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Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Energy from Novel Materials in China Dongyuan Zhao Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Advanced Materials,

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Presentation on theme: "Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Energy from Novel Materials in China Dongyuan Zhao Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Advanced Materials,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Energy from Novel Materials in China Dongyuan Zhao Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University

2 Increasing Global Energy Demand Transitione conomies Developing countries OECD Energy Demand (B nboe) Source: IEA WEO

3 Supply and Demand of Fossil Energy

4 4 Low Per Capita Energy Resources in China gas proven reservescoal proven reserves The worldChina tons 10 4 cubic meters

5 Primary Energy Coal ( million tonnes ) Oil ( million tonnes ) Gas ( million cubic meters ) Hydropower installed capacity ( million kilowatts ) Proven Reserves Production period (year) 54~8115~2028~5838~104 Production (year) ~2085~2025~2065~ (02) Shanghai comprehensive economic briefing, 2005 (02) Shortage of Fossil Energy Resources in China

6 Increasing Import Dependence of Oil in China Unit : (million tonnes) Demand Domestic supply assumption import dependence ( Net import/Demand ) low high % 2010 assumption 3.5~ % 2020 assumption 4.8~ % IEA Million Barrels/Day

7 China Primary Energy Consumption oil 21.8% hydropower and other 6.7% gas 2.8% coal 68.7% nuclear 6.2% hydropower and other 6.1% coal 26.5% oil 37.3% gas 23.9% World Primary Energy Consumption China and World Primary Energy Consumption in 2004

8 No.2 High Energy-Related CO 2 Emissions in China

9 Serious Acid Rain Pollution in China pH>5.6 pH<5.6 acid rain SO 2 Area percentage pH<5.6 : 40% Acid rain: 8.4% SO 2 : 3%

10 year China’s import (million barrels/day) World trade (million barrels/day) China’s share of oil import in the global 1.7%3.6%3.7%7.1% Data: 1. Michael, Smith., BP World Energy Statistics Energy Information Administration / International Energy Outlook 2001, P Energy Information Administration / International Energy Outlook 2004, P Gensheng, Han., Oil reserves and China’s oil market policy in response to higher oil prices and to participate in world. The Sixth US-China OGIF. Energy Security in China Energy Security in China Oil import in China Oil import in 2004 American Japan Germany France Korea China Share of China’s dependence on Middle East oil is 54 % Share of American’s dependence on Middle East oil is 34 % Share of China’s dependence on Middle East oil is 54 % Share of American’s dependence on Middle East oil is 34 % million tonnes Africa 24.6% Middle East 50.8% Asia Pacific 15.3% Europe and the Western Hemisphere 7.2% other 2.1%

11 China's Energy Problems  energy supply  the shortage of liquid fuel and energy security  environmental pollution  rural energy resources  CO 2 emissions

12 Nuclear Power Layout and Construction Sequence sight Bsight Cpath 1path 2 long- and medium-term plan Note:

13 Science and Technology Innovation: Creation and application of new energy materials pave the way to solve the energy problem Creation and application of new energy materials pave the way to solve the energy problem Science and Technology Innovation: Creation and application of new energy materials pave the way to solve the energy problem Creation and application of new energy materials pave the way to solve the energy problem

14 Renewable Energy Solar Biomass (non traditional) Wind Sea Geothermal Science and Technology Innovation: Creation and application of new energy materials pave the way to solve the energy problem

15 OilOil 21.8%21.8% HydropowerHydropower 6.7%6.7%GasGas2.8%2.8% CoalCoal 68.7%68.7% Optimization of the Fossil Energy Utilization Optimization of the Fossil Energy Utilization Energy structure of China in 2004 Oil Oil Coal Coal  clean oil  drain off  efficient combustion & power generation  IGCC  CO 2 capture and bury

16 C + O 2 = CO kJ ( energy ) + O 2 → SOx NOx SNSN } pollutantspollutants Clean Coal Technology greenhouse gas combustioncombustionremovalremoval ( before ) gasificationgasification removalremoval electricity generation ( after )

17 Renewable Energy Solar Biomass (non traditional) Wind Sea Geothermal

18 Solar radiation distribution and utilization in China Utilization : Heat usage Heat usage  Heating  power generation Light usage Light usage  Photocell  Photochemistry Heat usage Heat usage  Heating  power generation Light usage Light usage  Photocell  Photochemistry richer area (>1700) rich area ( ) available area ( ) scarce area (<1200) Unit: kWh/m 2

19 Principle and Structure of the Solar Cell Electricity price : RMB/ kilowatt-hour 15 - 18 % low efficiency : 15 - 18 % 25 - 30 RMB/Wp high cost : 25 - 30 RMB/Wp storage incomplete system: storage

20 Biomass Utilization Bio oil - biodiesel oil Bio oil - biodiesel oil  Rapeseed  Palm oil, Jatropha curcasl oil  Rapeseed  Palm oil, Jatropha curcasl oil Starch - Ethanol Starch - Ethanol  Corn, Wheat  Cassava, sweet potato, Jerusalem artichoke  Sugarcane, sweet sorghum  Corn, Wheat  Cassava, sweet potato, Jerusalem artichoke  Sugarcane, sweet sorghum Cellulose - ethanol, biodiesel oil Cellulose - ethanol, biodiesel oil  Straw, trees  Jerusalem artichoke  Straw, trees  Jerusalem artichoke TechnologyTechnology

21 Cellulose Bioconversion

22 The common problems in the utilization of renewable energy Slow development Small market High cost Create market Incentive policy Technology innovation Research&development IndustryDemonstration Benign circle: Market

23 new energy research institute energy storage materials fossil energy technology energy saving technology solar energy materials biomass energy economies Director : Dongyuan Zhao Associate Director : Prof. Yang Zhong Prof. Hualong Xu Secretary : Prof. Aishui Yu New Energy Research Institute of Fudan University Institutional Structure

24 Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM) has been approved by China EOM. Three Universities and CAS, Xiamen Univ. ; Fudan Univ; China Univ of Sci & Tech (CUST) Dalian Inst of Chem Phys. Project grant: 300 M

25 Superparamagnetic functional mesoporous microspheres with perpendicularly aligned channels New synthesis route for the Fe 3 O mSiO 2 microspheres with sandwiched structure Large diameter to reduce the curvature energy Smooth surface to facile coating and self-assembly Deng & Zhao J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 28

26 Hierachically structured porous materials for catalytic application of heavy oil cracking Weak acidity Heavy oil Middle molecule Fuel Large pores Small pore Gradient pores & acidity Strong acidity Heavy oil crack: one-step process for cracking – hydrogenation Syn-gas: F-T reaction for one-step process of chain increase – isomerization

27 2.5 m 3 reaction kettle 500 kg products high quality Hierachically structured porous materials for catalytic application of heavy oil cracking

28 Catalytic performances of hieratically porous materials catalyst Core-shell ( SY-11 ) UOP ( DHC-39 ) USY ( FC-16 ) temperature (  C ) C 5 + yield , % > 350  C conversion ( % ) 75 Products and distribution Light oil (HK-65  C conv. %) Heavy oil (  C conv. %) Aromaticity (m %) Diesel (  C conv.%) End oil (> 370  C conv. %) BMCI < 370  C middle oil, selectivity % Process : pressure: 15.0 MPa , H 2 /Oil: 1500 , space (v) : 1.5 h -1, 375  C , yield: 77.3% , liquid yield: 97.8 wt% , middle oil selectivity: 78.7 % , Life: 5000 hours

29 Continuous and large-scale synthesis of ordered mesoporous hollow carbon microspheres 50 μm Wu, X. Z., Selomulya, C. Chen, X. D. & Zhao D. Y., Angew Chem Int Ed 2013, 52, 高比表面积 : 1930 m 2 /g

30 30 Fabrication of the Supercapacitor Devices Single: 80 x 10 3 F, 8 x 4 parallel connection, 5 groups 1) high static capacitance (  8000 F) 2) low resistance (≤0.52 mΩ) 3) high energy density (~ 8.2 Wh/kg) The supercapacitor devices: (8000 F)

31 Negative electrode : Li-ion insertion/extraction reaction Positive electrode : Li-ion adsorption/de-sorption Electrolyte : concentration constant New concept “rocking chair” Li + hybrid cell Capacity retention: 90% over cycles, Columbic efficiency: 100% Chinese patent: ZL PCT: WO/2006/111079

32 Normal Capacitance (F) Nominal Voltage (V) Specific Energy (Wh/kg) Sing cell Module Beijing Olympic Village Solar Streetlight

33 Thank you for your attention !


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