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Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs."— Presentation transcript:

0 Enhancing the Competitiveness of Korea’s Securities Exchanges
Hana Institute of Finance President Heungsik Choe

1 Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs III. How ATSs Are Responding to the Evolving Exchange Sector IV. Growing Competition Between Exchanges and ATSs V. How Korea’s Exchange Sector Can Stay Competitive

2 Overview of Securities Exchanges
Purpose Purpose Provide markets for securities trading Enable efficient price discovery Establish rules for fair trading practices Regulate the trading activities of members Functions Functions Efficiency Exchanges ensure that orders are executed and transactions settled in the fastest possible way. Transparency Exchanges help investors make informed, intelligent decisions by ensuring that information is disclosed in a timely, complete and accurate manner. Fairness Exchanges ensure that no investor has an unfair advantage over other market participants. | 2

3 Demutualization and Listing of Numerous Exchanges
Late-1990s to Mid-2000’s: Developments in the Exchange Sector Set the Stage for Key Regulatory Changes in 2007 Demutualization and Listing Separates ownership and membership Makes it easier to provide optimal services Paves the way for exchange consolidation Gradual Progression M&A, Strategic Alliances and Partial Acquisitions Helps achieve economies of scale and scope Creates financial, operational and managerial synergies | 3

4 Major Forces of Change in the Exchange Industry
Enabled the emergence of new low-cost entrants: Globalization ATSs (MTFs) I-Bank Internalizers (SIs) Liberalization of capital flows Low Trading Costs Low Latency Regulatory Reform IT Falling Market Shares Falling Margins US: Reg NMS EU: MiFID Technological Innovation Increased need for conventional exchanges to restructure | 4

5 Regulatory Reforms Level the Playing Field
Reg NMS (Regulation National Market System) MiFID (Markets in Financial Instrument Directive) Established in 2007 by the SEC A series of initiatives designed to modernize and strengthen the national market system for equity securities. Europe’s analogue to Reg NMS; Effective starting in Nov 2007 Cornerstone of the EC’s Financial Services Action Plan aimed at increasing competition and consumer protection in investment services Order Protection (or Trade Through) Rule Aims to guarantee best price execution Access Rule Addresses fair and nondiscriminatory access to price quotations Sub-Penny Rule Establishes minimum pricing increments to address the practice of “stepping ahead” Market Data Rule Promoting the wide availability of market data and allocating revenues to the most useful data Harmonizes regulations of member states to better protect investors Client categorization and client order handling Enhances transparency by requiring the provision of sufficient trading data Pre and post-trade transparency Requires best execution Assuring the best possible result including cost, spread and likelihood of execution as well as execution price Treats Systematic Internalizers (SIs) as mini- exchanges Alternative Trading Systems (ATS) Systematic Internalizers (SI) Multilateral Trading Facilities (MTF) Systematic Internalizers (SI) | 5

6 Overview of Alternative Trading Systems
Characteristics Various non-exchange trading venues have been launched as alternatives to conventional exchanges; their predominant function is the matching of transaction counterparties. ATS (US), MTF (Europe), PTS (Proprietary Trading Systems: Japan), Dark Pools, etc. As of 2010, approximately 120 ATS were in operation. Strengths Rapid order execution Require few personnel but high-performance computing systems Low costs of trading • Explicit costs: fees • Implicit costs: market timing costs and market impact costs Competition Complement ATS Exchange Listing & disclosure Reduced impact of block trades | 6

7 HFT (High Frequency Trading)
Algorithmic Trading and HFT (Appendix) Algorithmic Trading HFT (High Frequency Trading) A type of automated trading that breaks up large blocks of shares into smaller ones to manage risk and reduce the market impact of large trades A sophisticated program trading platform that uses powerful computers to transact a large number of orders, a special class of algorithmic trading Also known as algo trading, black box trading or robo trading Use of electronic platforms with an algorithm deciding on timing, price, or quantity Widely used by pension funds, mutual funds, and other buy side institutional traders and sell-side traders such as market-makers providing liquidity Can be utilized in a variety of investment strategies, including market-making, arbitrage, or trend following pure speculation Highly quantitative, uses computerized algorithms to analyze multiple markets and place orders based on market conditions More sensitive to the execution speeds of markets Positions held for a relatively short time and orders are often executed tens of thousands of times per day According to the Aite Group, HFT accounted for 73% of all US equity trading volume in 2009 | 7

8 Ongoing Battle to Attract Heavy Trading Volume
ATS Conventional Exchanges US Europe Asia BATS Direct Edge Chi-X Europe BATS-Europe Turquoise Chi-X Japan Chi-X East Consolidation System enhancements Diversification New Offerings Competition for Survival Algo Trading HFT Market Making Statistical Arbitrage Event Arbitrage Technological Innovation | 8

9 Major Changes in Markets (2000~2009)
Total number of trades in equity shares ⇒ +700% Weighted average value of trades ⇒ -85% While the number of trades has exploded, the average value of trades has dropped significantly. These phenomena have been largely due to the proliferation of HFT and algorithmic trading. Source : WFE * This average, computed on WFE members, has been weighted by the share of each member in the total value share trading. | 9

10 Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs III. How ATSs Are Responding to the Evolving Exchange Sector IV. Growing Competition Between Exchanges and ATSs V. How Korea’s Exchange Sector Can Stay Competitive

11 How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding
M&A, Strategic Alliances and Partial Acquisitions Acquisition and/or Establishment of ATS Improvement of Trading Systems Diversification of Business Models | 11

12 Ongoing Demutualization and Benefits of Consolidation
1. M&A, Strategic Alliances and Partial Acquisitions Ongoing Demutualization and Public Listings As of 2011, most larger exchanges have been listed except for several Asian ones. Benefits of Consolidation From 2000 to 2009, securities exchanges have engaged in 73 M&A’s, 237 strategic alliances and 68 partial acquisitions across the globe. Achieve economies of scale and scope Better utilize network externalities → Enhanced market power Adapt to economic disturbances Since 2006, the spread of M&A has accelerated, with 80% of exchange M&A activity concentrated in the period since then Such activity has coincided with the rapid expansion of ATS and HFT A majority of activity has been between stock exchanges and trading technology companies M&A has been more active in Europe and North America than in Asia Asia’s capital markets are at differing stages of development Efforts to build an economic bloc in Asia have been slow | 12

13 Exchange M&A Activity Between 2000 and 2009
Type and Number of Mergers Between Exchanges Horizontal - Two Stock exchanges (22) - Two Derivatives, Fixed Income and Commodities exchanges (8) - Stock exchange + Derivatives, Fixed Income and Commodities exchange (8) - Two Clearing and Settlement Organizations (5) Vertical - Stock exchange + Clearing and Settlement Organization (5) - Stock exchanges + Trading Solutions Provider (18) - Derivatives, Fixed Income and Commodities exchanges + Trading Solutions Provider (5) By Economic Area Intra-Regional - Europe (25) - North America (23) - South America (2) - Asia (15) - Africa (2) Inter-Regional - Europe and North America (5) - Europe and Asia (1) | 13

14 Ten Largest Deals in the Exchange Sector in Europe and North America
(Mar. 06 ~ Mar. 11) Completion Date Target Nationality Acquirer Deal Value (USD mil., excl. debt) Jul. 07 CBOT US CME 11,648 Apr. 07 Euronext Netherlands NYSE 10,183 May 08 Bolsa de Mercadorias & Futures – BM&F Brazil Bovespa 8,975 Aug. 08 Nymex CME Group 7,909 Mar. 08 Omx Sweden NASDAQ 4,003 Dec. 07 International Securities Exchanges Deutsche Borse Germany 2,811 Oct. 07 Borsa Italia Italy LSE UK 2,617 Montreal Exchange Canada TSX Group 1,070 Jan. 07 New York Board of Trade International Exchange Inc. 1,066 Mar. 07 Archipelago Holdings 884 Source : “Trading blocs”, PWC, Aug. 2011 | 14

15 2. Acquisition and/or Establishment of ATS
Carried Out in Response to Fragmentation or Decreasing Market Share Exchange Date Target Class Type with NYSE Group Mar. 06 Archipelago ECN Acquisition Jul. 06 MatchPoint Dark pool NYSE Euronext Jan. 09 NYBX Establishment BIDS Feb. 09 Smartpool BNP Paribas, HSBC, JP Morgan Mar. 09 NYSE Arca Europe MTF Aug. 09 NYFIX ATS Nasdaq Sep. 04 Brut ECN Nov. 05 INET Nasdaq OMX Jun. 07 Nasdaq Intra-day and Post-close cross Deutsche Borse Nov. 09 Xetra International Market TMX Group Jul. 11 TMX Select | 15

16 3. Improvement of Trading Systems
Aims to achieve ultra-low latency and high levels of reliability and capacity NYSE Euronext’s UTP (Universal Trading Platform) Connectivity to all the NYSE Euronext markets through low latency global network microseconds per roundtrip and 100,000 orders per second Nasdaq OMX’s INET trading system Used across its US and European markets including equities and derivatives 1 million messages per second at an average speed of sub-250 microseconds LSE’s Millennium Exchange Abandoned the troubled TradElect system after a full day outage in 2007 An average latency of less than 120 microseconds, making the LSE one of the fastest venues ASX’s PureMatch and VolumeMatch Adopting the Nasdaq OMX’s INET technology in response to Chi-X Australia’s entrance PureMatch is primarily for HFT while VolumeMatch is for bulk order execution service. | 16

17 4. Diversification of Business Models
Selling Exchange Technology and Market Services Incumbent exchanges have tried to diversify revenues by exporting their trading platforms and IT systems to emerging markets. NYSE Technologies, the IT services arm of NYSE Euronext, has provided trading platforms to emerging markets such as Warsaw and Qatar. Nasdaq OMX’s trading platforms have powered many markets including SGX and ASX. The ASEAN Trading Link, a venture between 6 Asian exchanges, was designed with assistance from NYSE Euronext. LSE’s technology will be adopted for upgrades in South Africa and Mongolia. | 17

18 Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs III. How ATSs Are Responding to the Evolving Exchange Sector IV. Growing Competition Between Exchanges and ATSs V. How Korea’s Exchange Sector Can Stay Competitive

19 How ATSs Are Responding
Transformation Into an Exchange Acquisitions Provision of New Services Entry Into Asian markets | 19

20 1. Transformation Into an Exchange
Develop new revenue streams through the provision of various services such as listing In Aug. 2008, BATS transformed itself into an exchange and became the third largest in Jan in terms of turnover value. Moreover, it has advanced into listing new indexes like BATS 1000. In March 2010, Direct Edge received approval to convert into two separate exchanges: EDGA and EDGX Alpha Trading Systems, the largest ATS in Canada, received approval to transform from an ATS to Alpha Exchange. | 20

21 2. Acquisitions Due to the increasing number of ATS firms, competition has intensified, resulting in liquidation or acquisition by other exchanges and ATS In July 2010, NASDAQ OMX Europe, the MTF of NASDAQ OMX, ceased operations. In Feb. 2010, Turquoise, the well-known European MTF, was acquired by LSE. In Nov. 2011, BATS Global completed acquisition of Chi-X Europe, the largest pan European trading venue. | 21

22 3. Provision of New Services
Operate multiple trading systems with different fee structures and pricing models Direct Edge: EDGX is charging for removing liquidity EDGA does not charge to provide or take liquidity BATS: BZX applies a “taker-maker” model, but BYX applies a “maker-taker” model Offer smart order routing Provide clients a choice among multiple CCP’s | 22

23 4. Entry Into Asian Markets
In Jul. 2010, Chi-X Japan launched PTS to trade Japanese-listed securities. Chi-X Japan is owned by Chi-X Global, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Nomura Group. In Oct. 2011, the monopolistic position of ASX was broken by the launch of Chi-X Australia, a subsidiary of Chi-X Global. From Nov. 2008, a variety of darkpools such as Liquidnet, CLSA’s Bolcsec, and Goldman Sachs’ Sigma-X have been launched in Hong Kong. Chi-East, the joint venture between Chi-X Global and SGX, commenced operations in Nov for the trading of selected securities listed in Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia, and Japan. | 23

24 Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs III. How ATSs Are Responding to the Evolving Exchange Sector IV. Growing Competition Between Exchanges and ATSs V. How Korea’s Exchange Sector Can Stay Competitive

25 Fierce Competition Between Exchanges and ATSs
There is a large difference in market share between the largest exchange groups and the others, and the growth of ATS’s has been conspicuous. When they announced their merger in Feb 2011, the combined market share of Chi-X and Bats Europe in European share trading exceeded 20%. By end of 2010, BATS Global and Direct Edge had captured 21% of US equity market trading volume, placing them at number 3 and 4, respectively. Electronic Trading Order Book Value Traded in 2010 Source: “Trading blocs”, PWC, Aug. 2011 | 25

26 Market Capitalization ⇒ +33% Total Value of Sharing Trading ⇒ +61%
10 Years in Review (2000~2009) Market Capitalization ⇒ +33% Though the Americas has the largest market cap, Asia- Pacific’s share has grown significantly. Total Value of Sharing Trading ⇒ +61% While the Americas remains dominant in total trading, the Asia-Pacific’s share has more than doubled. Source: WFE | 26

27 Cyclical Trends in the Exchange Sector
Repeating Cycle of Centralization and Fragmentation Monopoly of conventional exchange Interestingly, consolidation and liquidity aggregation are not good for HFTs, as they benefit from highly fragmented markets that provide more arbitrage opportunities. Fragmentation by ATS & MTF Consolidation through M&A among exchanges and/or ATS Ironically, regulators’ intention to break up the monopolies of exchanges has created larger global ones. ….. | 27

28 KRX’s Position in Cash Markets
Largest Exchanges by Value of Share Trading in the Electronic Order Book in 2011 Largest Exchanges by Total Value of Bonds Traded in 2011 Exchange USD bn % Ch. (YoY) 1 NYSE Euronext US 18,027 1.3 2 NASDAQ OMX US 12,724 0.5 3 Tokyo Stock Exchange Group 3,972 4.9 4 Shanghai Stock Exchange 3,658 -18.6 5 Shenzhen Stock Exchange 2,838 -20.6 6 London Stock Exchange Group 2,837 3.5 7 NYSE Euronext Europe 2,134 5.8 8 Korea Exchange 2,039 26.2 9 Deutsche Börse 1,758 8.0 10 TMX Group 1,542 12.7 Exchange USD bn % Ch. (YoY) 1 BME Spanish Exchanges 17,412 57.7 2 London Stock Exchange Group 5,394 33.9 3 Johannesberg Stock Exchange 2,898 24.9 4 NASDAQ OMX Nordic Exchange 2,674 1.8 5 Colombia Stock Exchange 915 -19.6 6 Korea Exchange 747 47.7 7 Oslo Bors 590 6.6 8 Istanbul Stock Exchange 518 16.2 9 MiCEX 301 29.3 10 Tel Aviv Stock Exchange 246 21.2 Source: WFE | 28

29 KRX’s Position in Derivatives Markets
Stock Index Options (2011) (millions of contracts,%) Exchange contracted traded % Ch. (YoY) 1 Korea Exchange 3,672 4.1 2 National Stock Exchange India 871 64.4 3 Eurex 468 36.6 4 CBOE 320 18.7 5 TAIFEX 2,838 -20.6 Total Equity Derivates (2011) (millions of contracts,%) Exchange contracted traded % Ch. (YoY) 1 Korea Exchange 3,819 4.4 2 Eurex 1,404 18.5 3 National Stock Exchange India 1,221 37.1 4 CBOE 1,205 7.7 5 NASDAQ OMX US 1,177 19.0 Securitized Derivatives (2011) (value of trading) Exchange contracted traded % Ch. (YoY) 1 Hong Kong Exchanges 576 7.8 2 Korea Exchange 289 -18.4 3 Deutsche Börse 96 20.0 4 SIX Swiss Exchange 59 55.3 5 NYSE Euronext Europe 43 22.8 Source: WFE | 29

30 Table of Contents I. Overview of Securities Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems II. How Conventional Exchanges Are Responding to the Rise of ATSs III. How ATSs Are Responding to the Evolving Exchange Sector IV. Growing Competition Between Exchanges and ATSs V. How Korea’s Exchange Sector Can Stay Competitive

31 A Proposed Future for Korea’s Exchange Sector
Extend global networks Rational Regulatory Reforms Reduce technology gap Fair competition Mutual Support Exchange Strategic Alliance US · Europe “Slow and Steady” Consolidation Asia-Pacific ATS Collaborate in trading systems development HFT Strengthening of Infrastructure Enhance mutual accessibility to markets | 31

32 Recommendations for Korea’s Exchange Sector
Invest in and Jointly Develop IT System Pave the Way for the Successful Introduction of ATSs Devise New Products Within the Asia-Pacific Offer a Variety of Services to Participants Improve Derivatives Trading Platforms and Clearing & Settlement Strengthen Strategic Alliances with the US and Europe Encourage Consolidation Within the Asia-Pacific

33 1. Invest in and Jointly Develop IT Systems
Continue to invest substantial sums in IT systems Work constantly to fulfill the demand for faster and more sophisticated trading technology Enhance and reinforce the stability of the system to prevent market accidents such as the “flash crash” of May 2010 Improve capacity and technology to attract large volumes of algorithmic traders, especially HFTs Work with Asian partners to jointly develop trading platforms Seek new revenue streams, for example, by exporting IT systems or providing assistance in the opening of securities exchanges in Asian emerging markets The future consolidation of Asian exchanges will be easier and more efficient if common trading platforms are used. | 33

34 2. Pave the Way for the Successful Introduction of ATS
Ensure that ATSs are launched successfully to build up internal competitiveness There is a need to prepare ATSs for successful launching before the amendment to the “Financial Investment Services and Capital Market Act” is ratified. It is advisable to establish holding companies owned by Asian financial institutions that can own and operate ATSs in the Asia-Pacific. * Large Asian investment banks and brokerage firms may be good candidates. Learn how to manage ATSs through alliances Strengthen ties with larger exchanges, especially ones having significant experience operating an ATS | 34

35 3. Devise New Products Within the Asia-Pacific
Encourage Asia-Pacific countries to cross-list securities and trade a range of products As a first step, the representative stocks of each country should be considered for dual-listing and/or cross-trading. * KRX has proposed dual-listings with China and Honk Kong, and has entered a cross-trading agreement with Japan that covers all stocks and is set to commence in November 2012. Create a combined ETF that incorporates similar sectors from each exchange, as the listing criteria are easier to meet in spite of differing regulations and cultures Take advantage of the rapid growth of derivatives in the region to devise new derivative products that can attract the attention of multiple countries | 35

36 4. Offer a Variety of Services to Participants
Accept various types of orders from large participants Diversify the types of orders accepted, especially for large-volume traders such as algorithmic traders A good example might be iceberg orders, which help to mitigate market impact. Offer services aimed at enhancing the speed of order execution The popularity of low latency trading has been giving a good chance for growth of exchanges offering co-location services. DMA (Direct Market Access) might be a service offered that enables sophisticated investors to place orders directly on the exchange order book for high speed execution. | 36

37 5. Improve Derivatives Trading Platforms and Clearing & Settlement
Prepare for standardization and centralization of OTC derivatives and their trading platforms - In accordance with the US Dodd-Frank Act and MiFID, many derivative products will be traded through exchanges and cleared through clearing houses. - This will provide a great opportunity for exchange groups that focus primarily on equities. - Also, attention should be paid to OTFs (Organised Trading Facilities) and SEFs (Swap Executive Facilities), the mirror images of MTF and ATS in cash market, respectively, as potential rivals to exchanges. Enhance systems for clearing and settlement, as these might provide an important competitive edge in the near future In Sep. 2010, the EC published the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR), which aims to increase stability in OTC derivative markets. * It aims to ensure that OTC contracts are centrally cleared and trading parties able to select among a variety of clearing houses. If clearing platforms are more open, it may be easier for specialist clearers to carve out a competitive position. | 37

38 6. Strengthen Strategic Alliances with the US and Europe
Extend global networks through strategic alliances with US and Europe trading venues Construct 24-hour trading systems through network linkages * At present, KRX, CME(US), and Eurex (Europe) are offering 24-hour trading of KOSPI 200 futures Strengthen strategic alliances through cross-listings and cross-trading Actively embrace advanced systems and trading technologies -To shorten the time required to develop systems and technology, it is advisable to learn from the experiences of the advanced systems. | 38

39 7. Encourage Consolidation Within the Asia-Pacific
Push ahead toward gradual consolidation of trading venues in Asia-Pacific The countries of the Asia-Pacific differ widely not only in terms of language and cultures, but also in terms of their capital markets and regulatory environments. Nevertheless, the trend toward integration seems to be established and may even accelerate in the near future. * ASEAN is promoting cross-border collaboration through its upcoming “ASEAN Trading Link,” which is made-up of seven stock exchanges from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (2). The 210 stocks representing the 30 blue chips from each exchange will be available for trading on a common platform. * The BRICS and Hong Kong will start to cross list their derivatives indices from Mar in a bid to expand their product offerings. | 39


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