Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21, Section 1: New Immigrants in a Promised Land"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 21, Section 1: New Immigrants in a Promised Land Main Idea: In the late 1800s, millions of “new immigrants” came to the United States in search of economic opportunity and freedom.
2A. Hopes and Fears Pull Factors – Push Factors – conditions that drive people away from their homeland1. Overpopulation – not enough jobs, scarce land2. Poor Economy – poverty, hardships (potato famine in Ireland3. Persecution – religious (Jews in Russia - pogroms) & political (revolution)Pull Factors –conditions that attract people to a new place1. Economic Opportunity – lots of jobs due to industrialization2. Promise of Freedom – religious & political3. Hope for a Better Life – “streets are paved with gold”
3late 19th and early 20th centuries Immigrationlate 19th and early 20th centurieslack offarmlandin EuropePushFactorsfleeingpersecutionpoliticalturmoilfamine / povertyIrishItaliansRussian JewsArmeniansMexicansIrishChinese
4late 19th and early 20th centuries Immigrationlate 19th and early 20th centuriescheap landand passageto AmericaPullFactorspromise offreedom anda better lifeavailablejobs infactoriesand minesjoin familyand friends
5Lack of Farmland in Europe Land was scarce in Europe, but it was plentiful in the U.S.German Italian Puerto Rican English Japanese AmericanAfrican Mexican Irish
6B. The Unforgettable Voyage Most immigrants traveled in steerage, the lowest & cheapest deck on the ship. It was often crowded, dirty & disease-ridden.The Statue of Liberty (gift from France) greeted arrivals in NYC after It came to symbolize hope & freedom. Emma Lazarus wrote “The New Colossus” (…give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free…)
7German ship carrying immigrants to Ellis Island in steerage German ship carrying immigrants to Ellis Island in steerage. (below deck)
9B. (continued)Ellis Island – processing station built in 1892 where immigrants were registered (some name changes) & inspected (physical & mental) before entry into USAngel Island – processing station in SF for Asian immigrants crossing the Pacific O.
13Angel IslandFrom 1910 to 1940, thousands of immigrants, many of whom were Asian, entered the United States through Angel Island, CA.
14C. Changing Patterns of Immigration “Old Immigration”Came before 1880ishCame from NW Europe (England, Ireland, Germany, etc.)Tended to settle on open land (cheap & available“New Immigration”Came after 1880ishCame from SE Europe (Italy, Poland, Russia, Greece, etc.), Asia & Latin AmericaTended to settle in cities (industry jobs)* This group had it more difficult due to prejudice.
16D. Adjusting to a New Land We love social studies!Reality differed from expectations: “1st, the streets were not paved w/ gold. 2nd, the streets were not paved at all. 3rd, they expected me to pave them.”Most immigrants settled in ethnic neighborhoods (Little Italy, China Town). This helped them adjust to a new country & keep old customs.Assimilation – becoming part of another culture. Kids assimilated quicker because:1. school (English, US history)2. less attached to the old ways
17Adjusting to a New Land· Most immigrants stayed in the cities where they landed.· By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded place in the world.Hester Street, ca. 1900
18Little Italy, New York City · Immigrants adjusted by settling in communities with people of their own ethnic group.A Jewish vendor in Lower East Side, New York CityLittle Italy, New York City
19· Assimilation was a long, slow process. Assimilation - process whereby a minority group gradually adopts the customs and attitudes of the majority culture.
20E. Anti-Immigrant Feeling Grows Nativism – anti- immigrant feelingsReasons: overcrowding2. prejudice (different customs, etc)3. complained that immigrants took jobs & kept wages lowChinese Exclusion Act (1882) – barred immigration for 10 yrs (renewed several times)