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Ch. 29: Predetermined Time Systems

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1 Ch. 29: Predetermined Time Systems
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth broke work into therbligs (elements). The next step is to assign time values to the elements. Times for elements are added to obtain a total time. Independence and additivity are assumed. PTS are based on the concept that there are basic, universal units of work with standard amounts of time.

2 Methods-Time Measurements (MTM)
Developed in 1946 Simplified versions are available. A training course is required for using the system correctly.

3 MTM-1 10 categories of movements Times in TMUs (1 TMU = .000 010 h)
Times are for an experienced worker working at a normal pave. No allowances are included in the times.

4 Reach Reach to an object in a fixed location or in the other hand.
Reach to a single object whose general location is known. Reach to an object jumbled with others in a group. Reach to a very small object or where accurate grasp is required. Reach to an indefinite location.

5 Move Move object to the other hand or against stop.
Move object to an approximate or indefinite location. Move object to an exact location.

6 Turn A movement that rotates the hand, wrist, and forearm about the long axis of the forearm. Time depends on degrees of turn, weight of the object, and resistance against turn.

7 Apply Pressure Application of force without resultant movement.

8 Grasp Pickup grasp Regrasp Transfer grasp Jumbled grasp
Contact, sliding, or hook grasp

9 Position Aligning, orienting, or engaging one object with another
Position times vary with: Amount of pressure needed to fit Symmetry of the object Ease of handling

10 Disengage Breaking contact between one object and another
Times vary with: Class of fit Ease of handling Care in handling

11 Release Relinquishing control of an object by the hand or fingers
Two types: Simple opening of the fingers Contact release

12 Other Motions Body, leg, and foot motions Eye motions Combined motions
Limited motions

13 MTM Form

14 MTM-2 Takes about 40% of the time of MTM-1 to analyze a task.
Has only 37 times in all. Key categories are GET and PUT. Provides decision trees to determine case. User estimates distance and uses time from table. Includes 7 other motions.

15 MTM-2 Analysis

16 MTM-3 Takes about 15% of the time of MTM-1 to analyze a task.
Has only 10 times. Key categories are HANDLE and TRANSPORT. Provides decision trees to determine case. User estimates distance (< 6 in. or > 6 in.) and uses time from table. Includes 2 other motions.

17 MTM-3 Analysis

18 MOST Work Measurement System
Based on observation that the majority of activities are associated with a limited number of motion sequences. Significantly reduces time required to perform an analysis. 4 sequence models.

19 General Move Sequence Model

20 MODAPTS Based on the concept that the body member used is the key variable. All body movements are multiples of a MOD (1 MOD = .129 s).

21 Comments about PTS In theory, PTS can accurately predict task times.
Evidence shows reality and theory don’t agree. One problem is that analyst judgment is required. Most managements are not concerned with a great deal of accuracy. Managements are concerned with cost of analysis.

22 Purposes of PTS Studies
Make a methods analysis to determine an efficient work method Determine the amount of time necessary to do the job

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