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The United States: Americans, Citizenship, and Governments Chapter 3

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Presentation on theme: "The United States: Americans, Citizenship, and Governments Chapter 3"— Presentation transcript:

1 The United States: Americans, Citizenship, and Governments Chapter 3

2 Being an American Lesson 1
Essential Questions: What are the characteristics that make up a culture? It Matters Because: The United States is enriched by its diversity and unified by its shared values .

3 A History of Immigration
United States people share many traditions Parades, 4th of July, Thanksgiving 13% of all Americans were not born in the United States Immigrants- people who move permanently to a new country. 98% of Americans are descendants of immigrants from all over the world

4 A History of Immigration
Original North Americas came from Asia Beringia –natural bridge that once connected Asia and North America 20,000 years ago Native Americas today Spanish started coming in the early 1500’s Earliest settlers lived in Florida Later in the Southwest 1600’s migration to North America French- in Canada Netherlands (Dutch) –to New Amsterdam (New York) Started farms along the Hudson River English –along east coast of North America Late 1600’s and people arrived from Germany, Sweden, Ireland, Scotland These immigrants created the 13 colonies Eventually the colonies became the United States

5 A History of Immigration
Some people came here by force African slaves From 1860 to 1890, 10 million people migrated to America from Western and Northern Europe Denmark, Norway, and Sweden From 1890 to 1924 they came from southern and eastern Europe 22 million people arrived Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia Late 1900s A larger share came from Asia and Latin America

6 Ongoing Transformation
In Millions 1830 to 1930 population growth From 12 million to 12o million 40 million were immigrants Brought different cultures Made the United States diverse

7 Migration from rural to urban areas
New businesses in cities paid higher wages than farms After the Civil War African Americans moved to northern cities Find better jobs start new life Blue-collar job workers – worked in factories, wore blue shirts White-collar workers – worked in offices, schools, stores Women are in the labor force more than before Eventually factory jobs decrease Service jobs increase

8 American Diversity Ethnic groups –People who share a common national, cultural, or racial background White, Non-Hispanic -64% 46% Hispanic -16% African American % 11.8% Asian -4.5% % Multiracial -1.5% % Diverse Religious Beliefs Christianity million Judaism, Islam, Buddhism -9 million Many practice no religion

9 Values and Institutions
Values –the general principles, or beliefs, you use to make judgments Broad ideas about what is good and desirable and what is bad and undesirable Americans have certain shared values Freedom, equality, opportunity, justice, democracy Unity, respect for one another, tolerance The Declaration of Independence “All people are created equal” “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

10 Social Institutions Institutions- are the key practices, relationships, and organizations in a society Family- the most important in American life Churches, Temples, Mosques Schools-reflect society’s culture, history and knowledge

11 Government Institutions
American institutions reflect how strongly Americans value freedom The right to make one’s own choice in life without unrestrained interference from government American government is based on popular sovereignty the idea that the government receives its power from the people

12 The Constitution Constitution –a detailed, written plan for government
Makes sure that government is limited in its power 3 Branches of government Legislative Branch-makes laws and changes existing laws based on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Judicial Branch-studies and interprets the law Executive Branch-executes the laws Bill of Rights Makes sure that government cannot abuse its power over the individual

13 Lesson 2 Becoming a Citizen
Guiding Question: How does a person become a citizen? Citizens- are members of a community who owe loyalty to a government. They are entitled to the protection of that government Civics- The study of the duties and rights of citizens A good government need well informed citizens

14 Roots of Citizenship Citizenship-the rights and duties of citizens
Dates back 2,500 years Greece and Rome Gave people legal rights People were allowed to take part in government Government- the ruling authority for a group of people

15 Two ways to become a citizen
Natural Born Citizen Any person Born in the 50 States District of Columbia American territory (Puerto Rico) U.S. Military base If you’re born in another country but your parents are citizens Can hold dual citizenship

16 Naturalized Citizenship
Naturalization-is a legal process to obtain citizenship Must be 18 or older Must have been a lawful permanent resident for 5 years Must be able to read, write and speak English Must be of good moral character Must show an understanding of U.S. civics

17 Road to Citizenship Complete an application and send to
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USIS) USIS talks to the applicant to make sure all requirements are meant Take citizenship exam Special ceremony Take an oath or swear to be loyal to the United States Swear to obey the Constitution and the country’s laws Sign a document Children under 18 automatically become citizens

18 Losing Citizenship 3 ways to lose citizenship
Expatriation- someone who gives his or her allegiance to a foreign country Denaturalization- Naturalized citizens who are found to have lied on their citizenship application Being convicted of certain crimes (3 types) Treason Taking part in a rebellion Trying to overthrow the government by violent means Only the federal government can grant or take away citizenship

19 Foreign-Born Residents
Not everyone who lives and works in the United States is a citizen Many are alien-foreign born residents who have not been naturalized. There are two groups Legal alien- legal immigrant who permanently lives in the U.S They have all the rights, pay taxes, but cannot vote

20 Legal Alien (continued)
Nonresident alien- someone who expects to stay in the U.S. for a short time, specific period Can hold a job,, own property, attend public schools, receive public recourses Refugees- a person who has left his or her home to escape danger such as persecution by government, war or natural disaster Threat of live has to be proven

21 Illegal Aliens U.S. limits immigration to about 1 million per year
Relatives of U.S. citizens receive the highest priority So do people with jobs skills Many more people want to come here than its allowed 1 million people per year enter and remain illegally Others never applied, arrived by crossing the Mexico and Canada border illegally. They can be arrested and deported

22 Undocumented People Close to 12 million people illegally in the United States Come for work and a better life Many have no friends, family, or a place to live Hard to find work It’s against the law to hire illegal aliens Low paying jobs and no benefits Live in fear of deportation

23 Lesson 3 Duties and Responsibilities of America Citizens
Guiding Question- What are the duties of American citizens? We all play a part in making our communities safe and successful We all have responsibilities-things we should do Obligation we meet on our own free will

24 American Citizens have certain duties
Duties- actions we are required to perform at National, state and local level Failure to perform is subject to penalties under law Obey laws- rules that allow people to live together peacefully Keep order, protect health, safety and property Pay taxes- provide most of the money government needs to function Pay employees, defend the country, help those in need Local communities hire police, pave roads, run schools There can be fines and penalties if you don’t pay taxes

25 Defend the Nation Most male citizens are required to register with the Selective Service System (SSS) In the event of war Extreme emergency Government may need to draft Call men to military service 1973-the latest draft (Vietnam war) Today our military depends on volunteers

26 Serve in Court The U.S. Constitutions guarantees that anyone accused of a crime the right to a Jury trial The Sixth Amendment Jury- a group of citizens who hear evidence and decide whether the accused is guilty Every adult citizen must serve The accused also has the right to hear or present witness If you are called as a witness, it’s your duty to appear

27 Attend School Government provides free public elementary and secondary education In most states children 7-16 years old have to attend school Taught knowledge Civics Prepare for life Resolve problems Form opinions, express

28 Citizens Duties and Responsibilities
Obey the law Pay taxes Defend the nation Serve in court Attend school RESPONSIBILITIES Be informed and vote Participate in your community and government Respect the rights and property of others Respect different opinions and ways of life

29 Responsibilities Be an Informed and Active Citizen
Citizens have the responsibility to stay informed Know what your government is doing Make your concerns known: Contact elected officials Support a cause you care about VOTE Citizens 18 and older

30 Respect the Rights of Others
Being helpful is part of being a good citizen Respect diversity in population. Every person has a right to his or her opinion beliefs and practices Tolerance-respecting and accepting others

31 Contribute to the Common Good
Essential Question: What would your community be like if no one supported charities or volunteered for community projects? People need to participate, and volunteer Give time, money, and effort to improve the community Contribute to the common good

32 Being Involved Guiding Question: How can citizens make their community a better place to live Government provides many services Citizens also share the responsibility to meet community needs Care about the community’s Welfare Health Prosperity and happiness of all members

33 Donating Money and Time
Volunteerism- the practice of offering your time and service to others without receiving payment More than 63 million people do volunteer work Without volunteers many community needs would not be met Clean up parks Church groups make holiday baskets Retirees teach schoolchildren Students visit nursing homes Collect food for a local pantry Americans give $300 billion per year to charity

34 National Programs Peace Corps- Advises farmers, teaches children, starts small business, and fights serious diseases worldwide AmeriCorps- Meets community needs, helps victims of natural disasters, cleans polluted rivers, and assists disabled people Senior Corps- Volunteer opportunities form seniors Foster Grandparents- help special need kids Senior Companions- help other seniors at home Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) Connects seniors to volunteer opportunities in their own communities

35 Forms of Government Lesson 4
Essential Question: Why do people create, structure, and change government? It Matters Because People form government to establish order, provide security, and accomplish common goals

36 Guiding Question: What is the purpose of Government?
Government- is the ruling authority for a community Organization that has the power to make and carry out laws and decisions The Importance of Government Makes and enforces laws Makes it possible for people to live together peacefully and productively Protects from attacks fro other societies Keep Order and Provide Security Conflicts always arise Government makes laws (Rules of conduct) Laws serve to prevent conflicts between Individuals, groups, or nations Laws make it a crime to attack or harm another person Laws protect people’s property Guiding Question: What is the purpose of Government?

37 Government Provides Services
Government provides services that people would not otherwise get Libraries, schools, hospitals, and parks Repairs streets and bridges, collect garbage, deliver mail Government agencies make sure products are safe Food, medicines, cars, cribs Government helps prevent spread of disease Government helps the needy by giving: Food, money, housing, healthcare, programs for the disabled

38 Functions of Government
Keep Order Pass and enforce laws Establish courts Provide Services Protect public health Protect public safety Provide public welfare Provide Security Establish armed forces Protect citizens from foreign attack Guide The Community Develop public policy Manage the economy Conduct foreign relations

39 Guide the Community Public Policy-the decisions and action a government takes to solve problems in the community Governments have limited amounts of money Formulate policy and plans for collecting and spending money Handle relations with other countries Trade, travel Agreements to share resources Agreements to help each other if attacked

40 Levels of Government The United States has a federal system of government Power is divided between the federal (national) government and state government Local government serve towns, cities, and counties Federal has the highest authority over its citizens Makes and enforces laws for the entire country States or local government cannot make laws that go against the national government Federal government sets up citizenship rules

41 State Government Each of the 50 states has it own government
They decide matters for the people in their state Set marriage laws Make schooling rules Hold elections Manage public health and safety Build roads and bridges Create laws as long as the laws don’t go against the national government Local governments Found in counties, cities, and towns Provide schools, police, and fire departments, emergency medical services, and local courts

42 The Types of Government
Guiding Question: What are the types of government? Nations have different ways of governing themselves Democratic Government Democracy began in the Greek city of Athens Over 2,500 years ago – it was a direct democracy All citizens meet and vote to decide what to do Direct democracy is not practical anymore

43 Representative Democracy
Citizens choose a group of people to: Represent them Make laws Govern on their behalf United States has this form of government Oldest representative democracy Majority rules Determined through elections

44 Two Kinds of Representative Democracy
Republic Citizens have a role in choosing the person who will be the head of government President Constitutional Monarchy Hereditary ruler- you inherit the position The power is limited by a constitution Limited ceremonial rule Voters elect representatives to make laws Representative choose a Prime Minister to head the government

45 Authoritarian Government
Regime-a government that is in power In democratic regimes the people rule Autocracy-in authoritarian regimes power is held by one person or a small group Rule as you wish Unlimited power Monarchy- a government with a hereditary ruler Absolute monarchs Today King of Saudi Arabia, Emir of Qatar Dictators- exercise complete control by use of force Overthrow existing government and seize power North Korea, Cuba

46 Totalitarian Rule Many dictator for their people to accept totalitarian rule Government controls almost all aspects of people’s lives Totalitarian leaders ban any efforts to appose them They take away individual freedoms They force people to obey their ideology They control the media They rely on scare tactics and violence Ideology- a body of ideas about life and society Socialism- society controls all aspects of the economy, either directly or indirectly through the government

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