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The Roman World Chapter 7 section 1. The Land and Geography  The geography if Italy had a great deal to do with the rise of Roman power  Italy is shaped.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roman World Chapter 7 section 1. The Land and Geography  The geography if Italy had a great deal to do with the rise of Roman power  Italy is shaped."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roman World Chapter 7 section 1

2 The Land and Geography  The geography if Italy had a great deal to do with the rise of Roman power  Italy is shaped like a boot stretching out into the Mediterranean with mountains in the North  {Italy is protected to the north by the Alps cutting it off from the rest of Europe}  There are pathways for people to move through the Alps creating avenues to get in and out of Italy  To the East is the Adriatic sea the Mediterranean is to the West and South

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4  Not all the geography worked to Rome's advantage when dealing with outside invasion  The Mountain passes to the North were small to get an effective army through but it was done  It is a Peninsula which meant the only other way to invade would have been by sea and Italy had a long coastline

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6 The Founding of Rome  Sometime before the mid 700 BC a group called the Latins moved into the west-central Italy  In the late 600’s they came under the rule of a Etruscan King  Under the Etruscans Rome grew into a large prosperous city  The city dwellers made jewlrey, clothing, metal work, and pottery  They also knew how to drain marshes, pave roads, and construct sewers  In time the Etruscans blended with the Roman population

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8 Greek Influence  Some Greeks also settled in the ancient city  Greek colonies in southern Italy became Greek city-states which became quarrelsome with those of Greece  The Greek culture of these colonies influenced the Roman culture  Many Roman Gods mirrored Greek gods  Jupiter had many of the same traits as Zeus  Many Roman myths were similar to Greek myths  Rome was located at a crossroads for trade which is why it flourished

9 Jupiter aka Zeus

10 Rome's location  Rome was built on seven hills along the Tiber river, 15 miles from the coast  This location protected the city from invasion by sea  Rome’s location gave it economic advantages as well  The city was located at a shallow part of the Tiber which made it the easiest place to cross  This made Rome the center of trade routs for Italy bringing traders through the city

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12 The Early Roman Republic  When a group of wealthy land owners overthrew a Etruscan king they vowed to never rule by monarchy  They established a Republic in which voters elected officials to run the state  Only adult male citizens could vote and take part in the government  There were three important groups of citizens who helped govern the Republic: The Senate, Magistrates, and Popular assembly  {The Senate controlled the public funds and decided foreign policy} were the most powerful of the three governing bodies  {The Senate who controlled the public funds and decided foreign policy} were the most powerful of the three governing bodies

13 Rome’s Senate

14 Continued  They also sometimes acted as a court  In times of emergency the could have a citizen act as dictator (absolute ruler) for up to six months  During that time he had complete control over the army and courts  Magistrates who made up the second group of Roman leaders were elected officials  This group consisted of consuls, praetors, and censors  {Consuls or chief executives had veto power in senate}  Veto means “I forbid”

15 Magistrates  The Division of power was an example of checks and balances  Checks and balances prevents any one power of government from becoming too powerful  This is where the U.S. got its form of government  In times of war praetors were elected to help the consuls  They commanded armies  In times of peace they oversaw the Roman legal system  Censors appointed candidates to the senate and oversaw the moral conduct of citizens

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17 Assemblies  Assemblies also existed in the Roman Republic  Citizens in these assemblies voted on laws and elected officials  Some assemblies voted to make war or peace while others served as courts  They elected 10 officials called tribunes who had power over actions of the senate and other public officials  If they thought an action was not in the interest of the public they would not approve them

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19 Conflict of the Order  Changes in the Senate stemmed from the attempts of the common people to win more rights  Romans were divided into two classes Patricians and Plebeians  Patricians were the wealthy land owners who controlled government  {Plebeians who made up most of the population in Rome} were mainly farmers and workers and had few rights  Over time they increased their power through demands and strikes

20 From the HBO series Rome

21 Plebeians  {They Prompted the engraving of the Roman laws on the Twelve Tables}  These were placed in the public square for all to view  The first Plebeians were appointed to govt. in the late 400’s BC  Some eventually became powerful and wealthy themselves  Those joined the Patricians to form the Roman nobility

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23 The Role of the Army  Every adult male citizen who owned land was required to serve in the Roman army  The soldiers enforced the army discipline themselves, which was very strict  The major unit of the army was the legion, consisted of 4 to 6 thousand citizens called legionnaires  Later Romans made the auxilia which were units made up of noncitizens  Morale amongst the troops was usually high

24 Roman Legionaries

25 The Role of Wise Policies  {The Romans granted the citizens of nearby cities they had conquered full citizenship in order to gain loyalty  They granted partial citizenship to those cities that were more distant} including those Greek city- states in Italy  Partial citizens could own land and marry but could not vote  They expected conquered people to provide land for Roman farmers  This allowed the spread of the Latin language and Roman law

26 Review  What natural barrier protects Italy in the North?  controlled the public funds and decided foreign policy?  who controlled the public funds and decided foreign policy?  Who are the chief executives had veto power in senate?  who made up most of the population in Rome?  How did the Romans gain loyalty of citizens of nearby cities?  Who prompted the engraving of the Roman laws on the Twelve Tables?

27 The End?


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