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Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana 9/15/11 Do Now: Make a cluster map of what you associate with AFRICA. It can be anything – use the GRAPES poster to inspire.

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Presentation on theme: "Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana 9/15/11 Do Now: Make a cluster map of what you associate with AFRICA. It can be anything – use the GRAPES poster to inspire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana 9/15/11 Do Now: Make a cluster map of what you associate with AFRICA. It can be anything – use the GRAPES poster to inspire you! Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. Africa is mostly a plateau Many waterfalls make it hard to travel by boat Victoria Falls Smooth coastline with few harbors Sahara is the world’s largest desert, gotten drier over time The Sahel is a fertile region with some rain on the edge of the Sahara –Grasslands and animals Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana 9/15/11

2 What would some natural resources of California be? Sahel is a tropical savannah –South of that is the rainforest Main River is the Niger River –Civilizations grow along the river –Provide water and way to access inner Africa Many African trade goods are natural resources –Gold, salt, diamonds, copper, iron

3 p. 129 1. How many different environments are on your map? 2. Which parts of Africa have the fertile environments needed to support civilizations?

4 Ancient West Africa history is known mainly from oral history West Africans had metals/ironmaking skills, taken from the Kush Strong kingdom founded by the Soninke people (AD 300) –powerful weapons, lots of food –Empire became Ghana Able to have labor specialization In clans/tribes, each with a special craft or trade traded gold for salt to north of the Sahara Islam spread to West Africa

5 Ghana had two sources of revenue 1.Taxes on trade 2.Gold – owned only by the King Group called the Almoravids launched a jihad and took the capital Leaders converted to Islam Ghana was never as wealthy again

6 Sub-Saharan Plateau Savannah Natural resources Oral history Labor specialization Revenue

7 The Rise of Mali 9/20/11 15L 15R DO NOW:

8 Classroom Policies – A Reminder Bathroom Passes 30/30 Rule Pencil Sharpener Out of Seat Talking out of Turn

9 Why do you think Sumanguru let Sundiata live, when he killed everyone else in the family? Sumanguru “Sorcerer King” –Cruel, mean, magical? –Killed 11 of 12 sons of Malinke King, let crippled son Sundiata live – big mistake! –Big battle, Sundiata killed Sumanguru who magically disappeared

10 How do you think restoring the gold and salt trade could have helped pave the way for the spread of Islam? Sundiata was a wise king –Conquered the gold-producing regions –Told his people to start farming their land Mali controlled trade route again, King Sundiata was a hero Mali was powerful, traded with many countries –$$$ from gold and salt Converted to Islam willingly –NOT like Ghana

11 Mansa Musa, famous Muslim ruler of Mali –Made his hajj (piligrimage) to Mecca –Showed off richness/power of Mali –Caused inflation of gold value (rise in prices) Brought back As-Saheli to build mosques in Mali Timbuktu became center of Islamic learning Mali expanded and explored Strictly followed Islam Mansu Musa's Trip to Timbuktu

12 Glossary words: –Sundiata –Conversion –Mansa Musa –Inflation –Scholarship –Ibn Battuta Venn Diagram Ghana and Mali

13 Storytelling in Africa 9/21/11 Do Now: What are the two ways that Ghana made money (revenue) off gold? Griots were the professional story tellers Proverbs were wise sayings to guide and inspire ProverbsProverbs West Africans’ lives were filled with music –Drummers create polyrhythmic music Traditional dance to drums The arts are used to express beliefs, an event, or celebrate people Storytelling in Africa 9/21/11 16L16R


15 1.In your own words, write a short summary of this Anansi story. 2.What do you think is the lesson of this story? Griot Polyrhythmic Proverbs

16 The Growth of Islam9/23/11 Do Now: –Of the 5 pillars of Islam, which one do you think is the most important? Why? Songhai empire grew as Mali weakened Sunni Ali Ber is king of Songhai –Decides to conquer Timbuktu –Uses cavalry and infantry, kills many in the city –Horrible tyrant Next target is wealthy city of Djenne –Has a siege, Djenne holds out for 7 years until surrender Sunni Ali Ber treats them with respect Songhai = largest empire

17 Askia Muhammad takes over Songhai –Spreads Islam, attacks non-Muslims –Had judges enforced laws –Encouraged scholarship –People can read/write Arabic Songhai invaded by Morocco, capture Timbuktu Decline of Empire


19 West African Society 9/26/11 Well-organized society based on family Families share kinship, connection based on family relations Large families form lineage, a group of people with common ancestors –Head controls family Lineage a part of a clan, many clans make up a village Villages unite as ethnic groups with common language, identity, and culture West Africans had fixed caste system West African Society 9/26/11 “Kings may come and go, but families are forever”. – Mali proverb

20 Slaves either prisoners of war or born into slavery Farmers, servants, government jobs, soldiers –Could pay way out of slavery, –Cannot be separated from family, had many rights City – spoke Arabic, are Muslim Country – old languages, polytheism Farming villages, trading cities Emperors protected trade Population in cities of Gao, Djenne, Timbuktu grew Very different between city and country

21 Kinship Lineage Ethnic group Clan Caste

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