Syllabus 1. Google “Eric Breimer” 2. Click on first link 3. Click on CSIS-390 4. Click on Syllabus
History Before designing and developing web pages and web applications it is important to know how it all came about… Internet World Wide Web (WWW)
Are these things the same? Internet World Wide Web
ARPAnet ARPANET ( Advanced Research Projects Agency 1968, Cold War, Military Applications
ARPAnet Originally, Custom/Tailor-made network pplications for sharing data and messages 1968-1973 1971 Email concept developed Person can have an identifier ebreimer@network_name Virtual mailbox By 1973 Email was 75% of the ARPAnet traffic File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was developed in 1973 General/Generic service concept
ARPAnet Internet Transition Period 1971-1983 Packet Switching developed and perfected Instead of point-to-point persistent connections Robust, fault-tolerant, efficient, survivable Network of Networks realized on a large scale The ability to connect different types of networks TCP/IP
Early Internet 1983-1989 No web browsers, no web pages at all… Only… Email FTP (document and image sharing) Early message board system (BB systems) Custom data transfer applications Banking Early business to business E-commerce
In 1989 came the WWW The concepts existed, but one man implemented the concepts and made them real… WWW concepts Hypertext concept – Documents can have links to other documents, just click the text URL concept – Documents, computers, virtual mailboxes, networks can all have uniform identifier to help locate them
Tim Berners-Lee (TBL) Really he invented the WWW in the sense that he put together a bunch of “good ideas” and implemented… The first web browser The first web server In the process he proposed and developed HTML URLs
Understanding the WWW To find documents or data on the Internet you had to Know numeric IP addresses to locate FTP servers Login anonymously or with a user account Know the folder hierarchy and file name of the document/data. People would share this information via Email. The idea of just browsing the Internet was silly, you just couldn’t do it. If you didn’t have connections, you had no idea what was out there…
Understanding the WWW HTTP instead of FTP Web Browser instead of FTP client Web Server instead of FTP server URLs instead of numeric IP addresses Clicking Hyperlink instead of navigating through folder hierarchies Universal/Standard document formatting HTML instead of proprietary documents Word, doc, docx, pdf, etc.
Are these things the same? Internet Nuts and bolts Hardware TCP/IP Packet Switching Network of Networks concept World Wide Web Content layer of Internet Software HTTP URLs Hyperlinks
Internet vs. WWW Terms used interchangably by general public and media You should know that The WWW is a framework built “on top of” the Internet. The framework includes protocols for sharing data, standards for formatting data, and conventions for locating data. ( The boat ) The Internet is really the “transport layer” of the WWW. ( The river )
WWW Matures 1989-1995 1989 TBL invents first web browser and server 1991 Al Gore passes Gore Bill, which helps pave the way $$$ for future development 1993 Mosaic (first good graphical web browser) is born 1993 The National Science Foundation (NSF) creates the InterNIC, which centralizes the control of URL and domain names 1995 NSFnet (formally ARPAnet ) becomes research only network Internet traffic starts to get routed through a commercial backbone (operated by AT&T, Sprint, and others)
Commercialization Period 1995-2000 1995 – Netscape become a household name Sells web server software…gives away browser for free Reach almost 90% market share by 1996 1995 – 1996 Microsoft scrambles to come out with competing software (Internet Explore, IIS Web Server) 1996-1999 – Browser Wars between Microsoft and Netscape HTML is pushed to the limit Browser plug-ins developed, Flash, RealMedia, etc. 1997-2000 – E-commerce Commercial Explosion Amazon, E-bay, Online Stock Trading, MP3 trafficking, etc.
Browser Wars 1996-1999 Microsoft (Internet Explorer) and Netscape compete to be the #1 browser. In ’96 Netscape dominated By ‘99 Internet Explorer was #1 Microsoft Integrated IE into the Windows OS and it was often forced upon people as the default browser Microsoft paid billions in lawsuit (EU mostly) but still won the war Netscape makes its source code open, so developers can build upon it. Leads to the Mozilla Foundation, which eventually develops Firefox. In 2000, AOL buys out Netscape, which is was failing financially This marks the end of the war and beginning of Microsoft’s dominance in the WWW.