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Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 1 Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Free Parking.

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Presentation on theme: "Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 1 Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Free Parking."— Presentation transcript:

1 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 1 Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Free Parking

2 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 2 FREE PARKING What it Costs Root Causes Digging Our Way Out

3 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 3 The Costs

4 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 4 COSTS Money Congestion Environment & Climate Livability

5 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 5 $20,000 If they aren’t paying…

6 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 6 25% Increased Housing Costs Absorption of Developable Land

7 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 7 Source: Nadine Fogarty, Strategic Economics Cost of Living

8 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 8 In 2000, congestion wasted an estimated $67.5 billion, based on lost productivity and fuel consumption – Anthony Downs, Still Stuck in Traffic 99% of trips end in a free parking space – D. Shoup

9 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 9 WHAT DOES FREE PARKING COST?

10 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 10 Thanks to Projjal Dutta, NYMTA

11 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 11

12 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 12 Same Street – Two Eras

13 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 13

14 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 14

15 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 15

16 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 16

17 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 17 Root of the Problem

18 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 18 If it costs so much, why is so much of it free… Sprawl Low Value Areas Deal Sweeteners Habit Entitlement Under-funded Alternatives Over-Requiring Over-Building

19 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 19 ROOT CAUSES OF FREE PARKING Sprawl

20 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 20

21 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 21 “Can’t build on it, so we might as well pave it” Low Land Values

22 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 22 Customer, employee, or tenant attraction and retention strategy Deal Sweetener

23 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 23 Failure to consider other options Unfamiliar with any other kind of parking No one takes the bus Habit

24 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 24 Public resistance to loss of “free” parking Entitlement

25 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 25 Where alternatives to driving are missing, unsuitable, or simply considered out of the question, free parking takes on a Social Security like untouchable status. Equity issues as Driving begins to = Access Under-Funded Alternatives

26 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 26 Historical Pattern has been to require more parking than will ever be needed during a typical week. Sought to: –Ensure against parking demand from spilling over onto neighboring streets; and –Prevent congestion from drivers seeking limited street spaces. Over-Requiring

27 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 27 Developers often build more than they have to: Add value to property beyond loss of useable SF Appease spillover-worried neighbors Habit / Poor understanding of urban market Don’t know what else to do with certain spaces Over-Building

28 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 28 Digging Our Way Out

29 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 29 Ensure requirements aren’t making situation worse by increasing investment-risk and lowering land values with excess surface paving Establish design guidelines to discourage blight Flexible standards to incentivize investment Low Land Values

30 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 30 Subway Entrance (10 Minutes to Center City) Philadelphia

31 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 31 Unbundling Parking access must be offered only as a separate, optional cost item Given a cost-based choice, many people will reduce their parking consumption Parking Cash-Out Employers that offer free parking must offer commensurate, cash alternative Deal Sweetener

32 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 32 Rincon Hill Area Plan All residential spaces must be unbundled. Downtown Reduce minimums if unbundled More than maximum only if unbundled San Francisco

33 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 33 Unbundling at Commercial Buildings Downtown Unbundling Law Requires building owners to include parking costs as a separate line item in office leases Minimum rate for monthly long-term parking: ≥ twice the price of a bus pass Drive alone rate fell by 30% - 81% to 57% Bellevue, WA

34 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 34 California Requires employers to offer cash-out if providing subsidized parking Enacted after studies showed cash-out increases alternative mode commuting

35 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 35

36 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 36 Kent, UK Daily Cash-Out Pfizer staff are paid £2 each day they do not use parking, via security card fobs. Pfizer reduces its costs of providing/ maintaining parking Promotes Green public image

37 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 37 Parking Cash-Out Unbundling Zoning –Use zoning code to broaden understanding of parking as but one means of providing access –Plant ideas, suggestions for alternatives Habit

38 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 38 Raleigh, NC

39 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 39 Identifying Options “Swaps” of standard spaces for bicycle, motorcycle, rideshare spaces, transit investments, or permeable surface areas Transportation Fund fees Official Shared-Parking model that can quantify the efficiencies gained with mixed-use developments. Raleigh, NC

40 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 40 Parking Benefit District Dedicate parking revenues to local area and transportation improvements Entitlement

41 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 41 Boulder, CO “In the 1970s, downtown was dying.”

42 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 42 Controls All Meter Revenue Manages Transportation Fund Free transit for downtown employees Builds parking only when most economic option $325,000/year TDM budget Drive alone rates fell from 56% to 36% Downtown Management Commission

43 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 43 Boulder, CO

44 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 44 Meters installed in 1993 Garage fees In-lieu of parking fees Annual $5.4 million revenue Funds garages, street furniture, trees, lighting, marketing, mounted police, daily street sweeping & steam cleaning : Sales Tax Revenues Quadruple Pasadena, CA

45 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 45 Pasadena, CA Redwood City, CA Ann Arbor, MI Montgomery County, MD Austin, TX Seattle, WA San Diego, CA Aspen, CO … And more every year

46 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 46 Parking Benefit District Leverage future revenues to fund increased investment Under-Funded Alternatives

47 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 47 Nottingham, UK

48 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 48 Charges per-space levy on all employers with more than 10 employee parking spaces Customer, Motorcycle, Rideshare, Disabled parking spaces are exempt Employers can eliminate spaces to save on tax Money to be invested to: –Extend tram system –Expand bus –Expand local train station into a 'Hub’ –Manage Parking Workplace Parking Levy

49 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 49 Get Your Zoning Out of the On-Street Management Business 1.Price curb spaces to maintain 15% availability in commercial areas 2.Implement context-responsive Residential Permit Parking in residential neighborhoods 3.Convert minimums to maximums 4.Require unbundling and/ or impact fee for parking above maximums Over-Requiring

50 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 50 A Chain Reaction Cities set minimums to guarantee against overspill 1.Developer builds more than project needs 2.No Market for Spaces 3.Gives them away as amenity 4.Employer, given ample free parking, offers as job benefit 5.Driving/ Parking entrenched as normative mode No benefit from thinking twice about level of parking consumption

51 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 51 A Different Chain Reaction Cities convert minimums to maximums, require unbundling 1.Developer allowed to build only what is needed 2.Required to sell what is built, estimates conservatively 3.Tenant must pay for each space, consumes conservatively, thinks twice about other employee- and customer attraction options 4.Free parking becomes rare Three levels of price-based decision points for building/ consuming parking

52 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 52 Olympia, WA Portland, OR Seattle, WA Spokane, WA … And more every year Philadelphia, PA Eugene, OR Washington, DC Los Angeles, CA San Francisco, CA Milwaukee, WI Cities that have abolished (at least some) parking requirements:

53 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 53 Convert to Maximums United Kingdom

54 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 54 Convert minimums to maximums Allow beyond maximums only if unbundled Parking Taxes Over-Building

55 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 55 Tax Options San Francisco Model A percentage tax rate applied to most parking transactions Vancouver Per-SF tax amount applied to facilities, whether charged or not

56 Free Parking: Digging Our Way Out of a TDM Hole Tom Brown, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting 56 Questions? Ideas? Discussion? Mobility Accessibility Sustainability New York Boston Seattle Portland San Francisco


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