2 Major Evidence for Evolution Fossil recordHomologous structuresVestigial structuresBiochemical evidenceEmbryological development
3 Charles Darwin 1859 – “Origin of Species” published Argued from evidence that species inhabiting Earth today descended from ancestral speciesProposed a mechanism for evolution Natural SelectionMany scientists helped pave the way for Darwin’s Theory
6 Theory of Evolution By Natural Selection In each generation of a species, individuals have slight differences.Sometimes these variations make an individual more successful in its environment
7 (more food, live longer, reproduce more, attract better mates) (more food, live longer, reproduce more, attract better mates). Then individual may then reproduce and pass this variation on to its offspring.Then the individual may reproduce and pass this variation on to its offspring.
8 Variations in individuals are controlled by genes. Natural SelectionVariations in individuals are controlled by genes.Individuals have no control over what variations they will have.
9 Useful variations are NOT ALWAYS passed on. Variations that are not useful may also be passed on.
10 Alfred Russel Wallaceco-discovered natural selection and prompted Darwin to finally rush his Origin of Species to press.One of the modern world’s greatest scientific adventurer explorerseight-year exploration of Southeast Asia and the Malay Archipelago he wrote The Malay Archipelago in 1869,Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876) is one of the seminal works in the field.the workhorse of Darwinian evolution, diverged from Darwin’s methodological naturalism (i.e., the notion that scientists must invoke only natural processes functioning via unbroken natural laws in nonteleological ways) to propose a theory of evolution defined by intelligence and design.
12 1. Fossil Record What does the Fossil Record tell us about organisms? Looks (size, shape, etc.)Where or how they livedWhat other organisms they lived with
13 What time period they lived in (based on location in rock layers) What order living things came in (based on location in rock layers)Transitional formsOrganisms that were intermediate (between) two other major organisms
25 4. Embryological Development Embryo- fertilized egg that will/is in the process of growing into a new individualClosely related organisms go through similar developmental stages early in developmentAll vertebrates have gill pouches sometime during their early development
27 5. Molecular/Biochemical Evidence DNA used to translate nucleotide sequences into amino acid is essentially the same in all organismsProteins in all organisms are composed of the same set of 20 amino acidsPowerful argument in favor of the common descent of the most diverse organisms.
29 Biochemical Compound Ex DNACyt C20 amino acidsSome enzymes
30 Molecular/Biochemical Evidence Cytochrome cAn ancient protein common to all aerobic (oxygen breathing) organismsAmino acid sequence to make cytochrome c differs increasingly the more distantly related two organisms are (very similar amino acid sequence = closely related)The cytochrome c of humans and chimpanzees is identical