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The Roman World Chapter 7 section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roman World Chapter 7 section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roman World Chapter 7 section 1

2 The Land and Geography The geography if Italy had a great deal to do with the rise of Roman power Italy is shaped like a boot stretching out into the Mediterranean with mountains in the North {Italy is protected to the north by the Alps cutting it off from the rest of Europe} There are pathways for people to move through the Alps creating avenues to get in and out of Italy To the East is the Adriatic sea the Mediterranean is to the West and South


4 Not all the geography worked to Rome's advantage when dealing with outside invasion
The Mountain passes to the North were small to get an effective army through but it was done It is a Peninsula which meant the only other way to invade would have been by sea and Italy had a long coastline


6 The Founding of Rome Sometime before the mid 700 BC a group called the Latins moved into the west-central Italy In the late 600’s they came under the rule of a Etruscan King Under the Etruscans Rome grew into a large prosperous city The city dwellers made jewlrey, clothing, metal work, and pottery They also knew how to drain marshes, pave roads, and construct sewers In time the Etruscans blended with the Roman population


8 Greek Influence Some Greeks also settled in the ancient city
Greek colonies in southern Italy became Greek city-states which became quarrelsome with those of Greece The Greek culture of these colonies influenced the Roman culture Many Roman Gods mirrored Greek gods Jupiter had many of the same traits as Zeus Many Roman myths were similar to Greek myths Rome was located at a crossroads for trade which is why it flourished

9 Jupiter aka Zeus

10 Rome's location Rome was built on seven hills along the Tiber river, 15 miles from the coast This location protected the city from invasion by sea Rome’s location gave it economic advantages as well The city was located at a shallow part of the Tiber which made it the easiest place to cross This made Rome the center of trade routs for Italy bringing traders through the city


12 The Early Roman Republic
When a group of wealthy land owners overthrew a Etruscan king they vowed to never rule by monarchy They established a Republic in which voters elected officials to run the state Only adult male citizens could vote and take part in the government There were three important groups of citizens who helped govern the Republic: The Senate, Magistrates, and Popular assembly {The Senate who controlled the public funds and decided foreign policy} were the most powerful of the three governing bodies

13 Rome’s Senate

14 Continued They also sometimes acted as a court In times of emergency the could have a citizen act as dictator (absolute ruler) for up to six months During that time he had complete control over the army and courts Magistrates who made up the second group of Roman leaders were elected officials This group consisted of consuls, praetors, and censors {Consuls or chief executives had veto power in senate} Veto means “I forbid”

15 Magistrates The Division of power was an example of checks and balances Checks and balances prevents any one power of government from becoming too powerful This is where the U.S. got its form of government In times of war praetors were elected to help the consuls They commanded armies In times of peace they oversaw the Roman legal system Censors appointed candidates to the senate and oversaw the moral conduct of citizens


17 Assemblies Assemblies also existed in the Roman Republic
Citizens in these assemblies voted on laws and elected officials Some assemblies voted to make war or peace while others served as courts They elected 10 officials called tribunes who had power over actions of the senate and other public officials If they thought an action was not in the interest of the public they would not approve them


19 Conflict of the Order Changes in the Senate stemmed from the attempts of the common people to win more rights Romans were divided into two classes Patricians and Plebeians Patricians were the wealthy land owners who controlled government {Plebeians who made up most of the population in Rome} were mainly farmers and workers and had few rights Over time they increased their power through demands and strikes

20 From the HBO series Rome

21 Plebeians {They Prompted the engraving of the Roman laws on the Twelve Tables} These were placed in the public square for all to view The first Plebeians were appointed to govt. in the late 400’s BC Some eventually became powerful and wealthy themselves Those joined the Patricians to form the Roman nobility


23 The Role of the Army Every adult male citizen who owned land was required to serve in the Roman army The soldiers enforced the army discipline themselves, which was very strict The major unit of the army was the legion, consisted of 4 to 6 thousand citizens called legionnaires Later Romans made the auxilia which were units made up of noncitizens Morale amongst the troops was usually high

24 Roman Legionaries

25 The Role of Wise Policies
{The Romans granted the citizens of nearby cities they had conquered full citizenship in order to gain loyalty They granted partial citizenship to those cities that were more distant} including those Greek city-states in Italy Partial citizens could own land and marry but could not vote They expected conquered people to provide land for Roman farmers This allowed the spread of the Latin language and Roman law

26 Review What natural barrier protects Italy in the North?
who controlled the public funds and decided foreign policy? Who are the chief executives had veto power in senate? who made up most of the population in Rome? How did the Romans gain loyalty of citizens of nearby cities? Who prompted the engraving of the Roman laws on the Twelve Tables?

27 The End?

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