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Nationalism and European Unity. The Origin of European Unity Europe was 'united' at several times in the past, mainly in classical times Europe was 'united'

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism and European Unity. The Origin of European Unity Europe was 'united' at several times in the past, mainly in classical times Europe was 'united'"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism and European Unity

2 The Origin of European Unity Europe was 'united' at several times in the past, mainly in classical times Europe was 'united' at several times in the past, mainly in classical times Roman Empire Roman Empire Christendom Christendom Successors like Charlemagne, Habsburgs claim title of Holy Roman Emperor - just as various rulers in the Islamic world claimed to be Caliph Successors like Charlemagne, Habsburgs claim title of Holy Roman Emperor - just as various rulers in the Islamic world claimed to be Caliph 'Europe' replaces Christendom as key idea, c 'Europe' replaces Christendom as key idea, c

3 The Rise of the 'European Idea' Division of Church and Empire into East (Orthodoxy) & West (Catholic), followed by Protestant Reformation of 16th c. Division of Church and Empire into East (Orthodoxy) & West (Catholic), followed by Protestant Reformation of 16th c. Prompts calls from Catholic church for reunification of church under God: ecumenical movement born Prompts calls from Catholic church for reunification of church under God: ecumenical movement born Church also seeks to claim authority over new states which break from Papal control Church also seeks to claim authority over new states which break from Papal control Even as new states form in 16th c and, later, the nation-state emerges, the 'European Idea' remains a dream for religious and secular thinkers Even as new states form in 16th c and, later, the nation-state emerges, the 'European Idea' remains a dream for religious and secular thinkers

4 Warfare and the European Idea Desire to limit warfare within states was always key to the European Idea Desire to limit warfare within states was always key to the European Idea George Podebrad (Hussite king of Bohemia) scheme for a compact against the Turks ( ). Main European Institutions: George Podebrad (Hussite king of Bohemia) scheme for a compact against the Turks ( ). Main European Institutions: 1.Assembly 2.Court of Justice 3.International arbitration 4.Army 5.Confederal budget

5 French Ideals of Europe, c Sully's 'Grand Design': Sully's 'Grand Design': 1.Peace in Europe 2.Joint army 3.Alliance against Turks and Tsar 4.Trade promotion 5.Representational central body 6.French as lingua franca 7.France viewed as leader 8.A federal plan which respected national distinctiveness 9.Sought revival of Imperial and Papal authority as sources of legitimacy

6 Enlightenment Europeanism Penn, Diderot, Paine, St Simon and others Penn, Diderot, Paine, St Simon and others Were cosmopolitan liberals Were cosmopolitan liberals Europeanism and cosmopolitanism linked Europeanism and cosmopolitanism linked Favoured Europeanism as a ticket to peace, prosperity and Enlightenment Favoured Europeanism as a ticket to peace, prosperity and Enlightenment St Simon claims in 1821 that Europeanism as a sentiment already took precedence over nationalism St Simon claims in 1821 that Europeanism as a sentiment already took precedence over nationalism St Simon sees Anglo-French hub as motor of Europe St Simon sees Anglo-French hub as motor of Europe End to Papal and Roman dreams; harmony among peoples rather than rulers End to Papal and Roman dreams; harmony among peoples rather than rulers

7 The Evolution of the European Idea Napoleon speaks of one European fatherland Napoleon speaks of one European fatherland After Napoleonic Wars, St Simon's ideas influential and popular. Influenced Lemonnier's Les Etats-Unis d'Europe (1872) After Napoleonic Wars, St Simon's ideas influential and popular. Influenced Lemonnier's Les Etats-Unis d'Europe (1872) Revival of interest in St Simon after WWI Revival of interest in St Simon after WWI Most schemes were federal, though some post-WWI radicals rejected the nation outright Most schemes were federal, though some post-WWI radicals rejected the nation outright

8 Practical Action: Inter-War Habsburg federalism and gold standard pre-1918 Habsburg federalism and gold standard pre-1918 Louis Loucheur's Steel Cartel, 1919, and proposals for customs union, Louis Loucheur's Steel Cartel, 1919, and proposals for customs union, Loucheur believed that economic arguments would pave the way for political union: functionalism Loucheur believed that economic arguments would pave the way for political union: functionalism David Mitrany later makes functionalist argument in his A Working Peace System (1943) David Mitrany later makes functionalist argument in his A Working Peace System (1943) Main impetus comes from Paneuropean social movements - especially in France Main impetus comes from Paneuropean social movements - especially in France Membership in French pro-European movements number in the hundreds of thousands in 1920s Membership in French pro-European movements number in the hundreds of thousands in 1920s

9 Diplomatic Pressure of Paneuropean Groups Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi writes Pan- Europa (1923) manifesto. Links to French politicians like Herriot, Loucheur, Leger, Briand Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi writes Pan- Europa (1923) manifesto. Links to French politicians like Herriot, Loucheur, Leger, Briand Edouard Herriot, 1925: 'My greatest wish is to see one day the United States of Europe become a reality' Edouard Herriot, 1925: 'My greatest wish is to see one day the United States of Europe become a reality' First Pan-European Congress, Sponsored by Chancellor Seipel of Austria First Pan-European Congress, Sponsored by Chancellor Seipel of Austria Many Paneuropeans also strongly supported the League of Nations Many Paneuropeans also strongly supported the League of Nations Briand's Memorandum on a European Federal System (1930) circulated to European statesmen Briand's Memorandum on a European Federal System (1930) circulated to European statesmen

10 Europeanism pre-1939 Briand envisions 'union for economic, political [and] social cooperation' Briand envisions 'union for economic, political [and] social cooperation' Took care not to infringe state sovereignty Took care not to infringe state sovereignty Met a cool reception from most politicians and opposition from many newspapers, especially on the French right Met a cool reception from most politicians and opposition from many newspapers, especially on the French right Paneuropean ideas taken up by non- Communist resistance movements during WWII Paneuropean ideas taken up by non- Communist resistance movements during WWII Kalergi influences Churchill's 'United States of Europe' speech of 1946 Kalergi influences Churchill's 'United States of Europe' speech of 1946

11 Post-WWII Favourable climate due to war Favourable climate due to war But this time, improved communications and a more cosmopolitan temper converted the dream into a reality But this time, improved communications and a more cosmopolitan temper converted the dream into a reality Christian Democratic parties in Europe with their Catholic links, romanticise the Papal past and favour union, as do many socialists Christian Democratic parties in Europe with their Catholic links, romanticise the Papal past and favour union, as do many socialists Humanitarian, pacifist and religious themes blend with economic rationality of free traders Humanitarian, pacifist and religious themes blend with economic rationality of free traders

12 Council of Europe Not EC Not EC 10 original members, original members, 1949 Developed European Convention on Human Rights (1950) Developed European Convention on Human Rights (1950) Elements: Elements: The SecretariatThe Secretariat The Committee of MinistersThe Committee of Ministers The Parliamentary Assembly The European Court of Human RightsThe Parliamentary Assembly The European Court of Human Rights The Commissioner for Human RightsThe Commissioner for Human Rights European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission.European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission.

13 Council of Europe's Cultural 'Nationalism' Developed European flag with 12 golden stars (1955) Developed European flag with 12 golden stars (1955) Established 5 May 1949 as Europe Day (1964) Established 5 May 1949 as Europe Day (1964) Anthem based on Beethoven's Ode to Joy (1972) Anthem based on Beethoven's Ode to Joy (1972) Has 46 members today: distinct from EU, but complementary Has 46 members today: distinct from EU, but complementary

14 European Community Council of Europe, 1949, a forerunner Council of Europe, 1949, a forerunner European Coal & Steel Community, 1952 European Coal & Steel Community, 1952 European Economic Community, 1957 European Economic Community, 1957 Euratom Euratom Further aspects added after 1957 Further aspects added after 1957 Expansion from original 'Six' to present 25 Expansion from original 'Six' to present 25

15 The Evolution of the European Community

16 EU Structure

17 The Role of Idealists in the EU Legislative Process

18 EU structure Degree of centralisation varies by function: Degree of centralisation varies by function: A Federation (i.e. 'State') in monetary affairs, agricultural, trade and environmental policy. Also in legal- social aspects and citizenshipA Federation (i.e. 'State') in monetary affairs, agricultural, trade and environmental policy. Also in legal- social aspects and citizenship A Confederation in social and economic policy, consumer protection, internal affairsA Confederation in social and economic policy, consumer protection, internal affairs An International Organisation in foreign affairsAn International Organisation in foreign affairs

19 Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) Since Nice Treaty (2000), an increasing number of decisions taken by QMV rather than unanimity Since Nice Treaty (2000), an increasing number of decisions taken by QMV rather than unanimity QMV threshold set to fall from 71% to 62% QMV threshold set to fall from 71% to 62% Means that nations no longer have a veto on integration. A step favouring integration rather than nationalism (intergovernmentalism) Means that nations no longer have a veto on integration. A step favouring integration rather than nationalism (intergovernmentalism) Council of Ministers Council of Ministers

20 Shift from Unanimity to QMV 27 new provisions are passing in whole or in part from unanimity to a qualified majority, including: 27 new provisions are passing in whole or in part from unanimity to a qualified majority, including: judicial cooperation in civil mattersjudicial cooperation in civil matters industrial policyindustrial policy measures to facilitate the free movement of citizensmeasures to facilitate the free movement of citizens economic, financial and technical cooperation with third countrieseconomic, financial and technical cooperation with third countries the appointment of members of certain institutionsthe appointment of members of certain institutions the move to qualified majority voting was not accepted for social and tax policy. the move to qualified majority voting was not accepted for social and tax policy.

21 EU Citizenship vs National Freedom to move and take up residence anywhere in the Union; Freedom to move and take up residence anywhere in the Union; The right to vote and stand in local government and European Parliament elections in the country of residence The right to vote and stand in local government and European Parliament elections in the country of residence Clearly gives foreigners important rights within nation-states Clearly gives foreigners important rights within nation-states

22 Balance between Nation and EU Always a balance between nation-state interests and pan-European interest Always a balance between nation-state interests and pan-European interest Battle goes on between and within institutions Battle goes on between and within institutions Balance between Euro-idealism and proponents of national interest ('intergovernmentalism') Balance between Euro-idealism and proponents of national interest ('intergovernmentalism') Sometimes interests of small nations dovetail with that of integrationists (they have more clout to gain from being part of Europe ) Sometimes interests of small nations dovetail with that of integrationists (they have more clout to gain from being part of Europe )

23 European Court of Justice A more direct proponent of integration than even the Commission A more direct proponent of integration than even the Commission One judge per state, but decisions based on simple majority One judge per state, but decisions based on simple majority Judges and the 8 appointed advocates- general may often be Euro-idealists or activist in their philosophy Judges and the 8 appointed advocates- general may often be Euro-idealists or activist in their philosophy Van Gend en Loos case (1963) gives individuals rights under EU law against their nation-states Van Gend en Loos case (1963) gives individuals rights under EU law against their nation-states Costa v. ENEL case (1964): where national and EU law conflict, latter is supreme Costa v. ENEL case (1964): where national and EU law conflict, latter is supreme

24 ECJ Positive and Negative Integration Promotes 'negative integration': barriers to intra-EU activity declared invalid Promotes 'negative integration': barriers to intra-EU activity declared invalid Promotes 'positive integration': EC legal regimes constructed to replace national ones Promotes 'positive integration': EC legal regimes constructed to replace national ones Negative Integration: 1974 case declared rules which hinder intra-EC trade illegal; 1979 Cassis de Dijon Negative Integration: 1974 case declared rules which hinder intra-EC trade illegal; 1979 Cassis de Dijon

25 ECJ Positive Integration Examples: Examples: Gender Equality: Art. 119 of EEC Treaty: 'equal pay for equal work'Gender Equality: Art. 119 of EEC Treaty: 'equal pay for equal work' EU as 'Social Community', despite opposition from UKEU as 'Social Community', despite opposition from UK Opens up a flood of litigation from womenOpens up a flood of litigation from women

26 EU Expansion

27 Impact of Expansion Expansion to 25 will dilute integration Expansion to 25 will dilute integration Harder for a common foreign policy and common action Harder for a common foreign policy and common action More poor countries will put strain on EU budget - unlikely that wealthy countries will contribute more (EU budget around 1.5% of EU GDP) More poor countries will put strain on EU budget - unlikely that wealthy countries will contribute more (EU budget around 1.5% of EU GDP) Turkey and E Europe: Unclear where limits lie: will this not dilute identity of EU (ie. No longer between Tsar and Sultan) Turkey and E Europe: Unclear where limits lie: will this not dilute identity of EU (ie. No longer between Tsar and Sultan) Possible 'Two-Speed' Europe Possible 'Two-Speed' Europe

28 Problems with European Cultural or Civilizational Identity Exclusive or Partial Items: Exclusive or Partial Items: Christianity (Catholic, Prot, Orthodox, non- Christian)Christianity (Catholic, Prot, Orthodox, non- Christian) Greco-Roman Inheritance (Islam?)Greco-Roman Inheritance (Islam?) Reformation/Enlightenment (Islam, Catholicism?)Reformation/Enlightenment (Islam, Catholicism?) Caucasian ‘race’ (US, non-white Europeans?)Caucasian ‘race’ (US, non-white Europeans?) Geography (but what about EU expansion)Geography (but what about EU expansion) ‘Others’ (but if Turks and Russians come in, where are the traditional enemies?)‘Others’ (but if Turks and Russians come in, where are the traditional enemies?)

29 Pro-European Nations Certain states embrace integrationist sentiments more than others Certain states embrace integrationist sentiments more than others France, Germany and other original members (especially the 'Six') are most pro- Europe among western European countries France, Germany and other original members (especially the 'Six') are most pro- Europe among western European countries Much has to do with national identities of these states as opposed to mere national interest Much has to do with national identities of these states as opposed to mere national interest Europe also a route to prominence on the world stage for certain nations Europe also a route to prominence on the world stage for certain nations Less well-off nations tend to be pro-Europe for economic reasons (S & E Europe + Ireland) Less well-off nations tend to be pro-Europe for economic reasons (S & E Europe + Ireland)

30 France: Gaullist pro- Europeanism Seeks to reclaim French cultural predominance of 18 th -19 th c Seeks to reclaim French cultural predominance of 18 th -19 th c Seeks to challenge Anglo-Saxon hegemony of 19 th -20 th c Seeks to challenge Anglo-Saxon hegemony of 19 th -20 th c Sees Anglo-Saxon west as ‘other’ Sees Anglo-Saxon west as ‘other’ De Gaulle positions France at the heart of a Europe that includes Russia and is flanked by Anglo-Saxon West and Chinese East De Gaulle positions France at the heart of a Europe that includes Russia and is flanked by Anglo-Saxon West and Chinese East 1963 crisis over UK entry into EEC which De Gaulle seeks to block UK entry 1963 crisis over UK entry into EEC which De Gaulle seeks to block UK entry

31 German pro-European Idealism Nazi period discredits nationalism Nazi period discredits nationalism Cosmopolitan as opposed to Gaullist spirit Cosmopolitan as opposed to Gaullist spirit Desire for influence and self-respect without nationalism Desire for influence and self-respect without nationalism Less anti-Anglo-Saxon due to post-WWII (witness different attitudes toward English as language) Less anti-Anglo-Saxon due to post-WWII (witness different attitudes toward English as language) More truly cosmopolitan than French pro- Europeanism More truly cosmopolitan than French pro- Europeanism

32 Smaller Nations: Benelux History of neutrality and fear of larger nations History of neutrality and fear of larger nations History of pooling sovereignty in alliances History of pooling sovereignty in alliances Only chance of agency is through a larger unit Only chance of agency is through a larger unit Identity is less significant in absence of larger blocks Identity is less significant in absence of larger blocks Belgium and Luxembourg lack clear linguistic or religious markers of nationhood unlike say Germany or France Belgium and Luxembourg lack clear linguistic or religious markers of nationhood unlike say Germany or France

33 Do you feel national, European or Both (2004)?

34 Views of Unification (1995)

35 Euroskepticism – On the Rise? Smith: elites identify more easily because Europeanism may be a proxy of class/education Smith: elites identify more easily because Europeanism may be a proxy of class/education Smith: without European education and media, little resonance among masses – esp less mobile Smith: without European education and media, little resonance among masses – esp less mobile Evidence shows that Euro-skepticism and anti-immigration sentiment strongly linked and tied to less well-educated population segments Evidence shows that Euro-skepticism and anti-immigration sentiment strongly linked and tied to less well-educated population segments Rise in support for European integration peaks, 1988 Rise in support for European integration peaks, 1988

36 Conclusion Idea of Europe is at least 1000 years old Idea of Europe is at least 1000 years old Many aspects of the European Union challenge national sovereignty Many aspects of the European Union challenge national sovereignty But the EU also reinforces national identity But the EU also reinforces national identity Particular nations tend to favour European unity due to their own historical experience and economic interests Particular nations tend to favour European unity due to their own historical experience and economic interests Trend towards integration appears to have stalled due to expansion and the rise of Euro-skepticism in western Europe Trend towards integration appears to have stalled due to expansion and the rise of Euro-skepticism in western Europe


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