Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21, Section 1: New Immigrants in a Promised Land Main Idea: In the late 1800s, millions of “new immigrants” came to the United States in search."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 21, Section 1: New Immigrants in a Promised Land Main Idea: In the late 1800s, millions of “new immigrants” came to the United States in search of economic opportunity and freedom.
A. Hopes and Fears Push Factors – conditions that drive people away from their homeland 1. 1. Overpopulation – not enough jobs, scarce land 2. 2. Poor Economy – poverty, hardships (potato famine in Ireland 3. 3. Persecution – religious (Jews in Russia - pogroms) & political (revolution) Pull Factors – conditions that attract people to a new place 1. 1. Economic Opportunity – lots of jobs due to industrialization 2. 2. Promise of Freedom – religious & political 3. 3. Hope for a Better Life – “streets are paved with gold”
Immigration late 19th and early 20th centuries Push Factors lack of farmland in Europe fleeing persecution Irish Italians Russian Jews Armenians political turmoil Mexicans famine / poverty Irish Chinese
Immigration late 19th and early 20th centuries Pull Factors cheap land and passage to America promise of freedom and a better life available jobs in factories and mines join family and friends
Lack of Farmland in Europe GermanItalianPuerto Rican English JapaneseAmerican AfricanMexican Irish Land was scarce in Europe, but it was plentiful in the U.S.
B. The Unforgettable Voyage Most immigrants traveled in steerage, the lowest & cheapest deck on the ship. It was often crowded, dirty & disease-ridden. The Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (gift from France) greeted arrivals in NYC after 1886. It came to symbolize hope & freedom. Emma Lazarus wrote “The New Colossus” (…give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free…)
German ship carrying immigrants to Ellis Island in steerage. (below deck)
B. (continued) Ellis Island Ellis Island – processing station built in 1892 where immigrants were registered (some name changes) & inspected (physical & mental) before entry into US Angel Island – processing station in SF for Asian immigrants crossing the Pacific O.
Angel Island From 1910 to 1940, thousands of immigrants, many of whom were Asian, entered the United States through Angel Island, CA.
C. Changing Patterns of Immigration “Old Immigration” 1. Came before 1880ish 2. Came from NW Europe (England, Ireland, Germany, etc.) 3. Tended to settle on open land (cheap & available “New Immigration” 1. Came after 1880ish 2. Came from SE Europe (Italy, Poland, Russia, Greece, etc.), Asia & Latin America 3. Tended to settle in cities (industry jobs) * This group had it more difficult due to prejudice.
D. Adjusting to a New Land Reality differed from expectations: “1 st, the streets were not paved w/ gold. 2 nd, the streets were not paved at all. 3 rd, they expected me to pave them.” Most immigrants settled in ethnic neighborhoods (Little Italy, China Town). This helped them adjust to a new country & keep old customs. Assimilation – becoming part of another culture. Kids assimilated quicker because: 1. school (English, US history) 2. less attached to the old ways We love social studies!
Adjusting to a New Land · Most immigrants stayed in the cities where they landed. · By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded place in the world. Hester Street, ca. 1900
· Immigrants adjusted by settling in communities with people of their own ethnic group. Little Italy, New York City A Jewish vendor in Lower East Side, New York City
· Assimilation was a long, slow process. Assimilation - process whereby a minority group gradually adopts the customs and attitudes of the majority culture.
E. Anti-Immigrant Feeling Grows Nativism – anti- immigrant feelings Reasons: 1. overcrowding 2. prejudice (different customs, etc) 3. complained that immigrants took jobs & kept wages low Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – barred immigration for 10 yrs (renewed several times)