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Farmer First Revisited 12 – 14 December 2007 at the Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK Presentation, Theme 3c, New Professionals: Changing.

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Presentation on theme: "Farmer First Revisited 12 – 14 December 2007 at the Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK Presentation, Theme 3c, New Professionals: Changing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Farmer First Revisited 12 – 14 December 2007 at the Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK Presentation, Theme 3c, New Professionals: Changing Agricultural Education Systems Discussant: Niels Roling (Wageningen University)

2 3c. NEW PROFESSIONALS: Changing agricultural education systems 1. Li Xiaoyun, Xiuli Xu, Gubo Qi, Min Lu and R. Vernooy. China’s higher education policy reform in practice: rejuvenating rural development studies 2. J. Hagmann; P. Kibwika & A. Ekwamu (PICOTEAM) Learning to make change: developing Innovation & Change Competence in African Universities 3. J. Petit. Which farmers first: power and resistance in learning from agriculture for development 4. A. Catley. From marginal to normative: institutionalising participatory epidemiology 5. R. Rhoades. Participation, paternalism and practicality: reconciling sustainability science and indigenous agendas

3 Li Xiaoyun, Xiuli Xu, Gubo Qi, Min Lu and R. Vernooy Zhou Ji, current Minister for Education writes book demanding policy reform in education. Zhou Ji, current Minister for Education writes book demanding policy reform in education. Pilot study to implement policy reform for education for a ‘well-to-do society’ Pilot study to implement policy reform for education for a ‘well-to-do society’ Case: (2005) novel course in CBNRM for 24 MSc and PhD students.10 staff from CAU and research Case: (2005) novel course in CBNRM for 24 MSc and PhD students.10 staff from CAU and research Participatory curriculum development and modern adult education theory Participatory curriculum development and modern adult education theory Complements CBNRM field research activities. Students visit field (later with scholarship) Complements CBNRM field research activities. Students visit field (later with scholarship) Mixed methods: seminars, proposal writing, groups field research reports, producing an audio-visual, etc. Mixed methods: seminars, proposal writing, groups field research reports, producing an audio-visual, etc. Not teaching: facilitation Not teaching: facilitation

4 J. Hagmann; P. Kibwika & A. Ekwamu Case: 2-year pilot experiment to change mindsets of 26 agric. lecturers at Makerere U. Case: 2-year pilot experiment to change mindsets of 26 agric. lecturers at Makerere U. Grew out of RF-funded Bellagio Conference Grew out of RF-funded Bellagio Conference Focus on mindsets and competences before considering curriculum review. Focus on mindsets and competences before considering curriculum review. Motivate lecturers by appeal to improvement of their marketable skills (e.g., consultancy, action research). Motivate lecturers by appeal to improvement of their marketable skills (e.g., consultancy, action research). Embed experiment in university system. Embed experiment in university system. Address pressure on U. by e.g., local governments. Address pressure on U. by e.g., local governments. Focus on holistic and interactive learning. Focus on holistic and interactive learning. Facilitation: feedback, external facilitators. Facilitation: feedback, external facilitators. Outcomes: ‘Win26’. ‘Eagles’ 35. Outcomes: ‘Win26’. ‘Eagles’ 35.

5 Jethro Petit Think piece by teacher of development practitioners. Think piece by teacher of development practitioners. Have change-oriented approaches shifted asymmetrical relations of power and knowledge? Have change-oriented approaches shifted asymmetrical relations of power and knowledge? Learners bounce back, resilience of old forms Learners bounce back, resilience of old forms Look for reasons that are internal to the progressive pedagogies themselves Look for reasons that are internal to the progressive pedagogies themselves Their principles: experience, cycles, and reflection, i.e. focus on discursive, cognitive learning Their principles: experience, cycles, and reflection, i.e. focus on discursive, cognitive learning But how about: embodied knowledge, innate forms of intelligence, emotional intelligence and spiritual understanding? But how about: embodied knowledge, innate forms of intelligence, emotional intelligence and spiritual understanding?

6 Andy Catley Overview of the transformation of formal veterinary science by participatory epidemiology (PE) (involvement of farmers/pastoralists in mapping and prioritising livestock diseases) Overview of the transformation of formal veterinary science by participatory epidemiology (PE) (involvement of farmers/pastoralists in mapping and prioritising livestock diseases) Story of strategic and deliberate effort: PAVE project Story of strategic and deliberate effort: PAVE project Initially no link with science, not possible to publish qualitative outcomes in journals Initially no link with science, not possible to publish qualitative outcomes in journals PAVE: coins PE; comparative assessment of PE; builds in quantification; results published and used as training material in CAPE to train senior academic staff and epidemiologists in 5 African countries PAVE: coins PE; comparative assessment of PE; builds in quantification; results published and used as training material in CAPE to train senior academic staff and epidemiologists in 5 African countries Support to post-graduate research students Support to post-graduate research students Use PE for impact assessment, influence policy and create support community-based delivery Use PE for impact assessment, influence policy and create support community-based delivery

7 Robert Rhoades By 2000, PRA had taken on many of the characteristics of earlier ‘top down’ approaches: ‘Tyranny of participation’ By 2000, PRA had taken on many of the characteristics of earlier ‘top down’ approaches: ‘Tyranny of participation’ Difficult for scientists to extrapolate beyond field scale. Sustainability research requires more rigour and need for global relevance than techn. utilization Difficult for scientists to extrapolate beyond field scale. Sustainability research requires more rigour and need for global relevance than techn. utilization What deals with local communities? Enriching research instead of extractive research? What deals with local communities? Enriching research instead of extractive research? Case: Cotacachi, Ecuador: UNORCAC and SANREM-Andes (e.g., questionnaires, water samples): negotiation for approval; reconcile scientific interests and community needs Case: Cotacachi, Ecuador: UNORCAC and SANREM-Andes (e.g., questionnaires, water samples): negotiation for approval; reconcile scientific interests and community needs Examples: scholarships; ancestral futures farm; 3-D Maqueta Model; Diagnosis of water systems; Atlas Examples: scholarships; ancestral futures farm; 3-D Maqueta Model; Diagnosis of water systems; Atlas

8 Framing the papers New professionals through new ways of university teaching (Li et al.), and through developing new mindsets among university staff (Hagmann et al.) New professionals through new ways of university teaching (Li et al.), and through developing new mindsets among university staff (Hagmann et al.) But does this training address the ability to deal with power relations? (Petit) But does this training address the ability to deal with power relations? (Petit) Scaling up by making participatory methods respectable science (Catley) Scaling up by making participatory methods respectable science (Catley) Creating a by-pass: negotiating space for ‘extractive research’ by investing in ‘enriching research’ (Rhoades) Creating a by-pass: negotiating space for ‘extractive research’ by investing in ‘enriching research’ (Rhoades)

9 Ensuring favourable conditions at higher system levels Experimenting with content of new book of new Minister of Education (Li et al.) Experimenting with content of new book of new Minister of Education (Li et al.) Attention to involvement of deans, provosts, vice chancellor, and to needs of clients of university (Hagmann et al.) Attention to involvement of deans, provosts, vice chancellor, and to needs of clients of university (Hagmann et al.) Addressing embodied knowledge, emotions and other layers than discursive cognition (Petit) Addressing embodied knowledge, emotions and other layers than discursive cognition (Petit) 5-day course for senior epidemiologists and veterinary researchers, gaining academic respectability through publication (Catley) 5-day course for senior epidemiologists and veterinary researchers, gaining academic respectability through publication (Catley) Careful negotiations with local powers to make an acceptable ‘deal’ and win-win situation (Rhoades) Careful negotiations with local powers to make an acceptable ‘deal’ and win-win situation (Rhoades)

10 Institutional dimension Rules of the game that reduce uncertainty in human interaction (North 2005…but Stephen Biggs) Rules of the game that reduce uncertainty in human interaction (North 2005…but Stephen Biggs) Incentive structure (e.g., faculty not rewarded for teaching performance, so link training to better commercial performance as consultants; give grades for team work) Incentive structure (e.g., faculty not rewarded for teaching performance, so link training to better commercial performance as consultants; give grades for team work) Address embodied heuristics (e.g., pack behaviour) Address embodied heuristics (e.g., pack behaviour) Create space for new professional roles (e.g., community-based animal health professionals and use of PE of animal health assessment; interactive teaching; ‘safe spaces’ for giving feedback) Create space for new professional roles (e.g., community-based animal health professionals and use of PE of animal health assessment; interactive teaching; ‘safe spaces’ for giving feedback) Falling back (retrogressing, resilience) to old behaviours (also in FFS facilitators) Falling back (retrogressing, resilience) to old behaviours (also in FFS facilitators)

11 Questions How do we create greater expertise an professionalism in dealing with institutional issues? How do we create greater expertise an professionalism in dealing with institutional issues? We are always talking about ‘scientists’. What is a new professional in economics? We are always talking about ‘scientists’. What is a new professional in economics? How do professionals stay ‘honest’: what mechanisms do they have for accountability to resource-poor farmers? How do professionals stay ‘honest’: what mechanisms do they have for accountability to resource-poor farmers? What does new professionalism mean for expertise? What does new professionalism mean for expertise?


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