presentation on theme: "Journal 11/6 Write down anything you already know about Ancient Greece? Date/Copy/Answer You will need a book today!!!"— Presentation transcript:
Journal 11/6 Write down anything you already know about Ancient Greece? Date/Copy/Answer You will need a book today!!!
Journal 11/7 How has the geography affected ancient Greece? Copy/Date/Answer Books!!!!
Journal 11/11 How has geography affected ancient Greece? Copy/Date/Answer Books!
Turn to page 101. Look at the list of main events that we will learn about in the next unit. Select two of the main events that you would really like to know more about and write down at least two questions for each. We will take time after the unit to go back and see if we answered your questions.
Work on your assessment for unit 2. Get together with your partners if needed Use your notes and the textbook for help Ask for a pass to get a laptop for research if you chose the presentation or the essay.
Journal 11/13 Why does conflict occur between civilizations? Copy/Date/Answer
Sparta vs. Athens CH. 5 SEC. 3
The Geography Sparta Located on the Peloponnesus In a valley Isolated and mountainous Athens Located on the Attic Peninsula One of the least fertile areas in Greece Turned to the sea and many became sea traders Built on the hill, or the acropolis
Spartan Military The Peloponnesus was invaded and conquered by foreigners. Forced people to work for them, Helots. Conquered the capital, Sparta. Spartans controlled the lives of their citizens from birth to death. Every adult male a member of the military. Military worked to control Helots and expand Spartan power. Spartan fighting men began at birth. Newborns were examined and those who were not healthy were left to die. At 7, boys went to live in military barracks. they trained specifically for war. Began military service at 20 and could now marry but not live at home until they were 30 years old. Not allowed to engage in trade or business Stayed in the military until they were 60.
Athenian Military The Athenian trireme allowed the navy to protect the Athenian way of life. Athenians were more focused on philosophy, art, architecture, and drama.
Sparta’s Social Structure A highly militarized society made up of 3 social classes: 1. Equals – descendants of the invaders Controlled the city-states Land divided equally among them and their families Given helots to work their land 2. Half-Citizens They were free, paid taxes, and served in the army Held no political power Some farmed, others lived in town and worked in trade and industry Some even were rich 3. Helots – conquered people that became slaves Spartans decided how they should work and live However, they outnumbered the Spartans Spartans had to use force to control them – one reason why they developed a military society Were systematically terrorized by the Spartans to keep them from rebelling
Women’s Roles Spartans Wives and mothers had to be strong and healthy Strict physical training Taught to be devoted to the city-state Controlled home and land while husbands were fighting “Come back with your shield, or on it.” Athenians Isolated in the home Not educated No rights Responsible for handicrafts and textiles
Education Sparta Military school for boys at age 7. Lived in barracks until the age of 30. Girls learned athletics Athens Boys learned mathematics, reading, writing, poetry, music, gymnastics No formal education for girls
Spartan Government Two Kings One led the army while the other took care of matters at home. Council of Elders – 28 male citizens above 60 Wealthy, aristocratic men Proposed laws and served as a criminal court An assembly – all male citizens over 30 years old Voted to accept or reject proposed laws by the council. Elected 5 ephors (made sure king stayed within the law) for one year- terms. Complete control over education of young Spartans.
Athenian Government Monarchy > Aristocratic gov’t Draco (an archon) wrote down the 1 st written law code in the 600’s B.C. Very strict and harsh – why harsh laws are called draconian law. Citizens being sold into slavery to pay their debts Later, an archon named Solon, settled the debts and disputes between creditors and debtors by erasing the debt of the poor and outlawing slavery for debt. Solon divided citizens into four groups based on wealth. The two richest could hold public office His changes did not solve Athens problems.
Athens – Birthplace of Democracy In about 507 B.C., Cleisthenes took control and turned Athens into a democracy. 1 st divided citizens into 10 tribes. Each tribe chose 50 men to be part of the council of 500. Served for only one year terms. Proposed laws to the assembly. Courts became more democratic with jurors for which each man could plead his case. Direct democracy – all citizens participated directly in making decisions.
Achievements Sparta Military contributions The phalanx – standing or moving together as a unit Training and fighting styles Athens Philosophy, art, drama, architecture, drama Democracy
Travel Brochure Create a travel brochure that would persuade someone to visit either Athens or Sparta. The product should demonstrate student's knowledge of a city-state in terms of its strengths and weaknesses (including its cultural activities, recreation, athletics, architecture, famous sites, school system, accommodation, transport, food, etc.); Be complete in terms of the requested information (map, advantages or selling points, and optional travel alert). Be visually attractive and convey a message!
Videos Athens history-the-acropolis?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false history-the-acropolis?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false Spartans history-spartans?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false history-spartans?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false The Persian Wars ( Battle of Marathon) marathon?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false marathon?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false The Peloponnesian War war?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false war?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false The Persian Wars ( Battle of Marathon) marathon?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false marathon?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
Journal 11/17 What does philosophy mean? What is it trying to explain? Assessments and Books!!!
Essential Questions What are the basic ideas of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle? What are the main achievements of the golden age?
If you are finished with your assessment, read Chapter 6 sections 1 & 2. This would be a good time to take notes. For the first section: read through it first, take notes on what the golden age means but do not focus too much on the specifics of the art. Read through the second section. Take notes and focus on the three philosophers of ancient Greece that it talks about. Use your phones/tablets to look at some outside sources if possible about each of their philosophies.
The Golden Age In the 400’s B.C. Greece entered a new era of cultural progress. Athens was the symbol of the golden age. A center of learning and artistic achievement
Architecture Public buildings Acropolis Parthenon
The Rise of Philosophy One of the Greeks greatest achievements was the development of philosophy. The study of basic questions of reality and human existence. “lover of wisdom” 1 st Greek philosophers were Thales and Miletus. Wanted to understand the nature of the cosmos or universe. Cosmologists
Journal 11/19 & 11/20 How are the three Greek Philosophers connected? Date/Copy/Answer
If you were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle…… How do you view education? How do you view the world? What special views do you hold? What are your views on government?
Beyond the Movie: Alexander the Great Watch the video and answer the questions about Alexander the Great _the_great _the_great Keep your questions they will be turned in on Monday! NO TALKING!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Alexander The Great Diary Entry Assignment You have all of class to work on this assignment. If you need to go to the MPR to get a laptop you may do so, just take the pass with you!!! You may also use your textbooks to gather some information. (section 3 chapter 6) (pg. 138)
Beyond the Movie: Alexander the Great Watch the video and answer the questions about Alexander the Great _the_great _the_great Keep your questions they will be turned in on Monday! NO TALKING!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Alexander the Great CHAPTER 6 SECTION 3
Journal 11/25 Why should you go on to higher education? What type of school will you be looking for? Why? Date/Copy/Answer
What is the golden age? What? When? Where? AAn era of great cultural progress throughout Greece AAthens at the center of the progress AArchitecture AArt PPhilosophy
Phillip II After the golden age, Greece entered a new era as city- states battled for power making it a much weaker united front. However, the region to the north of Greece was a kingdom on the rise. Macedonia was a warlike kingdom ruled by kings with the support of the nobles. In 359 B.C. Phillip II became king, who recruited and organized the best –disciplined army in their history. He admired Greek ways and even adopted their fighting strategy by organizing his army into a phalanx.
Phillip's Conquest His goal was to unite all of Macedonia. When he succeeded, he turned his attention to the mainland of Greece. Some Athenians saw him as a savior, others saw him as a threat to their freedom. Demosthenes, a great public speaker, led the opposition with his fiery speeches. The city-states proved unsuccessful as they fell to Phillip's army. He defeated Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea. With his victory he united Greece under his rule. In 336 B.C. he was assassinated and succeeded by his son Alexander.
Alexander’s Conquests A great leader!!! Alexander received the best training in the Macedonian army under his father. Received the best education from the philosopher Aristotle. He silenced the rebellions that took place in Greece after his fathers death and by 331 B.C. he had completely destroyed Persia. Conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia all along the way. His goal was to bring the known world together under one empire. He led his troops toward India, meeting little resistance to his army along the way. By the time he reached the Indus River his army was tired of fighting and would not go on. He was forced to return to Persia. Alexander died in 323 B.C. after being seriously ill.
Alexander’s Achievements Everywhere Alexander went he purposely spread Greek culture. He founded numerous cities. Many named Alexandria in his honor. Worked to bring the Persians and the Greeks together. Had Macedonians, Persians, and Greeks work together to govern the empire. His reign spread a new culture to much of the world. Hellenistic culture – “Greek-like” way of life; combined values of the Mediterranean and Asia. Hellenistic age lasted from his death until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 B.C.
Stop and Jot What is the one battle that Alexander lost?
After Alexander’s Death His generals competed for his empire. In 301 B.C. they decided to divide it into three main kingdoms: Macedon Egypt Syria And several smaller kingdoms Kingdoms were often at war with each other In about 200 B.C. Roman legions conquered most of the former Hellenistic empire.
Work on Timeline Then you may work on your diary entry assignment. It will be due next Monday!
Journal 12/2 What caused the break up of Alexander’s empire? Copy/Answer/Date Journals due Friday!
Alexander The Great Diary Entries Pick your favorite/best diary entry that you wrote for Alexander the Great. Turn to your partner and take turns sharing that one. Discuss the events that occur in your diary entry and why you chose to write about it.
Founding the Roman Republic CHAPTER 7
Around 750 B.C. a group of villages along the Tiber River formed what would become the center of Roman civilization in western Italy. Influenced heavily by Greek culture
Geography The geography of Italy played a major role in the rise of Roman power. However, it also had a lot of downfalls. Organize these characteristics of their geography into a pro/con chart and explain why it could be a pro or a con: The alps to the north Located on the Italian peninsula Mediterranean Sea to the South Adriatic Sea to the east Apennine Mountains in the east Alps in the north- with several pathways that cut through the mountains Long Coastline
Pros Cons Alps in the north provide shelter to the civilization. A great central location to control the Eastern and Western halves of the region. The Apennine mountains were not very rugged, which made early trade and travel relatively easy. Being surrounded by sea allows them to easily trade and interact with nearby civilizations in the Mediterranean region. Alps in the north separate Italy from the rest of Europe, making it difficult to interact. The pathways that cut through the mountains allowed for the movement of people, however, it also allowed enemy armies to stream into Italy over centuries. Their long coastline leaves them vulnerable to attack by the sea.
The Beginning of an Empire Around 2,000 B.C. invaders started to sweep through the Italian Peninsula from the north of the Black and Caspian seas. Around 700 B.C. a group of people called the Latins moved into the plains region called Latium in west-central Italy. They built villages along the Tiber River which later united to form Rome In the late 600’s B.C., they came under the rule of the Etruscan kings from northern Italy. They had a written language, which the Romans later adopted Very advanced people: knew how to pave roads, drain marshes, and construct sewers Made Rome a large and prosperous city Greeks also settled in ancient Italy. Colonies in southern Italy and on the island of Sicily became city-states that were disunited and quarrelsome. Heavily influenced Roman culture
The Early Roman Republic The Etruscan kings were eventually overthrown by wealthy landowners around 509 B.C. They vowed to never again be ruled by a monarch They established a republic: a form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state. Only adult male citizens could vote and take part in gov’t Three important groups of citizens helped govern the republic: 1. The Senate 2. The Magistrates 3. Assemblies
The Senate The most important and powerful branch Controlled public funds and made decisions on foreign policy Sometimes it also acted as a court In times of emergency, the senators could propose that a citizen be named dictator or absolute ruler. A dictator could rule up to six months with complete control over the army and courts.
The Magistrates The second group of Roman leaders were elected officials that included consuls, praetors, and censors. Two officials were elected to one-year terms as consuls, or chief executives. Consuls ran the gov’t and commanded the army They were powerful, yet they governed with advice from the senate Each consul could veto, or refuse to approve the acts of the other. Romans elected the praetors to help the consuls. In times of war, they commanded the armies In times of peace, they oversaw the Roman legal system Censors were people that registered citizens according to their wealth, appointed candidates to the senate, and oversaw the moral conduct of all citizens.
Stop and Jot So far what principles have you noticed from Roman government that the U.S. and other modern societies use?
Assemblies Several assemblies existed in the republic. Citizens in these assemblies voted on laws and elected officials, including consuls. Some voted to make war or peace, while others served as courts. Elected 10 officials called tribunes, who had some power over actions by the senate and other public officials. If they believed actions were not in the public interest, they could refuse to approve them.
The Conflict of Orders The types of people who served as officials in the Roman gov’t changed over time. Changes were a result of the common people to win more rights The early republic was divided into two classes: Patricians : powerful landowners who controlled gov’t; inherited their power. Plebeians : most of the population that were farmers and workers; had fewer rights Plebeians worked to increase their power through demands and strikes. They earned the right to join the army, hold gov’t office, form their own assembly and elect tribunes. Forced the gov’t to write down laws. After 342 B.C. many became powerful and wealthy and joined with the patricians to form the Roman nobility.
The Republic Grows During the years of the Roman republic, they fought many wars against neighboring people. By about 256 B.C. they controlled all of Italy south of the Rubicon, a river on Italy’s northeast coast. Extended their empire with a well-organized, impressive army and with wise political policies. Every adult male citizen was required by law to serve in the army legions Strict army discipline Romans granted full citizenship to inhabitants of nearby Italian cities they conquered because they wanted them to be loyal to Rome. Granted partial citizenship to the people of more distant cities, leaving them independent but requiring them to provide soldiers for the army.
With a pair (one other person) create an organizational chart of the Roman republic government. Compare/Contrast with the government of the United States. When you are finished study for your quiz Thursday on Ancient Greece. 10 matching 10 multiple choice 2 short answer
Journal 12/4 What is one pro and one con about the geography of the early Roman Republic. Date/Copy/Answer Journals due tomorrow!!!
By the middle 200’s B.C., the Roman Republic controlled all of the Italian Peninsula. They wanted to continue to expand their territory and power, and so they came into conflict with Carthage. Carthage was a strong city on the coast of Africa that also had colonies on the island of Sicily. Carthaginians feared the Romans would try to take over Sicily. Romans feared the Carthaginians would control the Mediterranean and prevent their expansion and control.
The First Punic War 264 B.C. The Romans captured a ship from the Carthaginian navy and replicated it to make their own navy. They built boarding bridges on their models so that they could ram the ships from Carthage, let down the bridge, and allow soldiers to board and take over the enemy ship. After 23 years of fighting in 241 B.C., Carthage surrendered and had to give up Sicily as well as pay for the damages of the war. Rome now had a major strategic territory outside the mainland of Italy.
The Second Punic War 218 B.C. Hannibal, a great general, organized a massive Carthaginian army in Spain with foot soldiers, horse soldiers, and elephants. They made a very difficult journey across the Alps into Italy, which unfortunately killed many of the soldiers. However, the Romans were still no match to the Carthaginians and lost several battles causing them to retreat. Hannibal still did not have the equipment needed to attack the cities, so he laid low in the countryside, raiding farms and taking crops and livestock. He also tried to win over Rome’s allies, which was not successful because of the Roman policy of sharing citizenship, the allies were forever loyal to Rome. Rome decided to take a big risk and invade Africa and threaten Carthage. Hannibal was ordered to return to Carthage to fight the Romans, where he was defeated by the Roman general, Scipio Again Carthage had to pay for damages and give up their navy and colonies in Spain. Carthage had lost a lot of power and now Rome was the most powerful in the Mediterranean.
The Third Punic War Hate for Carthage was still prominent with the Romans and they decided they wanted to completely destroy them! They declared war again in 149 B.C. Carthage was destroyed shortly after in 146 B.C. The Romans also wanted to get revenge on Macedonia for allying with Carthage in the second Punic War. Romans started a war and defeated them in 197 B.C. The Greek cities were now under Roman protection Rome had extended its control over the entire region.
Problems with Expansion Because Rome now controlled so much territory they had to change the way they governed. They stayed a republic, but the Senate gained complete control over the army and foreign policy. Nobles gained even more power. They governed the new territories, called provinces very loosely. Did not allow their people to become citizens and did not make them allies. They were basically subjects of Rome. Governors backed by the Roman army administered the provinces with little care about the people. Tax collectors tried to get as much money from this as possible.
Problems at Home When the Romans returned from the Punic Wars they were devastated to find their livestock killed, their homes destroyed, and vineyards uprooted. Farmers had little money to restore their farms so they were forced to sell their land. Eventually they had to become dependent on the provinces for grain, the main food. Many of the farmers moved to the cities and had to depend on the gov’t for food when they could not find jobs. However, trade within their empire (with the provinces) created a class of business people and landowners called equites. They had great power and wealth The gap between the rich and the poor, powerful and powerless, continued to grow.
12/5 Good Morning!!! Get all your journals together and ready to turn in! Check with a partner to make sure you have the same ones Current Events ! Books!!!!!!
The Birth of the Roman Empire
The Social War The allies of Rome throughout the peninsula wanted to share in the benefits of Rome's growing power. Wanted to hold public office and be considered "citizens" The Senate did not agree because they wanted to maintain ultimate power In 91 the allies rebelled and a war started called the social war. The allies were well trained because they served in the Roman army before. One of the bloodiest wars in Rome's history. Ultimately, Rome had won, but the Senate agreed to allow the allies political participation and citizenship.
The Birth of the Roman Empire Get with a partner Read through the chapter by sections, stopping after each section to discuss major points to take away from the section. Write them down separately for your notes by Sections to stop after: The Social War The First Triumvirate The Rule of Caesar The Second Triumvirate Octavion The Pax Romana Emporers After discussing it with a partner, come to the board and write one thing that is worth remembering for each section on the board.