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VOCABULARY- Making Words Stick Barb De Graaf 1.

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1 VOCABULARY- Making Words Stick Barb De Graaf 1

2 Learning Targets Understand characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction. Apply a six-step process for direct instruction in vocabulary. 2

3 L.K.6 Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts. L.1.6 …including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because). L.2.6 …including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy). L.3.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). L.4.6 …including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). L.5.6 …including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition). L.6.6, L7.6, L8.6 …gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. L.9-10.6, L11-12.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. Standard 6 L.CCR.6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

4 “Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world.” Steven Stahl (2005)


6 Vocabulary Should Be Taught.... 6 Directly Intentional Indirectly Incidental

7 What We Know from Research Students develop vocabulary through: 7 Directly -explicit vocabulary instruction Indirectly- wide reading reading a lot (time) reading different types/levels of text fiction and non- fiction read-alouds focusing on specific words and their meanings teaching independent word learning strategies

8 Components of Effective Vocabulary Instruction 1. Wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge 2. Instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words 3. Instruction in independent word-learning strategies 4. Word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning. Michael Graves (2000)

9 Vocabulary Gap Hart and Risley (1995) found that three-year-olds from advantaged homes had oral vocabularies as much as five times larger than children from disadvantaged homes. Biemiller (2005) estimates that the bottom 25% of students begin Kindergarten with 1000 fewer root-word meanings than average students. Without intervention, this gap grows ever larger as students proceed through school.

10 Specific Word Instruction

11 Selecting Words to Teach – Three Tiers of Words Tier –One Basic words whose meaning students are likely to know. Tier-Two Academic Vocabulary Meaning students are unlikely to know. A useful word that students are likely to encounter across a wide variety of domains. The meaning can be explained in everyday language using words and concepts that are familiar to students. The meaning is necessary for comprehension of the text being read. These words are the best candidates for explicit instruction. Tier-Three – Domain Specific Vocabulary Low-frequency “specialized” words that do not appear frequently in written or oral language. Word is specific to a particular content area or subject matter. Teach these words as needed. Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, 2002

12 Space is filling up with trash, and it’s time to clean it up, NASA experts warn. A growing amount of human-made debris—from rocket stages and obsolete satellites to blown-off hatches and insulation—is circling the Earth. Scientists say the orbital debris, better known as space junk, poses an increasing threat to space activities, including robotic missions and human space flight. “This is a growing environmental problem,” said Nicholas Johnson, the chief scientist and program manager for orbital debris at NASA in Houston, Texas.

13 What Words Should be Taught? Important words- for understanding a concept or the text Useful words- those that students are likely to see again and again across variety of domains. Difficult words- those with multiple meanings and idiomatic expressions

14 Create a Student-Friendly Explanation Use everyday, accessible language. Include an example in your explanation. Compare your explanation with the dictionary definition. Dictionary Definition: Attention – The act or state of attending through applying the mind to an object of sense or thought. Student-Friendly Explanation: Attention – Looking or listening carefully and with interest like watching a favorite TV show. Longman online dictionary





19 Daily Classroom Instruction for Vocabulary Marzano’s Six- Step Approach “…bright kids need about 4 exposures to a word to own it, average students need about 14, and our struggling students need at least 40. How can we expose our students to words this often? There are so many words and there is never enough time.” 19

20 Marzano’s Six Steps For The Teacher – Direct Instruction To introduce and develop initial understanding. Step 1: The teacher will give a description, explanation, or example of the new term. Step 2: The teacher will ask the learner to give a description, explanation, or example of the new term in his/her own words. Step 3: The teacher will ask the learner to draw a picture, symbol, or locate a graphic to represent the new term. For the Learner – Practice To shape and sharpen understanding. Step 4: The learner will participate in activities that provide more knowledge of the words in their vocabulary notebooks. Step 5: The learner will discuss the term with other learners. Step 6: The learner will participate in games that provide more reinforcement of the new term.

21 Step 1 The teacher provides a description, explanation or example of the new term. 21

22 In addition, there are hundreds of thousands of smaller objects in space. These include everything from pieces of plastic to flecks of paint.

23 Step 2 Students restate the explanation of the new term in their own words. Longman online dictionary 23


25 Step 3 Students create a nonlinguistic representation of the term. 25

26 Students periodically engage in activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms. 26 Step 4

27 27 Review Activity Solving Analogy Problems One or two terms are missing. Please think about statements below, turn to your elbow partner and provide terms that will complete following analogies. Inch is to ruler as word is to ______. Decibel is to sound as _____ is to _____.

28 Step 5 Frequently have students discuss important terms with one another. 28

29 Pair-Share Strategy: THINK: Allow think time for learners to review their own descriptions and images of the terms. PAIR: Put learners in pairs to discuss their descriptions, images, and any new info related to the terms. SHARE: Provide opportunity for groups to share aloud and discuss conceptions and misconceptions. Monitor as learners help each other identify and clear up confusion about new terms.

30 Step 6 Periodically engage students in games that allow them to play with the terms. 30 Games

31 31 “Talk a Mile a Minute” Activity Teams of 3-4 Designate a “talker” for each round. Try to get team to say each word by quickly describing them. May not use words in category title or rhyming words.

32 32 Vocabulary Charades Game Activity Please stand. Using your arms, legs, and bodies, show the meaning of each term below: radius diameter circumference


34 Word Learning Strategies

35 Morphemic Analysis

36 Greek and Latin Roots

37 Context Clues

38 Word Learning Strategies Jigsaw 1. The Vocabulary Strategy 2. Pave Map 3. Concept of Definition Map

39 Develop Word Consciousness Awareness of words Enjoyment of words Playing with words Interest in words Appreciation of words Satisfaction in using words well

40 Vocabulary HOTSHOT Notebook

41 Reflect on Vocabulary Instruction 1 idea that “squares” with my thinking….. 2 questions that are “circling” in my head…. 3 points to remember and use in my classroom...



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